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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149738/associations-of-urinary-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-metabolites-with-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Yun Zhou, Yuewei Liu, Huizhen Sun, Jixuan Ma, Lili Xiao, Limin Cao, Wei Li, Bin Wang, Jing Yuan, Weihong Chen
Exposure to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with inflammatory responses. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) are both important inflammatory mediators especially in airways. However, few studies have investigated associations of PAH exposures with FeNO or eCO. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the associations of urinary PAH metabolites with FeNO and eCO levels, and investigate their potential effect modifiers by linear mixed models among 4133 participants from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort in China...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128712/the-impact-of-a-brief-cessation-induction-intervention-for-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Eleanor L S Leavens, Ellen Meier, Alayna P Tackett, Mary Beth Miller, Noor N Tahirkheli, Emma I Brett, Dana M Carroll, Leslie M Driskill, Michael P Anderson, Theodore L Wagener
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe (WP) tobacco smoking delivers many of the same harmful toxicants as cigarette smoking and is on the rise in the US. This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a brief personalized feedback intervention in affecting changes in WP smoking among current WP smokers. METHODS: Participants (N=109) were recruited as they entered WP lounges and completed a questionnaire and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) testing before entering the WP lounge...
October 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100550/effects-of-a-liquefied-petroleum-gas-stove-intervention-on-pollutant-exposure-and-adult-cardiopulmonary-outcomes-chap-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Magdalena Fandiño-Del-Rio, Dina Goodman, Josiah L Kephart, Catherine H Miele, Kendra N Williams, Mitra Moazzami, Elizabeth C Fung, Kirsten Koehler, Victor G Davila-Roman, Kathryn A Lee, Saachi Nangia, Steven A Harvey, Kyle Steenland, Gustavo F Gonzales, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Biomass fuel smoke is a leading risk factor for the burden of disease worldwide. International campaigns are promoting the widespread adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in resource-limited settings. However, it is unclear if the introduction and use of LPG stoves, in settings where biomass fuels are used daily, reduces pollution concentration exposure, improves health outcomes, or how cultural and social barriers influence the exclusive adoption of LPG stoves. METHODS: We will conduct a randomized controlled, field intervention trial of LPG stoves and fuel distribution in rural Puno, Peru, in which we will enroll 180 female participants aged 25-64 years and follow them for 2 years...
November 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074319/mobile-technology-for-treatment-augmentation-in-veteran-smokers-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Ellen Herbst, David Pennington, Eric Kuhn, Shannon E McCaslin, Kevin Delucchi, Steven L Batki, Benjamin Dickter, Timothy Carmody
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of incorporating a mobile application, Stay Quit Coach, into an integrated care smoking-cessation treatment protocol for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Participants included veteran smokers aged 18-69 years with PTSD. The integrated care protocol includes eight weekly PTSD-informed cognitive behavioral therapy sessions for smoking cessation, followed by monthly booster sessions and a prescription for standard smoking-cessation medications if desired...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065199/prevalence-and-correlates-of-smoking-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#5
Jessica L Elf, Ebrahim Variava, Sandy Chon, Limakatso Lebina, Katlego Motlhaoleng, Nikhil Gupte, Raymond Niaura, David Abrams, Jonathan E Golub, Neil Martinson
Introduction: Smoking likely exacerbates comorbidities which people living with HIV (PLWH) are predisposed. We assessed prevalence and correlates of smoking among PLWH in South Africa, which has 7 million PLWH but inadequate reporting of smoking. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected adults with HIV infection in Klerksdorp, South Africa. Current smoking was assessed by questionnaire, exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO), and urine cotinine...
June 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059442/financial-incentives-for-smoking-abstinence-in-homeless-smokers-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Travis P Baggett, Yuchiao Chang, Awesta Yaqubi, Claire McGlave, Stephen T Higgins, Nancy A Rigotti
Introduction: Three-quarters of homeless people smoke cigarettes. Financial incentives for smoking abstinence have appeared promising in non-experimental studies of homeless smokers but randomized controlled trial (RCT) data are lacking. Methods: We conducted a pilot RCT of financial incentives for homeless smokers. Incentive arm participants (N=25) could earn escalating $15-$35 rewards for brief smoking abstinence (exhaled carbon monoxide <8 parts per million) assessed 14 times over 8 weeks...
