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exhaled carbon monoxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215785/kinetics-of-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-following-waterpipe-smoking-indoors-and-outdoors
#1
Agnes Juhasz, Dalma Pap, Imre Barta, Orsolya Drozdovszky, Andrea Egresi, Balazs Antus
BACKGROUND: Despite accumulating evidence about its adverse health effects, waterpipe tobacco smoking has become very popular among youth. The aim of this study was to compare smoke exposure and the kinetics of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) between waterpipe and cigarette smokers under different conditions. METHODS: Using a cross-over study design, changes in eCO and urinary cotinine levels were measured in a cohort of 32 healthy university students following sessions of waterpipe smoking indoor and outdoor...
February 16, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199450/association-between-smoking-status-preoperative-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-levels-and-postoperative-surgical-site-infection-in-patients-undergoing-elective-surgery
#2
Margaret B Nolan, David P Martin, Rodney Thompson, Darrell R Schroeder, Andrew C Hanson, David O Warner
Importance: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for many perioperative complications, including surgical site infection (SSI). The duration of abstinence from smoking required to reduce this risk is unknown. Objectives: To evaluate if abstinence from smoking on the day of surgery is associated with a decreased frequency of SSI in patients who smoke cigarettes and to confirm that smoking is significantly independently associated with SSI when adjustment is made for potentially relevant covariates, such as body mass index...
February 15, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103841/a-two-site-two-arm-34-week-double-blind-parallel-group-randomized-controlled-trial-of-reduced-nicotine-cigarettes-in-smokers-with-mood-and-or-anxiety-disorders-trial-design-and-protocol
#3
Sophia I Allen, Jonathan Foulds, Gladys N Pachas, Susan Veldheer, Corinne Cather, Nour Azzouz, Shari Hrabovsky, Ahmad Hameed, Jessica Yingst, Erin Hammett, Jennifer Modesto, Nicolle M Krebs, Junjia Zhu, Jason Liao, Joshua E Muscat, John Richie, A Eden Evins
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can set standards for cigarettes that could include reducing their nicotine content. Such a standard should improve public health without causing unintended serious consequences for sub-populations. This study evaluates the effect of progressive nicotine reduction in cigarettes on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, and psychiatric symptoms in smokers with comorbid mood and/or anxiety disorders using a two-site, two-arm, double-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) in four phases over 34 weeks...
January 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099134/carboxyhemoglobin-the-forgotten-parameter-of-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#4
Douggl G N Bailey, Hans Fuchs, Roland Hentschel
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is influenced by a wide variety of factors, one of which is hemolysis. Serious hyperbilirubinemia may lead to a kernicterus with detrimental neurologic sequelae. Patients suffering from hemolytic disease have a higher risk of developing kernicterus. Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of hemolysis or heme degradation, was described by Sjöstrand in the 1960s. It is transported as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and exhaled through the lungs. We were interested in a potential correlation between COHb and total serum bilirubin (TSB) and the time course of both parameters...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081308/exhaled-carbon-monoxide-is-a-marker-of-heavy-nicotine-dependence
#5
Elif Babaoğlu, Ayşegül Karalezli, Mükremin Er, Hatice Canan Hasanoğlu, Derya Öztuna
BACKGROUND/AIM: Exhaled CO level provides an objective measure of a patient's smoking status. The relationship between CO levels and nicotine dependence is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between exhaled CO levels and nicotine dependence as well as to demonstrate that exhaled CO levels may be used as a marker of nicotine dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred eighty-nine patients (132 females, 157 males) were included in the study...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038794/prognostic-role-of-exhaled-breath-condensate-ph-and-fraction-exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-systemic-sclerosis-related-interstitial-lung-disease
#6
Alfredo Guillen-Del Castillo, Sara Sánchez-Vidaurre, Carmen P Simeón-Aznar, María J Cruz, Vicente Fonollosa-Pla, Xavier Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the major causes of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This study investigated exhaled breath (EB) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) biomarkers in patients with SSc and analyzed their role as a prognostic tool in SSc-related ILD. METHODS: Fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measured in EB, together with pH, nitrite, nitrate and interleukin-6 levels measured in EBC were prospectively analyzed in 35 patients with SSc...
