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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329763/efficacy-and-safety-of-varenicline-for-smoking-cessation-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-france-anrs-144-inter-activ-a-randomised-controlled-phase-3-clinical-trial
#1
Patrick Mercié, Julie Arsandaux, Christine Katlama, Samuel Ferret, Aurélie Beuscart, Christian Spadone, Claudine Duvivier, Jacques Reynes, Nathalie Wirth, Laetitia Moinot, Antoine Bénard, David Zucman, Xavier Duval, Jean-Michel Molina, Bruno Spire, Catherine Fagard, Geneviève Chêne
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is common in people living with HIV, but high-quality evidence on interventions for smoking cessation is not available in this population. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of varenicline with counselling to aid smoking cessation in people living with HIV. METHODS: The ANRS 144 Inter-ACTIV randomised, parallel, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was done at 30 clinical hospital sites in France. People living with HIV who had smoked at least ten cigarettes per day for 1 year or longer, were motivated to stop smoking, were not dependent on another psychoactive substance, and had no history of depression or suicide attempt were eligible...
January 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287665/tobacco-dependence-treatment-in-the-emergency-department-a-randomized-trial-using-the-multiphase-optimization-strategy
#2
Steven L Bernstein, James Dziura, June Weiss, Ted Miller, Katrina A Vickerman, Lauretta E Grau, Michael V Pantalon, Lorien Abroms, Linda M Collins, Benjamin Toll
BACKGROUND: Tobacco dependence remains the leading preventable cause of death in the developed world. Smokers are disproportionately from lower socioeconomic groups, and may use the hospital emergency department (ED) as an important source of care. A recent clinical trial demonstrated the efficacy of a multicomponent intervention to help smokers quit, but the independent contributions of those components is unknown. METHODS: This is a full-factorial (16-arm) randomized trial in a busy hospital ED of 4 tobacco dependence interventions: brief motivational interviewing, nicotine replacement therapy, referral to a telephone quitline, and a texting program...
December 26, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277437/indoor-air-quality-iaq-evaluation-of-a-novel-tobacco-vapor-ntv-product
#3
Hirokazu Ichitsubo, Misato Kotaki
The impact of using a Novel Tobacco Vapor (NTV) product on indoor air quality (IAQ) was simulated using an environmentally-controlled chamber. Three environmental simulations were examined; two non-smoking areas (conference room and dining room) and one ventilated smoking area (smoking lounge). IAQ was evaluated by (i) measuring constituents in the mainstream NTV product emissions, (ii) and by determining classical environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and representative air quality markers. Analysis of the mainstream emissions revealed that vapor from the NTV product is chemically simpler than cigarette smoke...
December 22, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217598/phenotypes-of-symptomatic-airways-disease-in-china-and-new-zealand
#4
James Fingleton, Kewu Huang, Mark Weatherall, Yanfei Guo, Stefan Ivanov, Piet Bruijnzeel, Hong Zhang, Wei Wang, Richard Beasley, Chen Wang
It is uncertain whether phenotypes of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary between populations with different genetic and environmental characteristics. Here, our objective was to compare the phenotypes of airways disease in two separate populations.This was a cross-sectional observational study in adult populations from New Zealand and China. Participants aged 40-75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the last 12 months were randomly selected from the general population and underwent detailed characterisation...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214021/a-pilot-study-with-early-adolescents-dealing-with-diet-tobacco-and-air-pollution-using-practical-experiences-and-biological-markers
#5
Chiara Marabelli, Elena Munarini, Micaela Lina, Roberto Mazza, Roberto Boffi, Cinzia De Marco, Ario Ruprecht, Giorgia Angellotti, Chiara Veronese, Paolo Pozzi, Eleonora Bruno, Giuliana Gargano, Adalberto Cavalleri, Giulia Garrone, Franco Berrino
Background: Tobacco use and the Western diet are two of the most important and investigated topics in relation to adolescents' health. In addition, air pollution is a crucial subject for future generations. School is a key social environment that should promote healthy behaviors in children and adolescents. In this field many different programs have been conducted, with mixed results and effectiveness. Research data suggest that comprehensive and multicomponent approaches may have a greater effect on tobacco use and diet, especially when integrated into a community-wide approach...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183347/the-effect-of-an-intensive-smoking-cessation-intervention-on-disease-activity-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Ida Kristiane Roelsgaard, Thordis Thomsen, Mikkel Østergaard, Robin Christensen, Merete Lund Hetland, Søren Jacobsen, Lena Andersen, Hanne Tønnesen, Silvia Rollefstad, Anne Grete Semb, Bente Appel Esbensen
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory rheumatic disease with the potential to induce significant disability. Patients with RA are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Smokers with RA tend to experience more pain and fatigue, higher disease activity, more erosive joint destruction and a lower health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) than non-smokers. It remains to be determined whether these effects can be reduced by smoking cessation. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) in patients with RA aims to examine the effect of intensive smoking cessation intervention (motivational counselling combined with tailored nicotine replacement therapy) versus standard care on smoking cessation, and consequently on disease activity...
