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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730992/an-illustrated-guide-for-characters-and-terminology-used-in-descriptions-of-phlebotominae-diptera-psychodidae
#1
Eunice A B Galati, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Phillip Lawyer, Nicole Léger, Jérôme Depaquit
Phlebotomine (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) taxonomy has been studied extensively, primarily due to the role of these flies as vectors of various parasites, including species of Leishmania, Bartonella and arboviruses that cause diseases in humans and other vertebrates. We present some topics discussed at a round-table on phlebotomine taxonomy held at the Ninth International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sandflies (ISOPS IX) in Reims, France, in June 2016. To date, approximately one thousand phlebotomine species have been described worldwide, although in varying languages and mostly without standardization of characters and terminology...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728607/zika-virus-transmission-to-mouse-ear-by-mosquito-bite-a-laboratory-model-that-replicates-the-natural-transmission-process
#2
Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino, Barbara Aparecida Chaves, Alessandra Silva Orfano, Karine Renata Dias Silveira, Nilton Barnabe Rodrigues, Thais Bonifácio Campolina, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Luiz Eduardo Martinez Villegas, Breno Melo Silva, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Douglas Eric Norris, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Zika disease has transformed into a serious global health problem due to the rapid spread of the arbovirus and alarming severity including congenital complications, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective mosquito, with Aedes aegypti being the main vector. METHODS: We successfully developed a ZIKV experimental transmission model by single infectious Ae. aegypti bite to a laboratory mouse using circulating Brazilian strains of both arbovirus and vector...
July 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727779/contemporary-status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-the-major-aedes-vectors-of-arboviruses-infecting-humans
#3
REVIEW
Catherine L Moyes, John Vontas, Ademir J Martins, Lee Ching Ng, Sin Ying Koou, Isabelle Dusfour, Kamaraju Raghavendra, João Pinto, Vincent Corbel, Jean-Philippe David, David Weetman
Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids)...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726621/characterization-of-fitzroy-river-virus-and-serologic-evidence-of-human-and-animal-infection
#4
Cheryl A Johansen, Simon H Williams, Lorna F Melville, Jay Nicholson, Roy A Hall, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Natalie A Prow, Glenys R Chidlow, Shani Wong, Rohini Sinha, David T Williams, W Ian Lipkin, David W Smith
In northern Western Australia in 2011 and 2012, surveillance detected a novel arbovirus in mosquitoes. Genetic and phenotypic analyses confirmed that the new flavivirus, named Fitzroy River virus, is related to Sepik virus and Wesselsbron virus, in the yellow fever virus group. Most (81%) isolates came from Aedes normanensis mosquitoes, providing circumstantial evidence of the probable vector. In cell culture, Fitzroy River virus replicated in mosquito (C6/36), mammalian (Vero, PSEK, and BSR), and avian (DF-1) cells...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722628/serologic-evidence-of-various-arboviruses-detected-in-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-the-united-states
#5
Kerri Pedersen, Eryu Wang, Scott C Weaver, Paul C Wolf, Adam R Randall, Kyle R Van Why, Amelia P A Travassos Da Rosa, Thomas Gidlewski
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are an abundant mammal with a wide geographic distribution in the United States, which make them good sentinels for monitoring arboviral activity across the country. Exposure to various arboviruses has been detected in white-tailed deer, typically in conjunction with another diagnostic finding. To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2.5%), Powassan (4...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720784/snap-tagged-chikungunya-virus-replicons-improve-visualisation-of-non-structural-protein-3-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#6
Roland Remenyi, Grace C Roberts, Carsten Zothner, Andres Merits, Mark Harris
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus, causes febrile disease, muscle and joint pain, which can become chronic in some individuals. The non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) plays essential roles during infection, but a complete understanding of its function is lacking. Here we used a microscopy-based approach to image CHIKV nsP3 inside human cells. The SNAP system consists of a self-labelling enzyme tag, which catalyses the covalent linking of exogenously supplemented synthetic ligands. Genetic insertion of this tag resulted in viable replicons and specific labelling while preserving the effect of nsP3 on stress granule responses and co-localisation with GTPase Activating Protein (SH3 domain) Binding Proteins (G3BPs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719400/dengue-vaccines-implications-for-dengue-control
#7
Matthew L Robinson, Anna P Durbin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dengue, the most common arbovirus, is an increasingly significant cause of morbidity worldwide. After decades of research, an approved tetravalent dengue vaccine is finally available. Models constructed using recently available vaccine efficacy data allow for a data-driven discussion of the potential impact of dengue vaccine deployment on global control. RECENT FINDINGS: Phase 3 efficacy trials demonstrated that the approved dengue vaccine, chimeric yellow fever-dengue-tetravalent dengue vaccine, has an efficacy of 60% against dengue illness of any severity...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719335/experimental-infection-with-and-maintenance-of-cell-fusing-agent-virus-flavivirus-in-aedes-aegypti