December 27, 2016: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003848/acupuncture-for-smoking-cessation-in-hong-kong-a-prospective-multicenter-observational-study
#7
Ying-Ying Wang, Zhao Liu, Yuan Wu, Ou Zhang, Min Chen, Ling-Ling Huang, Xiu-Qing He, Guan-Yi Wu, Jin-Sheng Yang
This was a prospective multicenter observational study, aiming to explore the effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation in Hong Kong. From March of 2010 to August of 2015, a total of 5202 smokers were recruited based on inclusion criteria and treated with acupuncture for 8 weeks. As a result, 2940 subjects finished the study with a drop-out rate of 43.48%. The self-reported 7-day point abstinence rate was 34.00% in Week 8 and 18.40% in Week 52. The exhaled carbon monoxide level and the number of cigarettes smoked per day were reduced significantly after treatment...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932354/longitudinal-impact-of-smoking-and-smoking-cessation-on-inflammatory-markers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#8
Cecile C King, Megan E Piper, Adam D Gepner, Michael C Fiore, Timothy B Baker, James H Stein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longitudinal changes in 6 inflammatory markers that predict cardiovascular disease events among smokers making a quit attempt and to characterize their cross-sectional associations between smoking and smoking heaviness. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a longitudinal cohort study of contemporary smokers (n=1652), we evaluated (1) independent associations of smoking heaviness markers (exhaled carbon monoxide, cigarettes/d, pack-years) with inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, fibrinogen, urinary F2 isoprostane:creatinine [F2:Cr] ratio, white blood cell [WBC] count, myeloperoxidase) and (2) the effects of smoking cessation and continued smoking on these inflammatory markers after 1 year, among the 888 smokers who made an aided quit attempt as part of a randomized comparative effectiveness trial or standard care...
February 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890648/bupropion-sustained-release-for-pregnant-smokers-a%C3%A2-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Tatiana N Nanovskaya, Cheryl Oncken, Valentina M Fokina, Richard S Feinn, Shannon M Clark, Holly West, Sunil K Jain, Mahmoud S Ahmed, Gary D V Hankins
BACKGROUND: Bupropion is used to treat depression during pregnancy. However, its usefulness as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of bupropion sustained release for smoking cessation during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial. Pregnant women who smoked daily received individualized behavior counseling and were randomly assigned to a 12 week, twice-a-day treatment with 150 mg bupropion sustained release or placebo...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869103/th-17-cytokines-and-interstitial-lung-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis
#10
G Rolla, E Fusaro, S Nicola, C Bucca, C Peroni, S Parisi, M C Cassinis, A Ferraris, F Angelino, E Heffler, M Boita, L Brussino
The two phenotypes of both limited and diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc) have different forms of pulmonary involvement: pulmonary arterial hypertension (limited phenotype) or interstitial lung disease (ILD) (diffuse phenotype). We aimed to investigate whether Th17-related cytokines, as measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in serum were connected to ILD in diffuse SSc patients. We found that for both limited and diffuse SSc, the EBC levels of all cytokines and most of the cytokine serum levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls, while, the EBC levels of Th-17 cytokines and the serum levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were significantly higher in diffuse than in limited SSc...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867468/demonstration-and-quantification-of-the-redistribution-and-oxidation-of-carbon-monoxide-in-the-human-body-by-tracer-analysis
#11
Makoto Sawano
Numerous studies have confirmed the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) gas as a signal transmitter. However, CO is considered an intracellular transmitter, as no studies have demonstrated the redistribution of CO from the blood to tissue cells. Tracer analyses of (13)CO2 production following (13)CO gas inhalation demonstrated that CO is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) in the body and that CO oxidation does not occur in the circulation. However, these results could not clearly demonstrate the redistribution of CO, because oxidation may have occurred in the airway epithelium...
April 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856716/relationship-between-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-endogenous-carbon-monoxide
#12
Masanori Azuma, Kimihiko Murase, Ryo Tachikawa, Satoshi Hamada, Takeshi Matsumoto, Takuma Minami, Morito Inouchi, Kiminobu Tanizawa, Tomohiro Handa, Toru Oga, Michiaki Mishima, Kazuo Chin
: Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) levels are recognized as a surrogate marker for activity of heme oxygenase-1, which is induced by various factors, including hypoxia and oxidative stress. Few reports have evaluated endogenous CO in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Whether OSA more greatly affects exhaled or blood CO is not known. Sixty-nine patients with suspected OSA were prospectively included in this study. Exhaled and blood CO were evaluated at night and morning. Blood and exhaled CO levels were well correlated both at night and morning (r = 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815511/lorcaserin-for-smoking-cessation-and-associated-weight-gain-a-randomized-12-week-clinical-trial
#13
William R Shanahan, Jed E Rose, Alan Glicklich, Scott Stubbe, Matilde Sanchez-Kam
INTRODUCTION: Lorcaserin is a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist approved by the FDA for chronic weight management. Preclinical data suggest that it may also be effective in smoking cessation through modulation of the dopaminergic reward system. METHODS: This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 30 centers in the United States. 603 adult smokers with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5-35 kg/m(2), averaging at least 10 cigarettes/day with no period of abstinence >3 months for the past year were randomized to lorcaserin 10 mg QD, 10 mg BID or placebo; all received standardized smoking cessation counseling weekly...
