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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890648/bupropion-sustained-release-for-pregnant-smokers-a%C3%A2-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Tatiana N Nanovskaya, Cheryl Oncken, Valentina M Fokina, Richard S Feinn, Shannon M Clark, Holly West, Sunil K Jain, Mahmoud S Ahmed, Gary D V Hankins
BACKGROUND: Bupropion is used to treat depression during pregnancy. However, its usefulness as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of bupropion sustained release for smoking cessation during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial. Pregnant women who smoked daily received individualized behavior counseling and were randomly assigned to a 12 week, twice-a-day treatment with 150 mg bupropion sustained release or placebo...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869103/th-17-cytokines-and-interstitial-lung-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis
#2
G Rolla, E Fusaro, S Nicola, C Bucca, C Peroni, S Parisi, M C Cassinis, A Ferraris, F Angelino, E Heffler, M Boita, L Brussino
The two phenotypes of both limited and diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc) have different forms of pulmonary involvement: pulmonary arterial hypertension (limited phenotype) or interstitial lung disease (ILD) (diffuse phenotype). We aimed to investigate whether Th17-related cytokines, as measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in serum were connected to ILD in diffuse SSc patients. We found that for both limited and diffuse SSc, the EBC levels of all cytokines and most of the cytokine serum levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls, while, the EBC levels of Th-17 cytokines and the serum levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were significantly higher in diffuse than in limited SSc...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867468/demonstration-and-quantification-of-the-redistribution-and-oxidation-of-carbon-monoxide-in-the-human-body-by-tracer-analysis
#3
Makoto Sawano
Numerous studies have confirmed the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) gas as a signal transmitter. However, CO is considered an intracellular transmitter, as no studies have demonstrated the redistribution of CO from the blood to tissue cells. Tracer analyses of (13)CO2 production following (13)CO gas inhalation demonstrated that CO is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) in the body and that CO oxidation does not occur in the circulation. However, these results could not clearly demonstrate the redistribution of CO, because oxidation may have occurred in the airway epithelium...
April 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856716/relationship-between-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-endogenous-carbon-monoxide
#4
Masanori Azuma, Kimihiko Murase, Ryo Tachikawa, Satoshi Hamada, Takeshi Matsumoto, Takuma Minami, Morito Inouchi, Kiminobu Tanizawa, Tomohiro Handa, Toru Oga, Michiaki Mishima, Kazuo Chin
Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) levels are recognized as a surrogate marker for activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is induced by various factors including hypoxia and oxidative stress. Few reports have evaluated endogenous CO in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Whether exhaled or blood CO is more reflected by OSA is not known. Sixty-nine patients with suspected OSA were prospectively included in this study. Exhaled and blood CO were evaluated at night and morning. Blood and exhaled CO levels were well correlated both at night and morning (r=0...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815511/lorcaserin-for-smoking-cessation-and-associated-weight-gain-a-randomized-12-week-clinical-trial
#5
William R Shanahan, Jed E Rose, Alan Glicklich, Scott Stubbe, Matilde Sanchez-Kam
INTRODUCTION: Lorcaserin is a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist approved by the FDA for chronic weight management. Preclinical data suggest that it may also be effective in smoking cessation through modulation of the dopaminergic reward system. METHODS: This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 30 centers in the United States. 603 adult smokers with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5-35 kg/m(2), averaging at least 10 cigarettes/day with no period of abstinence >3 months for the past year were randomized to lorcaserin 10 mg QD, 10 mg BID or placebo; all received standardized smoking cessation counseling weekly...
November 4, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798089/large-cigars-smoking-topography-and-toxicant-exposure
#6
Zachary R Rosenberry, Wallace B Pickworth, Bartosz Koszowski
BACKGROUND: Cigar smoking in the U.S. continues despite decreases in cigarette smoking and increased tobacco control efforts. We compared large cigar and cigarette smoking for use patterns, smoking topography, and toxicant exposure. METHODS: Dual users (n=17, 94% men, 77% African American) smoked ad libitum either their usual cigarette brand or a study large cigar (Phillies Blunt) in two laboratory sessions. Plasma nicotine and exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) were collected before and after smoking...