November 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150612/health-impact-of-e-cigarettes-a-prospective-3-5-year-study-of-regular-daily-users-who-have-never-smoked
#7
Riccardo Polosa, Fabio Cibella, Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia, Umberto Prosperini, Cristina Russo, Donald Tashkin
Although electronic cigarettes (ECs) are a much less harmful alternative to tobacco cigarettes, there is concern as to whether long-term ECs use may cause risks to human health. We report health outcomes (blood pressure, heart rate, body weight, lung function, respiratory symptoms, exhaled breath nitric oxide [eNO], exhaled carbon monoxide [eCO], and high-resolution computed tomography [HRCT] of the lungs) from a prospective 3.5-year observational study of a cohort of nine daily EC users (mean age 29.7 (±6...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149738/associations-of-urinary-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-metabolites-with-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Yun Zhou, Yuewei Liu, Huizhen Sun, Jixuan Ma, Lili Xiao, Limin Cao, Wei Li, Bin Wang, Jing Yuan, Weihong Chen
Exposure to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with inflammatory responses. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) are both important inflammatory mediators especially in airways. However, few studies have investigated associations of PAH exposures with FeNO or eCO. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the associations of urinary PAH metabolites with FeNO and eCO levels, and investigate their potential effect modifiers by linear mixed models among 4133 participants from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort in China...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128712/the-impact-of-a-brief-cessation-induction-intervention-for-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Eleanor L S Leavens, Ellen Meier, Alayna P Tackett, Mary Beth Miller, Noor N Tahirkheli, Emma I Brett, Dana M Carroll, Leslie M Driskill, Michael P Anderson, Theodore L Wagener
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe (WP) tobacco smoking delivers many of the same harmful toxicants as cigarette smoking and is on the rise in the US. This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a brief personalized feedback intervention in affecting changes in WP smoking among current WP smokers. METHODS: Participants (N=109) were recruited as they entered WP lounges and completed a questionnaire and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) testing before entering the WP lounge...
October 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100550/effects-of-a-liquefied-petroleum-gas-stove-intervention-on-pollutant-exposure-and-adult-cardiopulmonary-outcomes-chap-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Magdalena Fandiño-Del-Rio, Dina Goodman, Josiah L Kephart, Catherine H Miele, Kendra N Williams, Mitra Moazzami, Elizabeth C Fung, Kirsten Koehler, Victor G Davila-Roman, Kathryn A Lee, Saachi Nangia, Steven A Harvey, Kyle Steenland, Gustavo F Gonzales, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Biomass fuel smoke is a leading risk factor for the burden of disease worldwide. International campaigns are promoting the widespread adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in resource-limited settings. However, it is unclear if the introduction and use of LPG stoves, in settings where biomass fuels are used daily, reduces pollution concentration exposure, improves health outcomes, or how cultural and social barriers influence the exclusive adoption of LPG stoves. METHODS: We will conduct a randomized controlled, field intervention trial of LPG stoves and fuel distribution in rural Puno, Peru, in which we will enroll 180 female participants aged 25-64 years and follow them for 2 years...
November 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074319/mobile-technology-for-treatment-augmentation-in-veteran-smokers-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Ellen Herbst, David Pennington, Eric Kuhn, Shannon E McCaslin, Kevin Delucchi, Steven L Batki, Benjamin Dickter, Timothy Carmody
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of incorporating a mobile application, Stay Quit Coach, into an integrated care smoking-cessation treatment protocol for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Participants included veteran smokers aged 18-69 years with PTSD. The integrated care protocol includes eight weekly PTSD-informed cognitive behavioral therapy sessions for smoking cessation, followed by monthly booster sessions and a prescription for standard smoking-cessation medications if desired...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065199/prevalence-and-correlates-of-smoking-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#12
Jessica L Elf, Ebrahim Variava, Sandy Chon, Limakatso Lebina, Katlego Motlhaoleng, Nikhil Gupte, Raymond Niaura, David Abrams, Jonathan E Golub, Neil Martinson
Introduction: Smoking likely exacerbates comorbidities which people living with HIV (PLWH) are predisposed. We assessed prevalence and correlates of smoking among PLWH in South Africa, which has 7 million PLWH but inadequate reporting of smoking. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected adults with HIV infection in Klerksdorp, South Africa. Current smoking was assessed by questionnaire, exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO), and urine cotinine...