August 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042800/postpartum-airway-responsiveness-and-exacerbation-of-asthma-during-pregnancy-a-pilot-study
#7
Zarqa Ali, Lisbeth Nilas, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
BACKGROUND: Airway responsiveness and inflammation are associated with the clinical manifestations of asthma and the response to pharmacological therapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if airway responsiveness and inflammatory characteristics are related to asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In women with asthma who were prescribed controller medication and monitored closely during pregnancy, the risk of exacerbations was analyzed in relation to postpartum measures of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), skin prick test reactivity, static and dynamic lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, bronchial responsiveness to inhaled mannitol, and inflammatory characteristics in induced sputum...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038512/levels-of-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-measured-during-an-intervention-program-predict-1-year-smoking-cessation-a-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#8
Huei-Guan Shie, Sheng-Wei Pan, Wen-Kuang Yu, Wei-Chih Chen, Li-Ing Ho, Hsin-Kuo Ko
Life-long smoking cessation is a critical public health objective, but it is difficult for numerous people. This study aimed to identify the independent predictors of 1-year abstinence in smokers motivated to quit and participating in an intervention program. This 6-year retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in smokers who participated in an intervention program. The exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) was sequentially measured on day 1, 8, 15, and 22 of the intervention program. The primary outcome measure was smoking status at 1 year of follow-up...
October 16, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949766/methane-fuel-or-exhaust-at-the-emergence-of-life
#9
Michael J Russell, Wolfgang Nitschke
As many of the methanogens first encountered at hydrothermal vents were thermophilic to hyperthermophilic and comprised one of the lower roots of the evolutionary tree, it has been assumed that methanogenesis was one of the earliest, if not the earliest, pathway to life. It being well known that hydrothermal springs associated with serpentinization also bore abiotic methane, it had been further assumed that emergent biochemistry merely adopted and quickened this supposed serpentinization reaction. Yet, recent hydrothermal experiments simulating serpentinization have failed to generate methane so far, thus casting doubt on this assumption...
October 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944278/smoking-behavior-and-smoke-constituents-from-cigarillos-and-little-cigars
#10
Bartosz Koszowski, Zachary R Rosenberry, Daniel Yi, Sean Stewart, Wallace B Pickworth
OBJECTIVE: Although most cigarillos and little cigars smokers also smoke cigarettes (dual use), there are few studies comparing toxicant exposure and smoking behavior in cigars and cigarettes. METHODS: Two groups of dual users smoked their usual brand of cigarette and either a Winchester unflavored little cigar (N = 21) or a Black & Mild cigarillo (N = 23). Acute exposure of nicotine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and puffing topography parameters were collected...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940836/small-airway-involvement-in-the-late-allergic-response-in-asthma
#11
Henning Stenberg, Zuzana Diamant, Jaro Ankerst, Leif Bjermer, Ellen Tufvesson
BACKGROUND: Allergy and asthma are closely linked. Inhalation of allergen induces an early allergic response (EAR) within the airways of allergic asthmatic subjects, which is followed by a late allergic response (LAR) in approximately 50% of the subjects. The LAR is defined as a drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) from baseline usually occurring 4-8 h after exposure, and is believed to affect small airways. However, FEV1 is insensitive to changes in small airway physiology...
September 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927489/role-of-exhaled-nasal-nitric-oxide-in-distinguishing-between-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-and-without-nasal-polyps
#12
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) nasal polypsis a global health concern. Several clinical biomarkers, such as inhaled carbon monoxide and exhaled nitric oxide (NO), have been studied to assess the presence and degree of inflammation in the airway mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical application of exhaled nasal NO (nNO) in distinguishing between CRSwNP and CRSsNP in consideration of the atopic status of patients...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831461/the-impact-of-brief-interventions-for-tobacco-cessation-on-patients-awareness-of-cigarette-smoking-as-a-risk-factor-for-chronic-periodontitis
#13
Mario A Bassetti, Renzo G Bassetti, Anton Sculean, Giovanni E Salvi, Michael M Bornstein, Christoph A Ramseier
PURPOSE: To evaluate the awareness of cigarette smoking as a risk factor for chronic periodontitis in patients either undergoing active periodontal treatment (APT) or enrolled in supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comprehensive tobacco use history was collected with a questionnaire in 50 patients before and after APT (test) and in 50 patients (control) enrolled in SPT at the School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern. Carbon monoxide (CO) exhalation levels were measured in both APT and SPT patients...
2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830420/a-randomised-controlled-two-centre-open-label-study-in-healthy-japanese-subjects-to-evaluate-the-effect-on-biomarkers-of-exposure-of-switching-from-a-conventional-cigarette-to-a-tobacco-heating-product
#14
Nathan Gale, Mike McEwan, Alison C Eldridge, Neil Sherwood, Edward Bowen, Simon McDermott, Emma Holmes, Andrew Hedge, Stuart Hossack, Oscar M Camacho, Graham Errington, John McAughey, James Murphy, Chuan Liu, Christopher J Proctor, Ian M Fearon
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of numerous human disorders including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The development of modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) has been suggested as a possible way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking by reducing exposure to cigarette smoke toxicants. This study is designed to investigate whether biomarkers of such exposure are reduced when smokers switch from smoking commercial cigarettes to using either a novel or a commercially-available tobacco heating product (THP)...
