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Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a group of diverse and emerging arboviruses and an immense global health problem. A number of flaviviruses are neurotropic, causing severe encephalitis and even death. Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense of the innate immune system against flavivirus infection. IFNs elicit the concerted action of numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to restrict both virus infection and replication. Viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an ISG with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple flaviviruses in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Andrea Cristine Koishi, Andréia Akemi Suzukawa, Camila Zanluca, Daria Elena Camacho, Guillermo Comach, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus flavivirus that comprises other important public health viruses, such as dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV). In general, ZIKV infection is a self-limiting disease, however cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital brain abnormalities in newborn infants have been reported. Diagnosing ZIKV infection remains a challenge, as viral RNA detection is only applicable until a few days after the onset of symptoms. After that, serological tests must be applied, and, as expected, high cross-reactivity between ZIKV and other flavivirus serology is observed...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
José Sánchez-Carbonel, Derek Tantaléan-Yépez, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Pablo Weilg, Fernando Vásquez-Achaya, Luis Costa, Johanna Martins-Luna, Isabel Sandoval, Juana Del Valle-Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika in serum samples of patients with acute febrile illness in Piura, Peru and describe the most common clinical features. RESULTS: Dengue was the most common arbovirus detected in 170/496 (34.3%), followed by Zika in 39/496 (7.9%) and Chikungunya in 23/496 (4.6%). Among the 170 samples positive for Dengue, serotype 2 was the most predominant type present in 97/170 (57.1%) of samples, followed by the serotype 3 in 9/170 (5...
March 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Benjamin M Althouse, Mathilde Guerbois, Derek A T Cummings, Ousmane M Diop, Ousmane Faye, Abdourahmane Faye, Diawo Diallo, Bakary Djilocalisse Sadio, Abdourahmane Sow, Oumar Faye, Amadou A Sall, Mawlouth Diallo, Brenda Benefit, Evan Simons, Douglas M Watts, Scott C Weaver, Kathryn A Hanley
Arboviruses spillover into humans either as a one-step jump from a reservoir host species into humans or as a two-step jump from the reservoir to an amplification host species and thence to humans. Little is known about arbovirus transmission dynamics in reservoir and amplification hosts. Here we elucidate the role of monkeys in the sylvatic, enzootic cycle of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the region around Kédougou, Senegal. Over 3 years, 737 monkeys were captured, aged using anthropometry and dentition, and tested for exposure to CHIKV by detection of neutralizing antibodies...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Maria Grazia Dente, Flavia Riccardo, Gloria Nacca, Alessia Ranghiasci, Camille Escadafal, Lobna Gaayeb, Miguel Angel Jiménez-Clavero, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Marie Picard, Jovita Fernández-Pinero, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Vincent Robert, Kathleen Victoir, Silvia Declich
In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya virus (CHKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Belén Rebollo, Javier Sarraseca, Mª José Rodríguez, Antonio Sanz, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero, Ángel Venteo
West Nile virus is a globally spread zoonotic arbovirus. The laboratory diagnosis of WNV infection relies on virus identification by RT-PCR or on specific antibody detection by serological tests, such as ELISA or virus-neutralization. These methods usually require a preparation of the whole virus as antigen, entailing biosafety issues and therefore requiring BSL-3 facilities. For this reason, recombinant antigenic structures enabling effective antibody recognition comparable to that of the native virions, would be advantageous as diagnostic reagents...
February 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Tovo Mbolatiana Andrianjafy, Lala Harivelo Ravaomanarivo, Voahangy Vestalys Ramanandraibe, Maonja Finaritra Rakotondramanga, Patrick Mavingui, Marc Lemaire
In recent years, a significant increase in mosquito-borne diseases has been recorded worldwide. Faced with the limitations of existing methods for controlling the vector mosquito population, the development of attractants to bait traps and repellents to limit host-vector contacts could be promising and environmentally-friendly control strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxycoumarins and their alkyls derivatives against Aedes albopictus, the main vector of several arboviruses...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Danilo O Carvalho, Samira Chuffi, Rafaella S Ioshino, Isabel C S Marques, Regina Fini, Maria Karina Costa, Helena R C Araújo, André L Costa-da-Silva, Bianca Burini Kojin, Margareth L Capurro
Ades aegypti is the most important arbovirus vector in the world, and new strategies are under evaluation. Biological studies mentioning the occurrence of a second mate in Aedes aegypti can interfere with vector control program planning, which involves male mosquito release technique. This study presents different experiments to show the occurrence of mixed progeny. Mixed male crosses (using a combination of different type of males in confinement with virgin females) showed no polyandric female. Individual crosses with male substitution in every gonotrophic cycle also did not show any polyandric female...
2018: PloS One
G E Chapman, M Baylis, D Archer, J M Daly
Equine populations worldwide are at increasing risk of infection by viruses transmitted by biting arthropods including mosquitoes, biting midges (Culicoides), sandflies and ticks. These include the flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis), alphaviruses (eastern, western and Venezuelan encephalitis) and the orbiviruses (African horse sickness and equine encephalosis). This review provides an overview of the challenges faced in the surveillance, prevention and control of the major equine arboviruses, particularly in the context of these viruses emerging in new regions of the world...