#8
Maria Angelica Contreras-Gutierrez, Hilda Guzman, Saravanan Thangamani, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert B Tesh
During the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the recognition and characterization of novel insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs). Some of these agents are closely related to important mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens. Results of experimental studies suggest that mosquitoes and mosquito cell cultures infected with some ISFVs are refractory to superinfection with related flavivirus pathogens; and it has been proposed that ISFVs potentially could be used to alter the vector competence of mosquitoes and reduce transmission of specific flavivirus pathogens, such as dengue, West Nile, or Zika viruses...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719283/american-aedes-vexans-mosquitoes-are-competent-vectors-of-zika-virus
#9
Alex Gendernalik, James Weger-Lucarelli, Selene M Garcia Luna, Joseph R Fauver, Claudia Rückert, Reyes A Murrieta, Nicholas Bergren, Demitrios Samaras, Chilinh Nguyen, Rebekah C Kading, Gregory D Ebel
AbstractStarting in 2013-2014, the Americas have experienced a massive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) which has now reached at least 49 countries. Although most cases have occurred in South America and the Caribbean, imported and autochthonous cases have occurred in the United States. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are known vectors of ZIKV. Little is known about the potential for temperate Aedes mosquitoes to transmit ZIKV. Aedes vexans has a worldwide distribution, is highly abundant in particular localities, aggressively bites humans, and is a competent vector of several arboviruses...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719259/serosurvey-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-cattle-mali-west-africa
#10
Ousmane Maiga, Miriam Andrada Sas, Kyle Rosenke, Badian Kamissoko, Marc Mertens, Nafomon Sogoba, Abdallah Traore, Modibo Sangare, Mamadou Niang, Tom G Schwan, Hamidou Moussa Maiga, Sekou F Traore, Heinz Feldmann, David Safronetz, Martin H Groschup
AbstractCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus). CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with high-case fatality rates in humans. CCHFV has a wide geographic range and has been described in around 30 countries in the Middle East, Asia, Europe, and Africa including Mali and neighboring countries. To date, little is known about the prevalence rates of CCHFV in Mali. Here, using banked bovine serum samples from across the country, we describe the results of a seroepidemiological study for CCHFV aimed at identifying regions of circulation in Mali...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717366/interrelationship-between-climatic-ecologic-social-and-cultural-determinants-affecting-dengue-emergence-and-transmission-in-puerto-rico-and-their-implications-for-zika-response
#11
REVIEW
Angela Matysiak, Amira Roess
OBJECTIVE: The global resurgence of dengue has been attributed to rapid population growth, urban expansion, increased air travel, globalization, and climate change. Dengue is now endemic in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico is at risk for Zika, another emerging arbovirus. The interrelationship between climatic, ecological, social, and cultural factors that affect dengue and other arboviruses' transmission is understudied. DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review is to examine the interrelationship between climatic, ecological, social, and cultural factors on dengue transmission in Puerto Rico and to draw lessons for Zika response...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715409/zika-virus-inhibits-eif2%C3%AE-dependent-stress-granule-assembly
#12
Raquel Amorim, Abdelkrim Temzi, Bryan D Griffin, Andrew J Mouland
Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is the most recent emerging arbovirus with pandemic potential. During infection, viruses trigger the host cell stress response, leading to changes in RNA translation and the assembly of large aggregates of stalled translation preinitiation complexes, termed stress granules (SGs). Several reports demonstrate that flaviviruses modulate the assembly of stress granules (SG). As an emerging pathogen, little is known however about how ZIKV modulates the host cell stress response...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714929/synchronous-langat-virus-infection-of-haemaphysalis-longicornis-using-anal-pore-microinjection
#13
Melbourne Rio Talactac, Kentaro Yoshii, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Kodai Kusakisako, Remil Linggatong Galay, Kozo Fujisaki, Masami Mochizuki, Tetsuya Tanaka
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) serocomplex of flaviviruses consists of arboviruses that cause important diseases in animals and humans. The transmission of this group of viruses is commonly associated with tick species such as Ixodes spp., Dermacentor spp., and Hyalomma spp. In the case of Haemaphysalis longicornis, the detection and isolation of flaviviruses have been previously reported. However, studies showing survival dynamics of any tick-borne flavivirus in H. longicornis are still lacking. In this study, an anal pore microinjection method was used to infect adult H...