November 4, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798089/large-cigars-smoking-topography-and-toxicant-exposure
#14
Zachary R Rosenberry, Wallace B Pickworth, Bartosz Koszowski
BACKGROUND: Cigar smoking in the U.S. continues despite decreases in cigarette smoking and increased tobacco control efforts. We compared large cigar and cigarette smoking for use patterns, smoking topography, and toxicant exposure. METHODS: Dual users (n=17, 94% men, 77% African American) smoked ad libitum either their usual cigarette brand or a study large cigar (Phillies Blunt) in two laboratory sessions. Plasma nicotine and exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) were collected before and after smoking...
October 25, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776679/association-between-utilization-of-quitline-services-and-probability-of-tobacco-abstinence-in-low-income-smokers
#15
Steven L Bernstein, June-Marie Weiss, Benjamin Toll, Susan M Zbikowski
INTRODUCTION: Quitlines (QL) are an effective means for smoking cessation, but a paucity of data exist examining the dose-response relationship between use of QL services and quit rates, especially among low-income smokers. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between tobacco abstinence and use of QL services among low-income smokers. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial of every- or some-day smokers aged 18 years or older visiting an urban emergency department...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754352/antenatal-clinic-and-stop-smoking-services-staff-views-on-opt-out-referrals-for-smoking-cessation-in-pregnancy-a-framework-analysis
#16
Katarzyna Anna Campbell, Katharine Anna Bowker, Felix Naughton, Melanie Sloan, Sue Cooper, Tim Coleman
Introduction: UK guidance recommends routine exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) screening for pregnant women and "opt-out" referrals to stop smoking services (SSS) of those with CO ≥ 4 ppm. We explored staff views on this referral pathway when implemented in one UK hospital Trust. Methods: Seventeen semi-structured interviews with staff involved in the implementation of the new referral pathway: six antenatal clinic staff (before and after implementation); five SSS staff (after). Data were analyzed using framework analysis...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749578/randomized-comparison-of-group-versus-individual-educational-interventions-for-pregnant-women-to-reduce-their-secondhand-smoke-exposure
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ying-Chen Chi, Feng Sha, Paul S F Yip, Jiunn-Liang Chen, Ying-Yeh Chen
BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is deleterious to pregnant women and their unborn children. The prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women is particularly high in many Asian countries where approximately half of the male population smokes. We aim to investigate the efficacy of an intervention based on an expanded Health Belief Model (HBM) incorporating self-efficacy to educate and empower pregnant women to reduce their SHS exposure. METHODS: We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (N = 50 in each arm) comparing the effectiveness of group-based and individual-based interventions with a treatment-as-usual group...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737354/predictors-of-smoking-cessation-in-smokers-with-chronic-periodontitis-a-24-month-study
#18
Gislene Inoue, Ecinele Francisca Rosa, Elaine Fueta Gomes, Mariana Rocha Guglielmetti, Priscila Corraini, Ricardo Koji Takano, Viviane Lé Ferreira, Giuseppe Alexandre Romito, João Paulo Becker Lotufo, Edinalva Tanajura Cruz Souza, Cláudio Mendes Pannuti
The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729564/have-combustible-cigarettes-met-their-match-the-nicotine-delivery-profiles-and-harmful-constituent-exposures-of-second-generation-and-third-generation-electronic-cigarette-users
#19
Theodore L Wagener, Evan L Floyd, Irina Stepanov, Leslie M Driskill, Summer G Frank, Ellen Meier, Eleanor L Leavens, Alayna P Tackett, Neil Molina, Lurdes Queimado
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712837/influence-of-air-pollution-on-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-levels-in-smokers-and-non-smokers-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#20
Mikołaj Maga, Maciej K Janik, Agnieszka Wachsmann, Olga Chrząstek-Janik, Mateusz Koziej, Mateusz Bajkowski, Paweł Maga, Katarzyna Tyrak, Krzysztof Wójcik, Iwona Gregorczyk-Maga, Rafał Niżankowski
BACKGROUND: The poor air quality and cigarette smoking are the most important reasons for increased carbon monoxide (CO) level in exhaled air. However, the influence of high air pollution concentration in big cities on the exhaled CO level has not been well studied yet. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of smoking habit and air pollution in the place of living on the level of CO in exhaled air. METHODS: Citizens from two large cities and one small town in Poland were asked to complete a survey disclosing their place of residence, education level, work status and smoking habits...
January 2017: Environmental Research
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