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exhaled carbon monoxide

Ying-Chen Chi, Feng Sha, Paul S F Yip, Jiunn-Liang Chen, Ying-Yeh Chen
BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is deleterious to pregnant women and their unborn children. The prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women is particularly high in many Asian countries where approximately half of the male population smokes. We aim to investigate the efficacy of an intervention based on an expanded Health Belief Model (HBM) incorporating self-efficacy to educate and empower pregnant women to reduce their SHS exposure. METHODS: We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (N = 50 in each arm) comparing the effectiveness of group-based and individual-based interventions with a treatment-as-usual group...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gislene Inoue, Ecinele Francisca Rosa, Elaine Fueta Gomes, Mariana Rocha Guglielmetti, Priscila Corraini, Ricardo Koji Takano, Viviane Lé Ferreira, Giuseppe Alexandre Romito, João Paulo Becker Lotufo, Edinalva Tanajura Cruz Souza, Cláudio Mendes Pannuti
The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Theodore L Wagener, Evan L Floyd, Irina Stepanov, Leslie M Driskill, Summer G Frank, Ellen Meier, Eleanor L Leavens, Alayna P Tackett, Neil Molina, Lurdes Queimado
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
Mikołaj Maga, Maciej K Janik, Agnieszka Wachsmann, Olga Chrząstek-Janik, Mateusz Koziej, Mateusz Bajkowski, Paweł Maga, Katarzyna Tyrak, Krzysztof Wójcik, Iwona Gregorczyk-Maga, Rafał Niżankowski
BACKGROUND: The poor air quality and cigarette smoking are the most important reasons for increased carbon monoxide (CO) level in exhaled air. However, the influence of high air pollution concentration in big cities on the exhaled CO level has not been well studied yet. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of smoking habit and air pollution in the place of living on the level of CO in exhaled air. METHODS: Citizens from two large cities and one small town in Poland were asked to complete a survey disclosing their place of residence, education level, work status and smoking habits...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Research
Damaris J Rohsenow, Rosemarie A Martin, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, Peter M Monti
: Treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) provides an opportunity to use voucher-based treatment for smoking. Nicotine replacement (NRT) could improve outcomes previously observed with vouchers without NRT. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial compared contingent vouchers (CV) for smoking abstinence to noncontingent vouchers (NV), when all received counseling and NRT. Smokers who had not sought smoking treatment (n=340) in residential SUD treatment were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence per exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) after a 5-day smoking reduction period, or vouchers only for breath samples, plus brief advice (four sessions) and 8weeks of NRT...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Alexandra C Reed, Josette G Harris, Ann Olincy
Cognitive deficits and high rates of nicotine dependence are consistently documented in the schizophrenia literature. However, there is currently no consensus about how regular smoking influences cognition in schizophrenia or which cognitive domains are most affected by chronic smoking. Previous studies have also failed to disambiguate the effects of chronic nicotine from those of acute exposure. The current study uses a novel approach to testing nicotine addicted patients at a time-point between acute enhancement and withdrawal and implements the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB) to compare the overall cognitive performance of regular smokers (n=40) and nonsmokers (n=36) with schizophrenia...
September 9, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Ping-Ching Hsu, Renny S Lan, Theodore M Brasky, Catalin Marian, Amrita K Cheema, Habtom W Ressom, Christopher A Loffredo, Wallace B Pickworth, Peter G Shields
BACKGROUND: The use of menthol in cigarettes and marketing is under consideration for regulation by the FDA. However, the effects of menthol on smoking behavior and carcinogen exposure have been inconclusive. We previously reported metabolomic profiling for cigarette smokers, and novelly identified menthol-glucuronide (MG) as the most significant metabolite directly related to smoking. Here, MG is studied in relation to smoking behavior and metabolomic profiles. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 105 smokers who smoked two cigarettes in the laboratory one hour apart...
September 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Masahiko Iwaoka, Takeshi Tsuji
Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result...
2016: Internal Medicine
María T Gonzálvez, José P Espada, Mireia Orgilés, Alexandra Morales, Steve Sussman
In Spain, 44% of 14-18-year-olds have smoked, and 12.5% have smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days. Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances, and can lead to serious addiction in adulthood with adverse consequences to one's health. School plays a relevant role in health promotion and preventing risk behaviors such as tobacco consumption. Despite the fact that some school-based tobacco cessation and prevention interventions prove to be effective for their purposes, there is a lack of understanding as to why these programs succeed or fail...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Paul Enright Md
Measurement of diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), also known as transfer factor, is the second most important pulmonary function test (PFT), after spirometry. Previously available only in hospital-based PFT labs, DLCO testing is now available at outpatient clinics using a portable device. Compared to spirometry tests, assessments with these devices require very little effort. The patient breathes quietly, inhales the test gas, holds the breath for ten seconds, and then exhales. In adult smokers with post-bronchodilator airway obstruction, a low DLCO greatly increases the probability of the emphysema phenotype of COPD due to cigarette smoking, while a normal DLCO makes chronic asthma more likely...