July 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705958/first-genome-sequences-of-dengue-virus-denv-strains-isolated-during-the-first-denv-4-outbreak-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#14
Ayda Susana Ortiz-Baez, Danielle Ferreira Silva, Daniel Ferreira, Paolo M Zanotto
Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae In Brazil, the reemergence and spread of DENV type 4 (DENV-4) across the country were responsible for a significant outbreak in Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil. Here, we report the first genomic sequences of DENV strains circulating in Guarujá during the 2013 outbreak.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704434/urbanization-is-a-main-driver-for-the-larval-ecology-of-aedes-mosquitoes-in-arbovirus-endemic-settings-in-south-eastern-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#15
Julien B Z Zahouli, Benjamin G Koudou, Pie Müller, David Malone, Yao Tano, Jürg Utzinger
BACKGROUND: Failure in detecting naturally occurring breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes can bias the conclusions drawn from field studies, and hence, negatively affect intervention outcomes. We characterized the habitats of immature Aedes mosquitoes and explored species dynamics along a rural-to-urban gradient in a West Africa setting where yellow fever and dengue co-exist. METHODOLOGY: Between January 2013 and October 2014, we collected immature Aedes mosquitoes in water containers in rural, suburban, and urban areas of south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire, using standardized sampling procedures...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701194/characterization-and-productivity-profiles-of-aedes-aegypti-l-breeding-habitats-across-rural-and-urban-landscapes-in-western-and-coastal-kenya
#16
Harun N Ngugi, Francis M Mutuku, Bryson A Ndenga, Peter S Musunzaji, Joel O Mbakaya, Peter Aswani, Lucy W Irungu, Dunstan Mukoko, John Vulule, Uriel Kitron, Angelle D LaBeaud
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue and other emerging arboviruses, breeds preferentially in various man-made and natural container habitats. In the absence of vaccine, epidemiological surveillance and vector control remain the best practices for preventing dengue outbreaks. Effective vector control depends on a good understanding of larval and adult vector ecology of which little is known in Kenya. In the current study, we sought to characterize breeding habitats and establish container productivity profiles of Ae...
July 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699858/bovine-lactoferrin-activity-against-chikungunya-and-zika-viruses
#17
Carlos A M Carvalho, Samir M M Casseb, Rafael B Gonçalves, Eliana V P Silva, Andre M O Gomes, Pedro F C Vasconcelos
Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are arboviruses which have recently broken their sylvatic isolation and gone on to spread rampantly among humans in some urban areas of the world, especially in Latin America. Given the lack of effective interventions against such viruses, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral potential of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) in their infections. Through viability, plaque, immunofluorescence and nucleic acid quantification assays, our data show that bLf exerts a dose-dependent strong inhibitory effect on the infection of Vero cells by the aforementioned arboviruses, reducing their infection efficiency by up to nearly 80 %, with no expressive cytotoxicity, and that such antiviral activity occurs at the levels of input and output of virus particles...
July 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689975/the-medicinal-chemistry-of-chikungunya-virus
#18
REVIEW
Edeildo F da Silva-Júnior, Giovanni O Leoncini, Érica E S Rodrigues, Thiago M Aquino, João X Araújo-Júnior
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are an important threat to human and animal health globally. Among these, zoonotic diseases account for billions of cases of human illness and millions of deaths every year, representing an increasing public health problem. Chikungunya virus belongs to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togariridae, and is transmitted mainly by the bite of female mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti and/or A. albopictus species. The focus of this review will be on the medicinal chemistry of Chikungunya virus, including synthetic and natural products, as well as rationally designed compounds...
June 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688117/serologic-evidence-of-west-nile-virus-and-usutu-virus-infections-in-eurasian-coots-in-the-netherlands
#19
S M Lim, M Geervliet, J H Verhagen, G J D M Müskens, F A Majoor, A D M E Osterhaus, B E E Martina
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are arboviruses that are maintained in enzootic transmission cycles between mosquitoes and birds and are occasionally transmitted to mammals. As arboviruses are currently expanding their geographic range and emerging in often unpredictable locations, surveillance is considered an important element of preparedness. To determine whether sera collected from resident and migratory birds in the Netherlands as part of avian influenza surveillance would also represent an effective source for proactive arbovirus surveillance, a random selection of such sera was screened for WNV antibodies using a commercial ELISA...
July 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686589/the-sero-epidemiology-of-rift-valley-fever-in-people-in-the-lake-victoria-basin-of-western-kenya
#20
Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook, Elysse Noel Grossi-Soyster, William Anson de Glanville, Lian Francesca Thomas, Samuel Kariuki, Barend Mark de Clare Bronsvoort, Claire Njeri Wamae, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Eric Maurice Fèvre
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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