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Arbovirus outbreaks

C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Rose M Langsjoen, Sherry L Haller, Chad J Roy, Heather Vinet-Oliphant, Nicholas A Bergren, Jesse H Erasmus, Jill A Livengood, Tim D Powell, Scott C Weaver, Shannan L Rossi
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus capable of causing explosive outbreaks of febrile illness, polyarthritis, and polyarthralgia, inflicting severe morbidity on affected populations. CHIKV can be genetically classified into 3 major lineages: West African (WA); East, Central, and South African (ECSA); Indian Ocean (IOL); and Asian. Additionally, the Indian Ocean (IOL) sublineage emerged within the ECSA clade and the Asian/American sublineage emerged within the Asian clade. While differences in epidemiological and pathological characteristics among outbreaks involving different CHIKV lineages and sublineages have been suggested, few targeted investigations comparing lineage virulence levels have been reported...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Jill N Fernandes, Imelda K Moise, Gina L Maranto, John C Beier
The global approach to mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) is in need of critical re-evaluation. Although there have been dramatic reductions in malaria incidence since 2000, malaria elimination from high-transmission settings remains problematic. At the same time, arbovirus outbreaks have increased in their frequency and impact. The 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic exposed the dire state of MBD control in many countries, calling for united global action. Despite international resolve to prevent future epidemics, current practices in MBD control are mostly reactive and of limited efficacy...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Sébastien Boyer, Elodie Calvez, Thais Chouin-Carneiro, Diawo Diallo, Failloux Anna-Bella
The mosquito-borne arbovirus Zika virus (ZIKV, Flavivirus, Flaviviridae), has caused an outbreak impressive by its magnitude and rapid spread. First detected in Uganda in Africa in 1947, from where it spread to Asia in the 1960s, it emerged in 2007 on the Yap Island in Micronesia and hit most islands in the Pacific region in 2013. Subsequently, ZIKV was detected in the Caribbean, and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infections are in general asymptomatic or causing mild self-limiting illness, severe symptoms have been described including neurological disorders and microcephaly in newborns...
February 23, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Ihsan Ali, Javid Iqbal Dasti
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arbovirus belongs to the family Togaviridae and was discovered in Tanzania in year 953-54. In November 2016, an outbreak occurred in Karachi and approximately 30,000 individuals were infected with CHIKV. More than 4,000 cases were confirmed by qualitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. However, actual numbers of cases are expected to rise. For the diagnosis of chikungunya virus, several methods including viral culture, detection of viral antigen, anti-CHIKV immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G antibodies and viral nucleic acid can be used...
February 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Veerendra Koppolu, T Shantha Raju
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by mosquitos of Aedes species. The virus has emerged in recent years and spread throughout North and South Americas. The recent outbreak of ZIKV started in Brazil (2015) has resulted in infections surpassing a million mark. Contrary to the previous beliefs that Zika causes mildly symptomatic infections fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, the recent outbreak associated ZIKV to serious neurological complications such as microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and eye infections...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Jocelyn Raude, Patrick Peretti-Watel, Jeremy Ward, Claude Flamand, Pierre Verger
BACKGROUND: Although people are likely to underestimate the frequencies of risks to health from common diseases and overestimate those from rare diseases, we still do not know much about reasons for this systematic bias, which is also referred to as "primary bias" in the literature. In this study, we take advantage of a series of large epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases to examine the accuracy of judgments of risk frequencies. In this aim, we assessed the perceived v. observed prevalence of infection by Zika, chikungunya or dengue fever during these outbreaks, as well as their variations among different subpopulations and epidemiological settings...
February 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Ravi Mehta, Cristiane Nascimento Soares, Raquel Medialdea-Carrera, Mark Ellul, Marcus Tulius Texeira da Silva, Anna Rosala-Hallas, Marcia Rodrigues Jardim, Girvan Burnside, Luciana Pamplona, Maneesh Bhojak, Radhika Manohar, Gabriel Amorelli Medeiros da Silva, Marcus Vinicius Adriano, Patricia Brasil, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Carolina Cardoso Dos Santos, Lance Turtle, Patricia Carvalho de Sequeira, David W Brown, Michael J Griffiths, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: During 2015-16 Brazil experienced the largest epidemic of Zika virus ever reported. This arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) has been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults but other neurological associations are uncertain. Chikungunya virus has caused outbreaks in Brazil since 2014 but associated neurological disease has rarely been reported here. We investigated adults with acute neurological disorders for Zika, chikungunya and dengue, another arbovirus circulating in Brazil...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Andres Moreira-Soto, Maria Celeste Torres, Marcos Cesar Lima de Mendonça, Maria Angelica Mares-Guia, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Allison Fabri, Carolina Cardoso Dos Santos, Eliane Saraiva Machado Araújo, Carlo Fischer, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Christian Drosten, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira, Jan Felix Drexler, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis
OBJECTIVE: Since December 2016, Brazil has experienced an unusually large outbreak of yellow fever (YF). Whether urban transmission may contribute to the extent of the outbreak is unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize yellow fever virus (YFV) genomes and to identify spatial patterns to determine the distribution and origin of YF cases in Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, the most affected Brazilian states during the current YFV outbreak. METHODS: We characterized near-complete YFV genomes from 14 human cases and two non-human primates (NHP), sampled from February to April 2017, retrieved epidemiological data of cases and used a geographic information system to investigate geospatial spread of YFV...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Tran Minh Quan, Huynh Thi Phuong, Nguyen Ha Thao Vy, Nguyen Thi Le Thanh, Nguyen Thi Nam Lien, Tran Thi Kim Hong, Pham Ngoc Dung, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Maciej F Boni, Hannah E Clapham
BACKGROUND: Arbovirus infections are a serious concern in tropical countries due to their high levels of transmission and morbidity. With the outbreaks of chikungunya (CHIKV) in surrounding regions in recent years and the fact that the environment in Vietnam is suitable for the vectors of CHIKV, the possibility of transmission of CHIKV in Vietnam is of great interest. However, information about CHIKV activity in Vietnam remains limited. METHODOLOGY: In order to address this question, we performed a systematic review of CHIKV in Vietnam and a CHIKV seroprevalence survey...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Andres Moreira-Soto, Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Carlo Fischer, Marie Feldmann, Beate M Kümmerer, Nama Santos Silva, Uilton Góes Santos, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza, Fernanda de Azevedo Liborio, Mônica Mafra Valença-Montenegro, Plautino de Oliveira Laroque, Fernanda Rosa da Fontoura, Alberto Vinicius Dantas Oliveira, Christian Drosten, Xavier de Lamballerie, Carlos Roberto Franke, Jan Felix Drexler
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas in 2013. Limited antigenic variability of CHIKV and ZIKV may restrict urban transmission cycles due to population protective immunity. In Africa, sylvatic transmission cycles involving nonhuman primates (NHP) are known for CHIKV and ZIKV, causing cyclic reemergence in humans. To evaluate whether sylvatic cycles can be expected in Latin America, we tested 207 NHP collected between 2012 and 2017 in urban and peri-urban settings in Brazil for infection with ZIKV and CHIKV...
