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Arbovirus outbreaks

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321362/from-eggs-to-bites-do-ovitrap-data-provide-reliable-estimates-of-aedes-albopictus-biting-females
#1
Mattia Manica, Roberto Rosà, Alessandra Della Torre, Beniamino Caputo
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286701/first-report-of-the-east-central-south-african-genotype-of-chikungunya-virus-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#2
Thiara Manuele Alves Souza, Elzinandes Leal Azeredo, Jessica Badolato-Corrêa, Paulo Vieira Damasco, Carla Santos, Fabienne Petitinga-Paiva, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Luciana Santos Barbosa, Márcio Costa Cipitelli, Thais Chouin-Carneiro, Nieli Rodrigues Costa Faria, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Fernanda de Bruycker-Nogueira, Flavia Barreto Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that causes an acute febrile syndrome with a severe and debilitating arthralgia. In Brazil, the Asian and East-Central South African (ECSA) genotypes are circulating in the north and northeast of the country, respectively. In 2015, the first autochthonous cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were reported but until now the circulating strains have not been characterized. Therefore, we aimed here to perform the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of CHIKV strains circulating in the 2016 outbreak occurred in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro...
February 14, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286698/-i-aedes-aegypti-i-control-through-modernized-integrated-vector-management
#3
Laith Yakob, Sebastian Funk, Anton Camacho, Oliver Brady, W John Edmunds
INTRODUCTION: In the context of the ongoing, unprecedented Zika virus outbreak in the Americas, the World Health Organization has expressed its support for developing and up-scaling three novel approaches to controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito: the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), the Release of Insects carrying Dominant Lethal genes (RIDL) and the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. Whereas the former two approaches are temporary insect population suppression strategies, Wolbachia infection is a self-sustaining, invasive strategy that uses inherited endosymbiotic bacteria to render natural mosquito populations arbovirus resistant...
January 30, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240033/seroprevalence-of-rift-valley-fever-in-cattle-along-the-akagera-nyabarongo-rivers-rwanda
#4
Thérèse Umuhoza, Dirk Berkvens, Isidore Gafarasi, Joseph Rukelibuga, Borden Mushonga, Savino Biryomumaisho
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is caused by a zoonotic arbovirus that is endemic to eastern and southern Africa. It has also been reported in West and North Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, but people can also become infected while handling blood or other body fluids of animals and humans with RVF. In 2007, there was a large outbreak of RVF in Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and Somalia. Outbreaks were also reported in South Africa in 2008-2011. The epidemiology of RVF and factors for disease occurrence in Rwanda are neither clear nor documented...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#5
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192064/aedes-borne-virus-mosquito-interactions-mass-spectrometry-strategies-and-findings
#6
Victoria Pando-Robles, Cesar V Batista
Aedes-borne viruses are responsible for high-impact neglected tropical diseases and unpredictable outbreaks such as the ongoing Zika epidemics. Aedes mosquitoes spread different arboviruses such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus, among others, and are responsible for the continuous emergence and reemergence of these pathogens. These viruses have complex transmission cycles that include two hosts, namely the Aedes mosquito as a vector and susceptible vertebrate hosts. Human infection with arboviruses causes diseases that range from subclinical or mild to febrile diseases, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever...
February 13, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185278/zika-virus-and-blood-transfusion-the-experience-of-french-polynesia
#7
Damien Bierlaire, Sylvie Mauguin, Julien Broult, Didier Musso
BACKGROUND: Between October 2013 and March 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever described before the emergence of ZIKV in the Americas in 2015. As arbovirus transfusion-transmitted (TT) infections have been previously reported, we hypothesized that transfusion of blood products could also transmit ZIKV. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Mitigation strategies to prevent ZIKV-TT infections included nonspecific measures and the implementation of a laboratory developed ZIKV-specific nucleic acid testing (NAT) assay...