June 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059442/financial-incentives-for-smoking-abstinence-in-homeless-smokers-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Travis P Baggett, Yuchiao Chang, Awesta Yaqubi, Claire McGlave, Stephen T Higgins, Nancy A Rigotti
Introduction: Three-quarters of homeless people smoke cigarettes. Financial incentives for smoking abstinence have appeared promising in non-experimental studies of homeless smokers but randomized controlled trial (RCT) data are lacking. Methods: We conducted a pilot RCT of financial incentives for homeless smokers. Incentive arm participants (N=25) could earn escalating $15-$35 rewards for brief smoking abstinence (exhaled carbon monoxide <8 parts per million) assessed 14 times over 8 weeks...
August 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042800/postpartum-airway-responsiveness-and-exacerbation-of-asthma-during-pregnancy-a-pilot-study
#14
Zarqa Ali, Lisbeth Nilas, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
BACKGROUND: Airway responsiveness and inflammation are associated with the clinical manifestations of asthma and the response to pharmacological therapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if airway responsiveness and inflammatory characteristics are related to asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In women with asthma who were prescribed controller medication and monitored closely during pregnancy, the risk of exacerbations was analyzed in relation to postpartum measures of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), skin prick test reactivity, static and dynamic lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, bronchial responsiveness to inhaled mannitol, and inflammatory characteristics in induced sputum...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038512/levels-of-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-measured-during-an-intervention-program-predict-1-year-smoking-cessation-a-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#15
Huei-Guan Shie, Sheng-Wei Pan, Wen-Kuang Yu, Wei-Chih Chen, Li-Ing Ho, Hsin-Kuo Ko
Life-long smoking cessation is a critical public health objective, but it is difficult for numerous people. This study aimed to identify the independent predictors of 1-year abstinence in smokers motivated to quit and participating in an intervention program. This 6-year retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in smokers who participated in an intervention program. The exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) was sequentially measured on day 1, 8, 15, and 22 of the intervention program. The primary outcome measure was smoking status at 1 year of follow-up...
October 16, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949766/methane-fuel-or-exhaust-at-the-emergence-of-life
#16
Michael J Russell, Wolfgang Nitschke
As many of the methanogens first encountered at hydrothermal vents were thermophilic to hyperthermophilic and comprised one of the lower roots of the evolutionary tree, it has been assumed that methanogenesis was one of the earliest, if not the earliest, pathway to life. It being well known that hydrothermal springs associated with serpentinization also bore abiotic methane, it had been further assumed that emergent biochemistry merely adopted and quickened this supposed serpentinization reaction. Yet, recent hydrothermal experiments simulating serpentinization have failed to generate methane so far, thus casting doubt on this assumption...
October 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944278/smoking-behavior-and-smoke-constituents-from-cigarillos-and-little-cigars
#17
Bartosz Koszowski, Zachary R Rosenberry, Daniel Yi, Sean Stewart, Wallace B Pickworth
OBJECTIVE: Although most cigarillos and little cigars smokers also smoke cigarettes (dual use), there are few studies comparing toxicant exposure and smoking behavior in cigars and cigarettes. METHODS: Two groups of dual users smoked their usual brand of cigarette and either a Winchester unflavored little cigar (N = 21) or a Black & Mild cigarillo (N = 23). Acute exposure of nicotine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and puffing topography parameters were collected...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940836/small-airway-involvement-in-the-late-allergic-response-in-asthma
#18
H Stenberg, Z Diamant, J Ankerst, L Bjermer, E Tufvesson
BACKGROUND: Allergy and asthma are closely linked. Inhalation of allergen induces an early allergic response (EAR) within the airways of allergic asthmatic subjects, which is followed by a late allergic response (LAR) in approximately 50% of the subjects. The LAR is defined as a drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) from baseline usually occurring 4-8 hours after exposure and is believed to affect small airways. However, FEV1 is insensitive to changes in small airway physiology...
December 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927489/role-of-exhaled-nasal-nitric-oxide-in-distinguishing-between-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-and-without-nasal-polyps
#19
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) nasal polypsis a global health concern. Several clinical biomarkers, such as inhaled carbon monoxide and exhaled nitric oxide (NO), have been studied to assess the presence and degree of inflammation in the airway mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical application of exhaled nasal NO (nNO) in distinguishing between CRSwNP and CRSsNP in consideration of the atopic status of patients...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831461/the-impact-of-brief-interventions-for-tobacco-cessation-on-patients-awareness-of-cigarette-smoking-as-a-risk-factor-for-chronic-periodontitis
#20
Mario A Bassetti, Renzo G Bassetti, Anton Sculean, Giovanni E Salvi, Michael M Bornstein, Christoph A Ramseier
PURPOSE: To evaluate the awareness of cigarette smoking as a risk factor for chronic periodontitis in patients either undergoing active periodontal treatment (APT) or enrolled in supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comprehensive tobacco use history was collected with a questionnaire in 50 patients before and after APT (test) and in 50 patients (control) enrolled in SPT at the School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern. Carbon monoxide (CO) exhalation levels were measured in both APT and SPT patients...
2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
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