October 25, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776679/association-between-utilization-of-quitline-services-and-probability-of-tobacco-abstinence-in-low-income-smokers
#7
Steven L Bernstein, June-Marie Weiss, Benjamin Toll, Susan M Zbikowski
INTRODUCTION: Quitlines (QL) are an effective means for smoking cessation, but a paucity of data exist examining the dose-response relationship between use of QL services and quit rates, especially among low-income smokers. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between tobacco abstinence and use of QL services among low-income smokers. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial of every- or some-day smokers aged 18 years or older visiting an urban emergency department...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754352/antenatal-clinic-and-stop-smoking-services-staff-views-on-opt-out-referrals-for-smoking-cessation-in-pregnancy-a-framework-analysis
#8
Katarzyna Anna Campbell, Katharine Anna Bowker, Felix Naughton, Melanie Sloan, Sue Cooper, Tim Coleman
Introduction: UK guidance recommends routine exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) screening for pregnant women and "opt-out" referrals to stop smoking services (SSS) of those with CO ≥ 4 ppm. We explored staff views on this referral pathway when implemented in one UK hospital Trust. Methods: Seventeen semi-structured interviews with staff involved in the implementation of the new referral pathway: six antenatal clinic staff (before and after implementation); five SSS staff (after). Data were analyzed using framework analysis...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749578/randomized-comparison-of-group-versus-individual-educational-interventions-for-pregnant-women-to-reduce-their-secondhand-smoke-exposure
#9
Ying-Chen Chi, Feng Sha, Paul S F Yip, Jiunn-Liang Chen, Ying-Yeh Chen
BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is deleterious to pregnant women and their unborn children. The prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women is particularly high in many Asian countries where approximately half of the male population smokes. We aim to investigate the efficacy of an intervention based on an expanded Health Belief Model (HBM) incorporating self-efficacy to educate and empower pregnant women to reduce their SHS exposure. METHODS: We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (N = 50 in each arm) comparing the effectiveness of group-based and individual-based interventions with a treatment-as-usual group...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737354/predictors-of-smoking-cessation-in-smokers-with-chronic-periodontitis-a-24-month-study
#10
Gislene Inoue, Ecinele Francisca Rosa, Elaine Fueta Gomes, Mariana Rocha Guglielmetti, Priscila Corraini, Ricardo Koji Takano, Viviane Lé Ferreira, Giuseppe Alexandre Romito, João Paulo Becker Lotufo, Edinalva Tanajura Cruz Souza, Cláudio Mendes Pannuti
The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729564/have-combustible-cigarettes-met-their-match-the-nicotine-delivery-profiles-and-harmful-constituent-exposures-of-second-generation-and-third-generation-electronic-cigarette-users
#11
Theodore L Wagener, Evan L Floyd, Irina Stepanov, Leslie M Driskill, Summer G Frank, Ellen Meier, Eleanor L Leavens, Alayna P Tackett, Neil Molina, Lurdes Queimado
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712837/influence-of-air-pollution-on-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-levels-in-smokers-and-non-smokers-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#12
Mikołaj Maga, Maciej K Janik, Agnieszka Wachsmann, Olga Chrząstek-Janik, Mateusz Koziej, Mateusz Bajkowski, Paweł Maga, Katarzyna Tyrak, Krzysztof Wójcik, Iwona Gregorczyk-Maga, Rafał Niżankowski
BACKGROUND: The poor air quality and cigarette smoking are the most important reasons for increased carbon monoxide (CO) level in exhaled air. However, the influence of high air pollution concentration in big cities on the exhaled CO level has not been well studied yet. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of smoking habit and air pollution in the place of living on the level of CO in exhaled air. METHODS: Citizens from two large cities and one small town in Poland were asked to complete a survey disclosing their place of residence, education level, work status and smoking habits...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658756/treating-smokers-in-substance-treatment-with-contingent-vouchers-nicotine-replacement-and-brief-advice-adapted-for-sobriety-settings
#13
Damaris J Rohsenow, Rosemarie A Martin, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, Peter M Monti
: Treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) provides an opportunity to use voucher-based treatment for smoking. Nicotine replacement (NRT) could improve outcomes previously observed with vouchers without NRT. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial compared contingent vouchers (CV) for smoking abstinence to noncontingent vouchers (NV), when all received counseling and NRT. Smokers who had not sought smoking treatment (n=340) in residential SUD treatment were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence per exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) after a 5-day smoking reduction period, or vouchers only for breath samples, plus brief advice (four sessions) and 8weeks of NRT...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639816/schizophrenia-smoking-status-and-performance-on-the-matrics-cognitive-consensus-battery
#14
Alexandra C Reed, Josette G Harris, Ann Olincy
Cognitive deficits and high rates of nicotine dependence are consistently documented in the schizophrenia literature. However, there is currently no consensus about how regular smoking influences cognition in schizophrenia or which cognitive domains are most affected by chronic smoking. Previous studies have also failed to disambiguate the effects of chronic nicotine from those of acute exposure. The current study uses a novel approach to testing nicotine addicted patients at a time-point between acute enhancement and withdrawal and implements the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB) to compare the overall cognitive performance of regular smokers (n=40) and nonsmokers (n=36) with schizophrenia...
