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A Bennouna, T Balenghien, H El Rhaffouli, F Schaffner, C Garros, L Gardès, Y Lhor, S Hammoumi, G Chlyeh, O Fassi Fihri
The Asian tiger mosquito Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae), native to Asian forests, is a nuisance mosquito and is responsible for the transmission of arboviruses of public health importance, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. It has colonized parts of all continents, except Antarctica, over the past 30-40 years. However, to date, the only records of S. albopicta in North Africa refer to occasional collections in 2010 and 2014 in Algeria. In early September 2015, S...
October 24, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Han Xia, Andrew S Beck, Aysen Gargili, Naomi Forrester, Alan D T Barrett, Dennis A Bente
The trade-off hypothesis, the current paradigm of arbovirus evolution, proposes that cycling between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts presents significant constraints on genetic change of arboviruses. Studying these constraints in mosquito-borne viruses has led to a new understanding of epizootics. The trade-off hypothesis is assumed to be applicable to tick-borne viruses too, although studies are lacking. Tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, is a major cause of severe human disease worldwide and shows an extraordinary amount of genetic diversity compared to other arboviruses, which has been linked to increased virulence and emergence in new environments...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Narayan Gyawali, Richard S Bradbury, Andrew W Taylor-Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Sineewanlaya Wichit, Pauline Ferraris, Valérie Choumet, Dorothée Missé
Arboviruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses represent a major public health problem due to globalization and propagation of susceptible vectors worldwide. Arthropod vector-derived salivary factors have the capacity to modulate human cells function by enhancing or suppressing viral replication and, therefore, modify the establishment of local and systemic viral infection. Here, we discuss how mosquito saliva may interfere with Dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans. Identification of saliva factors that enhance infectivity will allow the production of vector-based vaccines and therapeutics that would interfere with viral transmission by targeting arthropod saliva components...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Thomas Edwards, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo Signor, Christopher Williams, Evelin Donis, Luis E Cuevas, Emily R Adams
We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Thomas Briese, David T Williams, Vishal Kapoor, Sinead M Diviney, Andrea Certoma, Jianning Wang, Cheryl A Johansen, Rashmi Chowdhary, John S Mackenzie, W Ian Lipkin
The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV...
2016: PloS One
David Baca-Carrasco, Jorge X Velasco-Hernández
Since the first major outbreak reported on the island Yap in 2007, the Zika virus spread has alerted the scientific community worldwide. Zika is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes; particularly in Central and South America, the main vector is the same mosquito that transmits dengue and chikungunya, Aedes aegypti. Seeking to understand the dynamics of spread of the Zika, in this paper, three mathematical models are presented, in which vector transmission of the virus, sexual contact transmission and migration are considered...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Yu-Ming Wang, Jeng-Wei Lu, Chang-Chi Lin, Yuan-Fan Chin, Tzong-Yuan Wu, Liang-In Lin, Zheng-Zong Lai, Szu-Cheng Kuo, Yi-Jung Ho
Chikungunya disease results from an infection with the arbovirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Symptoms of CHIKV include fever and persistent, severe arthritis. In recent years, several antiviral drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials; however, no registered antivirals have been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we established a high-throughput screening (HTS) system based on CHIKV 26S mediated insect cell fusion inhibition assay. Our screening system was able to search potential anti-CHIKV drugs in vitro...
October 11, 2016: Antiviral Research
Rodrigo Dutra Nunes, Guilherme Ventura-Martins, Débora Monteiro Moretti, Priscilla Medeiros-Castro, Carlucio Rocha-Santos, Carlos Renato de Oliveira Daumas-Filho, Paula Rego Barros Bittencourt-Cunha, Karina Martins-Cardoso, Cecília Oliveira Cudischevitch, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, José Henrique Maia Oliveira, Desiely Silva Gusmão, Francisco José Alves Lemos, Daniela Sales Alviano, Pedro Lagerblad Oliveira, Carl Lowenberger, David Majerowicz, Ricardo Melo Oliveira, Rafael Dias Mesquita, Georgia Correa Atella, Mário Alberto Cardoso Silva-Neto
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols. RESULTS: Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK)...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jacob Brenner, Ditza Rotenberg, Shami Jaakobi, Yehuda Stram, Merisol Guini-Rubinstein, Sofia Menasherov, Michel Bernstein, Yudith Yaakobovitch, Dan David, Samuel Perl
Viruses of the Simbu serogroup cause lesions to foetuses that are seen at birth and that correlate with the stage of pregnancy at which the dam first contracts the virus. The Simbu serogroup comprises arboviruses known to cause outbreaks of abnormal parturitions in domestic ruminants; these abnormalities include abortion, stillbirth, and congenitally deformed neonates. Simbu serogroup members include: Akabane virus (AKAV), Aino virus, Cache Valley virus, and Schmallenberg virus. Lately, dairy herds calf malformations have been observed in Europe, where there have been reports of clinical manifestations such as diarrhoea, fever, and reduced milk yield in adult lactating cows...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Lara Harrup, Miguel Miranda, Simon Carpenter
In most instances, vaccination is accepted to be the most effective method of preventing Culicoides-borne arbovirus transmission, as it has proven to be successful in large-scale campaigns. Under certain scenarios, however, vaccines require time to be developed and deployed or are not used due to financial, logistical or trade constraints. In the absence of vaccines, animal movement restrictions and techniques to reduce either the number of Culicoides biting livestock or their subsequent survival are the only responses available to prevent or reduce arbovirus transmission and spread...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Sandra Junglen
