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Arbovirus outbreaks

Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Eduardo A Bignon, Eva Stettner, Scott Allen Jeffers, Jimena Pérez-Vargas, Gerard Pehau-Arnaudet, M Alejandra Tortorici, Jean-Luc Jestin, Patrick England, Nicole D Tischler, Félix A Rey
Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
David Baca-Carrasco, Jorge X Velasco-Hernández
Since the first major outbreak reported on the island Yap in 2007, the Zika virus spread has alerted the scientific community worldwide. Zika is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes; particularly in Central and South America, the main vector is the same mosquito that transmits dengue and chikungunya, Aedes aegypti. Seeking to understand the dynamics of spread of the Zika, in this paper, three mathematical models are presented, in which vector transmission of the virus, sexual contact transmission and migration are considered...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Jacob Brenner, Ditza Rotenberg, Shami Jaakobi, Yehuda Stram, Merisol Guini-Rubinstein, Sofia Menasherov, Michel Bernstein, Yudith Yaakobovitch, Dan David, Samuel Perl
Viruses of the Simbu serogroup cause lesions to foetuses that are seen at birth and that correlate with the stage of pregnancy at which the dam first contracts the virus. The Simbu serogroup comprises arboviruses known to cause outbreaks of abnormal parturitions in domestic ruminants; these abnormalities include abortion, stillbirth, and congenitally deformed neonates. Simbu serogroup members include: Akabane virus (AKAV), Aino virus, Cache Valley virus, and Schmallenberg virus. Lately, dairy herds calf malformations have been observed in Europe, where there have been reports of clinical manifestations such as diarrhoea, fever, and reduced milk yield in adult lactating cows...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Elham Keshavarz, Andrea Poretti, Adriano N Hazin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It is usually transmitted by mosquito bite. There have been no reports of severe symptoms caused by ZIKV infection up until the last few years. In October 2013 an outbreak was reported in French Polynesia with severe neurological complications in some affected cases. In November 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil attributed the increased number of neonatal microcephaly cases in northeastern Brazil to congenital ZIKV infection. The rapid spread of the virus convinced the World Health Organization to announce ZIKV infection as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" in February 2016...
October 6, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Gamou Fall, Martin Faye, Manfred Weidmann, Marco Kaiser, Anne Dupressoir, El Hadj Ndiaye, Yamar Ba, Mawlouth Diallo, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus, circulating worldwide between birds and mosquitoes, which impacts human and animal health. Since the mid-1990s, WNV outbreaks have emerged in Europe and America and represent currently the primary cause of encephalitis in the United States. WNV exhibits a great genetic diversity with at least eight different lineages circulating in the world, and four (1, 2, Koutango, and putative new) are present in Africa. These different WNV lineages are not readily differentiated by serology, and thus, rapid molecular tools are required for diagnostic...
October 6, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Claire L Donald, Benjamin Brennan, Stephanie L Cumberworth, Veronica V Rezelj, Jordan J Clark, Marli T Cordeiro, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira França, Lindomar J Pena, Gavin S Wilkie, Ana Da Silva Filipe, Christopher Davis, Joseph Hughes, Margus Varjak, Martin Selinger, Luíza Zuvanov, Ania M Owsianka, Arvind H Patel, John McLauchlan, Brett D Lindenbach, Gamou Fall, Amadou A Sall, Roman Biek, Jan Rehwinkel, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has transformed a previously obscure mosquito-transmitted arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family into a major public health concern. Little is currently known about the evolution and biology of ZIKV and the factors that contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Determining genomic sequences of clinical viral isolates and characterization of elements within these are an important prerequisite to advance our understanding of viral replicative processes and virus-host interactions...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
G E Chapman, D Archer, S Torr, T Solomon, M Baylis
There is growing concern about the increasing risk of disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in both human beings and animals. There are several mosquito-borne viral diseases that cause varying levels of morbidity and mortality in horses and that can have substantial welfare and economic ramifications. While none has been recorded in the UK, vector species for some of these viruses are present, suggesting that UK equines may be at risk. The authors undertook, therefore, the first study of mosquito species on equine premises in the UK...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Record
Walter J Tabachnick
Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state's mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida's mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida's east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM), has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage...
2016: Insects
Julien B Z Zahouli, Jürg Utzinger, Maurice A Adja, Pie Müller, David Malone, Yao Tano, Benjamin G Koudou
BACKGROUND: Aedes mosquito-transmitted outbreaks of dengue and yellow fever have been reported from rural and urban parts of Côte d'Ivoire. The present study aimed at assessing Aedes spp. oviposition ecology in variously urbanized settings within arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: Aedes spp. eggs were sampled using a standard ovitrap method from January 2013 to April 2014 in different ecosystems of rural, suburban and urban areas. Emerged larvae were reared until the adult stage for species identification...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
José-Luis Barnay, Andre Cabie, Sylvie Abel, Emilie Javelle, Odile Troisgros, Patrick René-Corail
Arboviruses cause very recurrent epidemics, the oldest Dengue, known especially outside the flu-like syndrome with high fever mainly impacting vulnerable populations, may be responsible for severe hemorrhagic fevers, but also a few cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome. In 2014, the French Antilles occurred an outbreak of Chikungunya, following that of the Reunion's outbreak. During this period have been described, the articular and musculo-squellettic lesions, responsible for loss of autonomy in populations already carriers of chronic inflammatory joint damage or mechanical, but also a heavy impact on the autonomy of elderly and frail people...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Necibe Tuncer, Hayriye Gulbudak, Vincent L Cannataro, Maia Martcheva
In this article, we discuss the structural and practical identifiability of a nested immuno-epidemiological model of arbovirus diseases, where host-vector transmission rate, host recovery, and disease-induced death rates are governed by the within-host immune system. We incorporate the newest ideas and the most up-to-date features of numerical methods to fit multi-scale models to multi-scale data. For an immunological model, we use Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) time-series data obtained from livestock under laboratory experiments, and for an epidemiological model we incorporate a human compartment to the nested model and use the number of human RVFV cases reported by the CDC during the 2006-2007 Kenya outbreak...