September 9, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628308/menthol-smokers-metabolomic-profiling-and-smoking-behavior
#15
Ping-Ching Hsu, Renny S Lan, Theodore M Brasky, Catalin Marian, Amrita K Cheema, Habtom W Ressom, Christopher A Loffredo, Wallace B Pickworth, Peter G Shields
BACKGROUND: The use of menthol in cigarettes and marketing is under consideration for regulation by the FDA. However, the effects of menthol on smoking behavior and carcinogen exposure have been inconclusive. We previously reported metabolomic profiling for cigarette smokers, and novelly identified menthol-glucuronide (MG) as the most significant metabolite directly related to smoking. Here, MG is studied in relation to smoking behavior and metabolomic profiles. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 105 smokers who smoked two cigarettes in the laboratory one hour apart...
September 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580538/twelve-weeks-of-successful-smoking-cessation-therapy-with-varenicline-reduces-spirometric-lung-age
#16
Masahiko Iwaoka, Takeshi Tsuji
Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570514/nicotine-dependence-as-a-mediator-of-project-ex-s-effects-to-reduce-tobacco-use-in-scholars
#17
María T Gonzálvez, José P Espada, Mireia Orgilés, Alexandra Morales, Steve Sussman
In Spain, 44% of 14-18-year-olds have smoked, and 12.5% have smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days. Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances, and can lead to serious addiction in adulthood with adverse consequences to one's health. School plays a relevant role in health promotion and preventing risk behaviors such as tobacco consumption. Despite the fact that some school-based tobacco cessation and prevention interventions prove to be effective for their purposes, there is a lack of understanding as to why these programs succeed or fail...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566377/office-based-dlco-tests-help-pulmonologists-to-make-important-clinical-decisions
#18
REVIEW
Paul Enright Md
Measurement of diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), also known as transfer factor, is the second most important pulmonary function test (PFT), after spirometry. Previously available only in hospital-based PFT labs, DLCO testing is now available at outpatient clinics using a portable device. Compared to spirometry tests, assessments with these devices require very little effort. The patient breathes quietly, inhales the test gas, holds the breath for ten seconds, and then exhales. In adult smokers with post-bronchodilator airway obstruction, a low DLCO greatly increases the probability of the emphysema phenotype of COPD due to cigarette smoking, while a normal DLCO makes chronic asthma more likely...
September 2016: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556871/anger-expression-style-predicts-the-domain-of-the-first-smoking-relapse-after-a-quit-attempt
#19
Stephan Bongard, Leif Olson, Motohiro Nakajima, Mustafa al'Absi
BACKGROUND: Risk for smoking relapse may be associated with context-dependent social and behavioral cues. However, lack of research examining the role of trait negative mood such as anger in this relationship and assessment of objective indices related to smoking status (e.g., biochemical measures) may limit existing findings. We examined the roles of trait anger, habitual anger expression behavior, and the situation in which the first incident of smoking lapse following a quit attempt occurs...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547175/immediate-effects-of-cigar-smoking-on-respiratory-mechanics-and-exhaled-biomarkers-differences-between-young-smokers-with-mild-asthma-and-otherwise-healthy-young-smokers
#20
Andreas S Lappas, Efstathia M Konstantinidi, Anna S Tzortzi, Chara K Tzavara, Panagiotis K Behrakis
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the immediate respiratory effects of cigar smoking(CS), among young smokers with and without mild asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven young smokers (18-31years old, 29 males, average pack-years = 3.6 ± 2.8) were enrolled. Twenty-two were mild asthmatics(MA-subgroup) and the remaining 25 were otherwise healthy smokers(HS-subgroup). Exhaled carbon monoxide(eCO), multi-frequency respiratory system impedance(Z), resistance(R), reactance(X), frequency-dependence of resistance(fdr = R5Hz - R20Hz), resonant frequency(fres), reactance area(AX) and exhaled nitric oxide(FENO) were measured at the aforementioned sequence, before and immediately after 30 min of CS, or equal session in the smoking area while using a sham cigar(control group)...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
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