February 10, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182795/the-neutralizing-role-of-igm-during-early-chikungunya-virus-infection
#8
Chong-Long Chua, I-Ching Sam, Chun-Wei Chiam, Yoke-Fun Chan
The antibody isotype IgM appears earlier than IgG, within days of onset of symptoms, and is important during the early stages of the adaptive immune response. Little is known about the functional role of IgM during infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a recently reemerging arbovirus that has caused large global outbreaks. In this study, we studied antibody responses in 102 serum samples collected during CHIKV outbreaks in Malaysia. We described the neutralizing role of IgM at different times post-infection and examined the independent contributions of IgM and IgG towards the neutralizing capacity of human immune sera during the early phase of infection, including the differences in targets of neutralizing epitopes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181903/widespread-activity-of-multiple-lineages-of-usutu-virus-western-europe-2016
#9
Daniel Cadar, Renke Lühken, Henk van der Jeugd, Mutien Garigliany, Ute Ziegler, Markus Keller, Jennifer Lahoreau, Lars Lachmann, Norbert Becker, Marja Kik, Bas B Oude Munnink, Stefan Bosch, Egbert Tannich, Annick Linden, Volker Schmidt, Marion P Koopmans, Jolianne Rijks, Daniel Desmecht, Martin H Groschup, Chantal Reusken, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit
In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four lineages, of which two putative novel lineages were most likely recently introduced into Germany and spread to other western European countries. The spatial extent of the outbreak area corresponded with R0 values > 1. The occurrence of the outbreak, the largest USUV epizootic registered so far in Europe, allowed us to gain insight in how a recently introduced arbovirus with potential public health implications can spread and become a resident pathogen in a naïve environment...
January 26, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141963/following-the-yellow-brick-road
#10
Charles H Calisher
Charles Calisher was fascinated by microorganisms from the time he was in high school. He attended Stuyvesant High School in New York City, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science (now University of the Sciences) (BS), then University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana (MS), and finally Georgetown University, in Washington, DC (PhD), the latter while employed at a commercial biological house. He was hired by the US Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) in Atlanta, Georgia, was transferred to its Fort Collins laboratories in 1973, and retired from there in 1992...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141961/african-horse-sickness-virus-history-transmission-and-current-status
#11
Simon Carpenter, Philip S Mellor, Assane G Fall, Claire Garros, Gert J Venter
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a lethal arbovirus of equids that is transmitted between hosts primarily by biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). AHSV affects draft, thoroughbred, and companion horses and donkeys in Africa, Asia, and Europe. In this review, we examine the impact of AHSV critically and discuss entomological studies that have been conducted to improve understanding of its epidemiology and control. The transmission of AHSV remains a major research focus and we critically review studies that have implicated both Culicoides and other blood-feeding arthropods in this process...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137229/challenges-with-mosquito-borne-viral-diseases-outbreak-of-the-monsters
#12
Renu Gautam, Sweta Mishra, Archana Milhotra, Ritika Nagpal, Mradul Mohan, Anchal Singhal, Pratibha Kumari
The viruses responsible for mosquito-borne diseases are on an exploring mode, expanding their horizon, adapting to the situation and comfortably making their presence felt globally, from South Africa to Asia, Europe and United States. The current global scenario and recent documentations indicate towards the real monsters, outbreak of Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses. Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses, all three are positive sense single-stranded RNA arbovirus and so their initial symptoms are almost 80% similar and all three are spread by mosquitos which bite during the day...
January 30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135274/genetic-evidence-for-a-worldwide-chaotic-dispersion-pattern-of-the-arbovirus-vector-aedes-albopictus
#13
Mosè Manni, Carmela R Guglielmino, Francesca Scolari, Anubis Vega-Rúa, Anna-Bella Failloux, Pradya Somboon, Antonella Lisa, Grazia Savini, Mariangela Bonizzoni, Ludvik M Gomulski, Anna R Malacrida, Giuliano Gasperi
BACKGROUND: Invasive species represent a global concern for their rapid spread and the possibility of infectious disease transmission. This is the case of the global invader Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. This species is a vector of medically important arboviruses, notably chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV). The reconstruction of the complex colonization pattern of this mosquito has great potential for mitigating its spread and, consequently, disease risks...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126366/testing-for-zika-virus-infection-in-pregnancy-key-concepts-to-deal-with-an-emerging-epidemic
#14
REVIEW
Catherine Eppes, Martha Rac, James Dunn, James Versalovic, Kristy O Murray, Melissa A Suter, Magda Sanz Cortes, Jimmy Espinoza, Maxim D Seferovic, Wesley Lee, Peter Hotez, Joan Mastrobattista, Steven L Clark, Michael A Belfort, Kjersti M Aagaard
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Following epidemics in Micronesia and French Polynesia during the past decade, more recent Zika virus infection outbreaks were first reported in South America as early as May 2013 and spread to now 50 countries throughout the Americas. Although no other flavivirus has previously been known to cause major fetal malformations following perinatal infection, reports of a causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly, brain and ocular malformations, and fetal loss emerged from hard-hit regions of Brazil by October 2015...