September 2016: Respiratory Investigation
Stephan Bongard, Leif Olson, Motohiro Nakajima, Mustafa al'Absi
BACKGROUND: Risk for smoking relapse may be associated with context-dependent social and behavioral cues. However, lack of research examining the role of trait negative mood such as anger in this relationship and assessment of objective indices related to smoking status (e.g., biochemical measures) may limit existing findings. We examined the roles of trait anger, habitual anger expression behavior, and the situation in which the first incident of smoking lapse following a quit attempt occurs...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Andreas S Lappas, Efstathia M Konstantinidi, Anna S Tzortzi, Chara K Tzavara, Panagiotis K Behrakis
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the immediate respiratory effects of cigar smoking(CS), among young smokers with and without mild asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven young smokers (18-31years old, 29 males, average pack-years = 3.6 ± 2.8) were enrolled. Twenty-two were mild asthmatics(MA-subgroup) and the remaining 25 were otherwise healthy smokers(HS-subgroup). Exhaled carbon monoxide(eCO), multi-frequency respiratory system impedance(Z), resistance(R), reactance(X), frequency-dependence of resistance(fdr = R5Hz - R20Hz), resonant frequency(fres), reactance area(AX) and exhaled nitric oxide(FENO) were measured at the aforementioned sequence, before and immediately after 30 min of CS, or equal session in the smoking area while using a sham cigar(control group)...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Dong-Wook Jeon, Joo-Cheol Shim, Bo-Geum Kong, Jung-Joon Moon, Young-Soo Seo, Sung-Jin Kim, Min-Kyung Oh, Do-Un Jung
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is more common among patients with schizophrenia than it is in the general population. Varenicline, a partial and full agonist at the α4β2 and α7 nicotine acetylcholine receptors, respectively, has been shown to be an effective anti-smoking treatment. This study examined the effects of varenicline treatment on smoking reduction in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Sixty smokers with schizophrenia were recruited and randomized to receive either varenicline or placebo...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Shinae Lee, Hyojung Park
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of auricular acupressure for smoking cessation on male college students. The experimental group (n = 27) received auricular acupressure on specific acupoints for smoking cessation, whereas the control group (n = 26) received sham auricular acupressure on nonspecific acupoints. Participants received 6 weeks of auricular acupressure intervention. For the experimental group, auricular acupressure was applied to the shenmen, lung, subcortex, hunger, stomach, and mouth...
July 18, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Stephanie P Kurti, Allison N Kurti, Sam R Emerson, Richard R Rosenkranz, Joshua R Smith, Craig A Harms, Sara K Rosenkranz
Household air pollution (HAP) contributes to the global burden of disease. Our primary purpose was to determine whether HAP exposure was associated with reduced lung function and respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in Belizean adults and children. Our secondary purpose was to investigate whether lifestyle (physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FV)) is associated with reported symptoms. Belizean adults (n = 67, 19 Male) and children (n = 23, 6 Male) from San Ignacio Belize and surrounding areas participated in this cross-sectional study...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Davide Campagna, Fabio Cibella, Pasquale Caponnetto, Maria Domenica Amaradio, Massimo Caruso, Jaymin B Morjaria, Mario Malerba, Riccardo Polosa
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (EC) use is an emerging behaviour that has been shown to help smokers to reduce cigarette consumption. The aim of this study was to illustrate long-term changes in exhaled breath measurements and respiratory symptoms in smokers invited to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption by switching to ECs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective evaluation of cigarette consumption, fractional nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath (FeNO), exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and symptom scores was performed in a 1-year randomized, controlled trial of 'healthy' smokers receiving 2·4% nicotine, 1·8% nicotine or no nicotine ECs...
August 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Katarzyna A Campbell, Sue Cooper, Samantha J Fahy, Katharine Bowker, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Andy McEwen, Rachel Whitemore, Tim Coleman
BACKGROUND: In the UK, free smoking cessation support is available to pregnant women; only a minority accesses this. 'Opt-out' referrals to stop smoking services (SSS) are recommended by UK guidelines. These involve identifying pregnant smokers using exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and referring them for support unless they object. METHODS: To assess the impact of 'opt-out' referrals for pregnant smokers on SSS uptake and effectiveness, we conducted a 'before-after' service development evaluation...
May 25, 2016: Tobacco Control
Ma'en Obeidat, Xiaoting Ding, Nick Fishbane, Zsuzsanna Hollander, Raymond T Ng, Bruce McManus, Scott J Tebbutt, Bruce E Miller, Stephen Rennard, Peter D Paré, Don D Sin
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is the number one modifiable environmental risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical, epidemiological and increasingly "omics" studies assess or adjust for current smoking status using only self-report, which may be inaccurate. Objective measures such as exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) may also be problematic owing to limitations in the measurements and the relatively short half life of the molecule. In this study, we determined the impact of different case definitions of current cigarette smoking on gene expression in peripheral blood of patients with COPD...
September 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Sophie Yammine, Sylvia Nyilas, Carmen Casaulta, Susanne Schibli, Philipp Latzin, Christiane Sokollik
BACKGROUND: Extraintestinal manifestations are common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whereas pulmonary involvement is considered rare. However, chronic lung diseases begin with subclinical changes of the small airways and often originate in childhood. Pulmonary involvement, particularly of the small airways, can be assessed using novel inert gas washout tests. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center study, 30 children and adolescents (mean age, 14 years; SD, ±2...
August 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Jennifer L Pearson, Sabrina L Smiley, Leslie F Rubin, Andrew Anesetti-Rothermel, Hoda Elmasry, Megan Davis, Teresa DeAtley, Emily Harvey, Thomas Kirchner, David B Abrams
INTRODUCTION: Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within-and between-participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' 'lived experience' of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use...
2016: BMJ Open
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