January 2018: MSphere
Rakesh Kumar, Rajendra D Patil
The importance of horse (Equus caballus) to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission...
December 2017: Veterinary World
M S Mustafa, R Ramasethu
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has recently affected 4 million people across the globe. The World Health Organization has declared Zika a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern". The disease is caused by an arbovirus and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Zika has followed a pattern already set in by Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. The virus exists in sylvatic form with spillovers to humans. The present outbreak in Brazil started in May 2015 and spread rapidly to Latin America and the Caribbean. The rapid spread is due to availability of non-immune population...
January 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
David Weetman, Basile Kamgang, Athanase Badolo, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Mamadou Coulibaly, João Pinto, Louis Lambrechts, Philip J McCall
The Zika crisis drew attention to the long-overlooked problem of arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in Africa. Yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika are poorly controlled in Africa and often go unrecognized. However, to combat these diseases, both in Africa and worldwide, it is crucial that this situation changes. Here, we review available data on the distribution of each disease in Africa, their Aedes vectors, transmission potential, and challenges and opportunities for Aedes control. Data on disease and vector ranges are sparse, and consequently maps of risk are uncertain...
January 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hussin A Rothan, Mehdi R M Bidokhti, Siddappa N Byrareddy
Dissemination of vector-borne viruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), in tropical and sub-tropical regions has a complicated impact on the immunopathogenesis of other endemic viruses such as dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The consequences of the possible co-infections with these viruses have specifically shown significant impact on the treatment and vaccination strategies. ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus from African and Asian lineages that causes neurological complications in infected humans...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Isabella Eckerle, Violeta Briciu, Onder Ergonul, Mihaela Lupse, Anna Papa, Amanda Radulescu, Sotirios Tsiodras, Christine Tsitou, Christian Drosten, Véronique Nussenblatt, Chantal Reusken, Louise Sigfrid, Nick J Beeching
BACKGROUND: Arboviruses are an emerging group of viruses that are causing increasing health concerns globally, including in Europe. Clinical presentation usually consists of a non-specific febrile illness that may be accompanied by rash, arthralgia and arthritis and/or with neurological or haemorrhagic syndromes. The range of differential diagnoses of other infectious and non-infectious aetiologies is broad, presenting a challenge for physicians. While knowledge of the geographic distribution of pathogens and the current epidemiological situation, incubation periods, exposure risk factors and vaccination history can help guide the diagnostic approach, the non-specific and variable clinical presentation can delay final diagnosis...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Alexis Burakoff, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Nicole P Lindsey
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2016 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Andrew Laughhunn, Yan-Jang S Huang, Dana L Vanlandingham, Marion C Lanteri, Adonis Stassinopoulos
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne arbovirus, often co-circulates with the Zika, dengue, and yellow fever viruses in Aedes mosquito-infested areas where cases of arbovirus transfusion-transmitted infections have been reported. Building on past experience to help maintain the availability of safe components during major outbreaks of chikungunya virus in La Reunion, Italy, and Thailand and of Zika virus in the Pacific, the Caribbean, and the Americas, pathogen inactivation is a mitigation strategy to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection...
January 10, 2018: Transfusion
I W Husstedt, M Maschke, C Eggers, E Neuen-Jacob, G Arendt
Zika virus is an arbovirus from the family of flaviviruses, which is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegyptii and also by the Asian mosquito Aedes albopticus. The largest observed Zika virus epidemic is currently taking place in North and South America, in the Caribbean, southern USA and Southeast Asia. In most cases the infection is an unspecific, acute, febrile disease. Neurological manifestations consist mainly of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome but other rare manifestations have also become known in the meantime, such as meningoencephalitis and myelitis...
January 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Claudia Rückert, Gregory D Ebel
Arboviruses such as West Nile, Zika, chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever viruses have become highly significant global pathogens through unexpected, explosive outbreaks. While the rapid progression and frequency of recent arbovirus outbreaks is associated with long-term changes in human behavior (globalization, urbanization, climate change), there are direct mosquito-virus interactions which drive shifts in host range and alter virus transmission. This review summarizes how virus-mosquito interactions are critical for these viruses to become global pathogens at molecular, physiological, evolutionary, and epidemiological scales...
January 2, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
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