August 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807985/inhaled-carbon-monoxide-from-toxin-to-therapy
#15
Dean R Hess
Carbon monoxide (CO) is usually recognized as a toxic gas that can be used to assess lung function in the pulmonary function laboratory. The toxicity of CO relates to its high affinity for hemoglobin and other heme molecules, producing carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO). Despite that blood HbCO levels are commonly measured in patients with CO poisoning, the clinical presentation often does not correlate with the HbCO level, and clinical improvement in the patient's condition does not correlate with HbCO clearance. In patients with CO poisoning, administration of 100% O2 is standard practice...
October 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748646/small-airway-dysfunction-in-chronic-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis
#16
Selene Guerrero Zúñiga, Julia Sánchez Hernández, Heidegger Mateos Toledo, Mayra Mejía Ávila, Laura Gochicoa-Rangel, José Luis Miguel Reyes, Moisés Selman, Luis Torre-Bouscoulet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lung biopsies from patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) have demonstrated small airway (SA) involvement, but there is no information concerning SA function in HP, and it is unknown whether pharmacological treatment could modify its function. SA function in patients with chronic HP using ultrasonic pneumography (UPG) and impulse oscillometry (IOS) was explored. We also compared initial results with those obtained after 4 weeks of standardized treatment with azathioprine and prednisone...
November 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636794/differences-and-similarities-between-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-asthma-in-schoolchildren
#17
Björn Nordlund, Anna James, Christina Ebersjö, Gunilla Hedlin, Eva B Broström
BACKGROUND: The long-term respiratory characteristics of ex-preterm children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are not established. The objective of this study was to describe hallmarks of BPD at school age in comparison to children with atopic asthma. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive comparative study in a hospital-based setting. Thirty schoolchildren diagnosed with BPD (10.4 years/born at 26.6 weeks' gestation) and 30 age- and sex-matched children with asthma and sensitized to airborne allergens (IgE >0...
September 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631618/exhaled-carbon-monoxide-is-correlated-with-ischemia-reperfusion-injuries-during-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-in-pigs
#18
Maxime Maignan, Stéphane Gennai, Guillaume Debaty, Daniele Romanini, Marie Hélène Schmidt, Vivien Brenckmann, Angélique Brouta, Irène Ventrillard, Raphael Briot
Measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) might help in the selection of lung grafts during ex vivo lung perfusion since its endogenous production is increased under ischemia reperfusion. The objective of this study was to measure eCO variations depending on the extent of lung ischemia reperfusion injuries. Using a porcine model and a laser spectrometer instrument, eCO was measured during ex vivo lung perfusion. eCO was compared after 30 min (D0) or 24 h (D1) of cold ischemia. The ability of eCO to distinguish lungs deemed suitable for transplantation was evaluated...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582531/biomarkers-of-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-waterpipe-tobacco-venue-employees-in-istanbul-moscow-and-cairo
#19
Katherine A Moon, Ana M Rule, Hoda S Magid, Jacqueline Ferguson, Jolie Susan, Zhuolu Sun, Christine Torrey, Salahaddin Abubaker, Vladimir Levshin, Asli Çarkoglu, Ghada Nasr Radwan, Maha El-Rabbat, Joanna E Cohen, Paul Strickland, Patrick N Breysse, Ana Navas-Acien
Background: Most smoke-free legislation to reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure exempts waterpipe (hookah) smoking venues. Few studies have examined SHS exposure in waterpipe venues and their employees. Methods: We surveyed 276 employees of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo. We interviewed venue managers and employees and collected biological samples from employees to measure exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), hair nicotine, saliva cotinine, urine cotinine, urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and urine 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG)...
June 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569519/concurrent-varenicline-and-prolonged-exposure-for-patients-with-nicotine-dependence-and-ptsd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Edna B Foa, Anu Asnaani, David Rosenfield, Laurie J Zandberg, Peter Gariti, Patricia Imms
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of smoking among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is disproportionately high, and PTSD is associated with especially poor response to smoking cessation treatment. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether integrating treatments for smoking cessation (varenicline plus smoking cessation counseling; VARCC) and PTSD (prolonged exposure therapy; PE) enhances smoking outcomes among smokers diagnosed with PTSD. METHOD: 142 adults with nicotine dependence (ND) and PTSD were randomized to a treatment program consisting of varenicline, smoking cessation counseling, and PE (VARCC + PE) or to VARCC only...
September 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
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