Arthropod-borne viruses have a dual-host tropism and their transmission requires the infection of two disparate hosts, arthropods and vertebrates. Arboviruses occur in several RNA families that also contain viruses with a monotropism for either arthropods or vertebrates. The evolutionary origin of the dual-host tropism of arboviruses was recently identified for the family Bunyaviridae. Bunyaviruses were suggested to have evolved from viruses that are restricted to arthropods as hosts (arthropod-specific viruses)...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana
Arthropods transmit several medically important arboviruses that cause diseases in humans. Therapeutic strategies to treat or prevent diseases transmitted by the arthropods are limiting. Understanding the role of arthropod gut receptors in the interactions with various arboviruses would provide important means for the development of a strong anti-vector vaccine. In this review, we summarize some of the potential findings in the field of arthropod gut receptors for tick-borne or mosquito-borne viruses and discuss their relevance in the development of a broad-spectrum transmission-blocking vaccine to treat or control various diseases caused by arboviruses...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Glady Hazitha Samuel, Zach N Adelman, Kevin M Myles
The transmissibility of vector borne viruses can be affected by a combination of factors, both extrinsic (climatic changes, temperature, urbanization, among others) and intrinsic (genetics, life span, immunity, among others). Temperature is of particular importance since the insect vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are ectothermic and acutely susceptible to temperature changes. Modeling suggests that with increasing global temperature and urbanization, arboviral diseases will continue to emerge or reemerge...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
David S Younger
Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Lizandra Makowski Steffler, Silvio Santana Dolabella, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla, Carine Spenassatto Dreyer, Edilson Divino Araújo, Rosane Gomes Oliveira, Walter Fabrício Silva Martins, Roseli La Corte
BACKGROUND: The study of the genetic structure of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding their population dynamics as well as for the analysis of factors responsible for their resistance and ecological adaptation. The use of molecular markers in identifying differences amongst populations of Ae. aegypti in different geographical areas as well as the temporal variation of the vector populations has contributed to the improvement of vector control strategies. The present study aims to determine the genetic variability of Ae...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Elham Keshavarz, Andrea Poretti, Adriano N Hazin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It is usually transmitted by mosquito bite. There have been no reports of severe symptoms caused by ZIKV infection up until the last few years. In October 2013 an outbreak was reported in French Polynesia with severe neurological complications in some affected cases. In November 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil attributed the increased number of neonatal microcephaly cases in northeastern Brazil to congenital ZIKV infection. The rapid spread of the virus convinced the World Health Organization to announce ZIKV infection as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" in February 2016...
October 6, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Erik M Blosser, Tanise Stenn, Carolina Acevedo, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena
Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Dyar, 1918) is a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species found throughout much of tropical America, including southern Florida. Relatively few reports are available regarding the ecology of Cx. iolambdis, despite its widespread distribution and putative involvement in transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To quantify habitat and host utilization, adults of Cx. iolambdis were sampled from resting shelters at a field site in Vero Beach, Florida, over a 12-month period...
October 3, 2016: Acta Tropica
Gamou Fall, Martin Faye, Manfred Weidmann, Marco Kaiser, Anne Dupressoir, El Hadj Ndiaye, Yamar Ba, Mawlouth Diallo, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus, circulating worldwide between birds and mosquitoes, which impacts human and animal health. Since the mid-1990s, WNV outbreaks have emerged in Europe and America and represent currently the primary cause of encephalitis in the United States. WNV exhibits a great genetic diversity with at least eight different lineages circulating in the world, and four (1, 2, Koutango, and putative new) are present in Africa. These different WNV lineages are not readily differentiated by serology, and thus, rapid molecular tools are required for diagnostic...
October 6, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito, Ieda P Ribeiro, Rafaella Moraes de Miranda, Rosilainy Surubi Fernandes, Stéphanie Silva Campos, Keli Antunes Barbosa da Silva, Marcia Gonçalves de Castro, Myrna C Bonaldo, Patrícia Brasil, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira
Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused a major epidemic in Brazil and several other American countries. ZIKV is an arbovirus whose natural vectors during epidemics have been poorly determined. In this study, 1,683 mosquitoes collected in the vicinity of ZIKV suspected cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 2015 to May 2016 were screened for natural infection by using molecular methods. Three pools of Aedes aegypti were found with the ZIKV genome, one of which had only one male. This finding supports the occurrence of vertical and/or venereal transmission of ZIKV in Ae...
October 3, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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