March 8, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Sadie J Ryan, Aileen Kenneson, Christine A King, Mark Abbott, Arturo Barbachano-Guerrero, Efraín Beltrán-Ayala, Mercy J Borbor-Cordova, Washington B Cárdenas, Cinthya Cueva, Julia L Finkelstein, Christina D Lupone, Richard G Jarman, Irina Maljkovic Berry, Saurabh Mehta, Mark Polhemus, Mercy Silva, Timothy P Endy
Here, we report the findings from the first 2 years of an arbovirus surveillance study conducted in Machala, Ecuador, a dengue-endemic region (2014-2015). Patients with suspected dengue virus (DENV) infections (index cases, N = 324) were referred from five Ministry of Health clinical sites. A subset of DENV-positive index cases ( N = 44) were selected, and individuals from the index household and four neighboring homes within 200 m were recruited ( N = 400). Individuals who entered the study, other than the index cases, are referred to as associates...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Rebekah C Kading, Robert M Kityo, Eric C Mossel, Erin M Borland, Teddie Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Jeremy P Ledermann, Nicholas A Panella, Amy T Gilbert, Mary B Crabtree, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Jonathan S Towner, Brian R Amman, Tara K Sealy, Stuart T Nichol, Ann M Powers, Julius J Lutwama, Barry R Miller
Introduction: A number of arboviruses have previously been isolated from naturally-infected East African bats, however the role of bats in arbovirus maintenance is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure history of Ugandan bats to a panel of arboviruses. Materials and methods: Insectivorous and fruit bats were captured from multiple locations throughout Uganda during 2009 and 2011-2013. All serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), Zika virus (ZIKV), Babanki virus (BBKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Rose M Langsjoen, Sherry L Haller, Chad J Roy, Heather Vinet-Oliphant, Nicholas A Bergren, Jesse H Erasmus, Jill A Livengood, Tim D Powell, Scott C Weaver, Shannan L Rossi
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus capable of causing explosive outbreaks of febrile illness, polyarthritis, and polyarthralgia, inflicting severe morbidity on affected populations. CHIKV can be genetically classified into 3 major lineages: West African (WA); East, Central, and South African (ECSA); Indian Ocean (IOL); and Asian. Additionally, the Indian Ocean (IOL) sublineage emerged within the ECSA clade and the Asian/American sublineage emerged within the Asian clade. While differences in epidemiological and pathological characteristics among outbreaks involving different CHIKV lineages and sublineages have been suggested, few targeted investigations comparing lineage virulence levels have been reported...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Jill N Fernandes, Imelda K Moise, Gina L Maranto, John C Beier
The global approach to mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) is in need of critical re-evaluation. Although there have been dramatic reductions in malaria incidence since 2000, malaria elimination from high-transmission settings remains problematic. At the same time, arbovirus outbreaks have increased in their frequency and impact. The 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic exposed the dire state of MBD control in many countries, calling for united global action. Despite international resolve to prevent future epidemics, current practices in MBD control are mostly reactive and of limited efficacy...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Gilda Giancotti, Michela Cancellieri, Andrea Balboni, Mariateresa Giustiniano, Ettore Novellino, Leen Delang, Johan Neyts, Pieter Leyssen, Andrea Brancale, Marcella Bassetto
Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, responsible for an acute febrile illness associated with painful and debilitating arthralgia, which can persist for several months or become chronic. Over the past few years, infection with this virus has spread worldwide with a previously unknown virulence. No specific antiviral treatments nor vaccines are currently available against this important pathogen. Starting from the structure of a class of selective anti-CHIKV agents previously identified in our research group, different modifications to this scaffold were rationally designed, and 69 novel small-molecule derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication in Vero cells...
February 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
L Sigfrid, I Eckerle, A Papa, P Horby, M Koopmans, C Reusken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Hassan Vatandoost, Jalil Nejati, Abedin Saghafipour, Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani
Phlebotomine sand flies occur throughout the tropics and subtropics, as well as in temperate regions of the world. They are vectors of human and canine leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers caused by phleboviruses. This study was aimed to determine the geographic and ecological characteristics of phlebotomine sand flies as vectors of leishmaniasis and to prepare a checklist of phlebotomine sand flies. The study was conducted in Qom province, central Iran, between April and November 2016. Qom is located in latitude 34...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
James Barber, Lara E Harrup, Rhiannon Silk, Eva Veronesi, Simon Gubbins, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Simon Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are responsible for the biological transmission of internationally important arboviruses of livestock. In 2011, a novel Orthobunyavirus was discovered in northern Europe causing congenital malformations and abortions in ruminants. From field studies, Culicoides were implicated in the transmission of this virus which was subsequently named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), but to date no assessment of susceptibility to infection of field populations under standardised laboratory conditions has been carried out...
February 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
William T Koval, Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec
BACKGROUND: Members of the Culex pipiens complex (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus in Southern USA) play a critical role in the spillover of urban arboviruses such as West Nile virus or St. Louis encephalitis virus. Field studies have shown strong correlation between the periodicity of rainfall events and larval proliferation. However, mechanistic determinants driving this relationship are poorly understood. We hypothesize that rainfall events decrease strain from intraspecific competition through the associated reduction of immature density and the introduction of detritus...
February 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sébastien Boyer, Elodie Calvez, Thais Chouin-Carneiro, Diawo Diallo, Failloux Anna-Bella
The mosquito-borne arbovirus Zika virus (ZIKV, Flavivirus, Flaviviridae), has caused an outbreak impressive by its magnitude and rapid spread. First detected in Uganda in Africa in 1947, from where it spread to Asia in the 1960s, it emerged in 2007 on the Yap Island in Micronesia and hit most islands in the Pacific region in 2013. Subsequently, ZIKV was detected in the Caribbean, and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infections are in general asymptomatic or causing mild self-limiting illness, severe symptoms have been described including neurological disorders and microcephaly in newborns...
February 23, 2018: Microbes and Infection
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