September 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
M Levy, M-T Abi-Warde, A-C Rameau, S Fafi-Kremer, Y Hansmann, M Fischbach, L Higel
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an arbovirus induced by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) transmitted by tick bite. The disease is rare in France (two to three cases per year) but endemic zones extend from Western Europe to the east coast of Asia (10,000-15,000 cases per year). An 8-year-old boy was admitted to our pediatric ward in Strasbourg (France) for febrile headache with diplopia. Four days after a tick bite, he declared a febrile headache together with maculopapular rash on the elbows, knees, and cheeks...
October 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Marimuthu Govindarajan, Shine Kadaikunnan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquito control is facing key challenges, including outbreaks of new arbovirus threats. We proposed an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing a low-cost extract of Hugonia mystax. AgNPs were specified by UV, XRD, FTIR and EDX spectroscopy, SEM and TEM. AgNPs were more toxic to Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae (LC50: 14.45, 15.86, and 17.46 μg/mL) if compared to aquatic biocontrol organisms Gambusia affinis, Diplonychus indicus, and Anisops bouvieri (LC50: 2567...
September 9, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Merrill Singer
It is estimated that over a million people die each year from infectious diseases of zoonotic origin and hundreds of millions suffer from these pervasive threats to human well-being. In light of the emergent global concern over the Zika virus, evidence that it has not one but two competent mosquito vector species in the Aedes family, and that both can be co-infected with other pathogens including dengue and chikungunya, this paper examines research suggesting the prospect of significant twenty-first-century outbreaks of arbovirus syndemics...
September 2, 2016: Global Public Health
Laura Singer, Kelly G Vest, Charles W Beadling
Zika virus continues to pose a significant global health threat. While the outbreak pattern may seemingly mirror those of other arboviruses, unique transmission characteristics and clinical outcomes warrant a different approach to traditional public health practices. Sexual transmission and virus-associated fetal and nonfetal neurologic disorders specifically challenge conventional methods of disease protection and prevention with regard to vector control, disease surveillance, and health risk communication...
August 30, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Luis Adrián Diaz, Agustín Ignacio Quaglia, Brenda Salomé Konigheim, Analia Silvana Boris, Juan Javier Aguilar, Nicholas Komar, Marta Silvia Contigiani
St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) (Flavivirus) is a reemerging arbovirus in the southern cone of South America. In 2005, an outbreak of SLEV in central Argentina resulted in 47 human cases with 9 deaths. In Argentina, the ecology of SLEV is poorly understood. Because certain birds are the primary amplifiers in North America, we hypothesized that birds amplify SLEV in Argentina as well. We compared avian SLEV seroprevalence in a variety of ecosystems in and around Córdoba city from 2004 (before the epidemic) and 2005 (during the epidemic)...
2016: PloS One
Calum Macpherson, Trevor Noël, Paul Fields, Donald Jungkind, Katherine Yearwood, Monika Simmons, Susana Widjaja, George Mitchell, Dolland Noel, Satesh Bidaisee, Todd E Myers, A Desiree LaBeaud
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean region in 2014, and the first serologically confirmed case was seen in Grenada in July. This study investigated the outbreak of CHIKV in Grenada to identify the distinguishing clinical manifestations and the symptoms that corresponded the closest with serological test results. Sera were tested by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction to distinguish between cases positive or negative for CHIKV. Of 493 cases, 426 (86%) tested positive for CHIKV...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jui-Hung Kao, Chaur-Dong Chen, Zheng-Rong Tiger Li, Ta-Chien Chan, Tsung-Hwa Tung, Yin-Hsia Chu, Hau-Yuan Cheng, Jien-Wei Liu, Fuh-Yuan Shih, Pei-Yun Shu, Chien-Chou Lin, Wu-Hsiung Tsai, Chia-Chi Ku, Chi-Kung Ho, Chwan-Chuen King
The increasing dengue burden and epidemic severity worldwide have highlighted the need to improve surveillance. In non-endemic areas such as Taiwan, where outbreaks start mostly with imported cases from Southeast Asia, a closer examination of surveillance dynamics to detect cases early is necessary. To evaluate problems with dengue surveillance and investigate the involvement of different factors at various epidemic stages, we investigated 632 laboratory-confirmed indigenous dengue cases in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan during 2009-2010...
2016: PloS One
Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Flavia Barreto Dos Santos, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus previously believed to cause only a mild and self-limiting illness. Recently, it has emerged as a new public health threat that caused a large outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013-2014 and since 2015 an explosive outbreak in Brazil, with an increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) and neurological complications, mainly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Since then, it has spread through the Americas. On 1 February 2016, the WHO declared the ZIKV epidemic in Brazil a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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