March 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115671/mosquito-exposure-and-chikungunya-and-dengue-infection-among-travelers-during-the-chikungunya-outbreak-in-the-americas
#15
David A Lindholm, Todd Myers, Susana Widjaja, Edward M Grant, Kalyani Telu, Tahaniyat Lalani, Jamie Fraser, Mary Fairchok, Anuradha Ganesan, Mark D Johnson, Anjali Kunz, David R Tribble, Heather C Yun
Travelers are at risk for arbovirus infection. We prospectively enrolled 267 Department of Defense beneficiaries traveling to chikungunya-outbreak regions in the Americas between December 2013 and May 2015 and assessed travel characteristics and serologic exposure to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV). Ten ill returning travelers were also assessed retrospectively. Self-reported mosquito exposure was common (64% of 198 evaluable travelers saw mosquitoes; 53% of 201 reported ≥ 1 bite). Increased exposure was associated with active-duty travelers (odds ratio [OR] = 2...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114414/unrecognized-emergence-of-chikungunya-virus-during-a-zika-virus-outbreak-in-salvador-brazil
#16
Cristiane W Cardoso, Mariana Kikuti, Ana Paula P B Prates, Igor A D Paploski, Laura B Tauro, Monaise M O Silva, Perla Santana, Marta F S Rego, Mitermayer G Reis, Uriel Kitron, Guilherme S Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) entered Brazil in 2014, causing a large outbreak in Feira de Santana, state of Bahia. Although cases have been recorded in Salvador, the capital of Bahia, located ~100 km of Feira de Santana, CHIKV transmission has not been perceived to occur epidemically, largely contrasting with the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and ensuing complications reaching the city in 2015. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aimed to determine the intensity of CHIKV transmission in Salvador between November 2014 and April 2016...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106839/the-importance-of-the-nucleus-during-flavivirus-replication
#17
REVIEW
Adam J Lopez-Denman, Jason M Mackenzie
Flaviviruses are a large group of arboviruses of significant medical concern worldwide. With outbreaks a common occurrence, the need for efficient viral control is required more than ever. It is well understood that flaviviruses modulate the composition and structure of membranes in the cytoplasm that are crucial for efficient replication and evading immune detection. As the flavivirus genome consists of positive sense RNA, replication can occur wholly within the cytoplasm. What is becoming more evident is that some viral proteins also have the ability to translocate to the nucleus, with potential roles in replication and immune system perturbation...
January 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103209/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2015
#18
Elisabeth Krow-Lucal, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. The leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States is West Nile virus (WNV) (1). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, St. Louis encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, also cause sporadic cases and outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2015 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095405/defining-the-risk-of-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-transmission-in-human-population-centers-of-the-eastern-united-states
#19
Carrie A Manore, Richard S Ostfeld, Folashade B Agusto, Holly Gaff, Shannon L LaDeau
The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092259/-first-case-of-chikungunya-fever-in-hermosillo-sonora-mexico
#20
Miguel Ángel Martínez-Medina, Ismael Antonio Cañedo-Dorame
The Chikungunya is an arbovirus first described during a 1952 outbreak of febrile exantematic disease in southern Tanganyika (now Tanzania). It is a virus within the alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family, it is usually transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Typically, the disease manifests as acute onset of fever and joint pains. This study describes the clinical characteristics the first imported case infected with chikungunya fever (CHIK) in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. We report the case of a 30 years old man seen in our emergency department due to fever, polyarthralgia, rash and headache...
January 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
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