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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134525/toxicities-and-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-of-the-six-most-consumed-fish-from-the-marmara-sea
#1
Ayla Güngör, Derya Kara
Bream, anchovy, horse mackerel, sea bass, sardine, and whiting that are commonly consumed by the Turkish community were collected from the Marmara Sea in September and March and were analyzed for trace elements and for fat content. The total concentrations of some metals in these fish were determined using ICP-MS in acid extracts obtained after microwave digestion. The seasonal fat contents of the fish samples were determined gravimetrically following a Soxhlet extraction method. Experimental results were evaluated statistically using t tests and principal component analyses...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127263/coalescent-processes-with-skewed-offspring-distributions-and-non-equilibrium-demography
#2
Sebastian Matuszewski, Marcel E Hildebrandt, Guillaume Achaz, Jeffrey D Jensen
Non-equilibrium demography impacts coalescent genealogies leaving detectable, well-studied signatures of variation. However, similar genomic footprints are also expected under models of large reproductive skew, posing a serious problem when trying to make inference. Furthermore, current approaches consider only one of the two processes at a time, neglecting any genomic signal that could arise from their simultaneous effects, preventing the possibility of jointly inferring parameters relating to both offspring distribution and population history...
November 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125626/impact-of-air-frying-on-cholesterol-and-fatty-acids-oxidation-in-sardines-protective-effects-of-aromatic-herbs
#3
Fernanda S Ferreira, Geni R Sampaio, Laura M Keller, Alexandra C H F Sawaya, Davy W H Chávez, Elizabeth A F S Torres, Tatiana Saldanha
The high temperatures used to fry fish may induce thermo-oxidation of cholesterol, forming cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). COPs have been associated to coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Air fryers are an alternative thermal process technology to fry foods without oil, and are considered a healthier cooking method. This study is the 1st to evaluate the formation of COPs and the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in air-fried sardine fillets. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of fresh herbs added as natural antioxidants to sardines subjected to air frying...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120801/sardine-sardina-pilchardus-lipid-composition-does-it-change-after-one-year-in-captivity
#4
Narcisa Maria Bandarra, Ana Marçalo, Ana Rita Cordeiro, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira
Atlantic sardines (Sardina pilchardus) captured in the Portuguese mainland coast and maintained in captivity for one year feeding on artificial diet showed significant differences in muscle total lipids (TL) content in relation to wild fish (25% after one year compared to 14% in wild). Captive sardines had higher percentage of non-polar lipids (NPL) in their muscle, presented higher levels of 18:1n-9 and lower of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in NPL than those observed in wild fish. TL in the liver were not significantly different between captive and wild fish, but the NPL fraction of captive sardines presented higher levels of 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 than those registered in the wild...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985372/evaluation-of-the-activity-of-gamma-emitting-natural-radionuclides-in-seafood-and-estimation-of-the-annual-effective-dose-for-different-age-groups-in-ksa
#5
Dalal A Aloraini, Gharam A Alharshan, Aljawharah H Almuqrin, Hanan Al-Ghamdi, Khaled M El-Azony
Twenty-six brands of canned tuna and sardines imported from several countries in Southeast Asia to consume in the KSA. All samples were prepared and analyzed by using a High Pure Germanium Detector of 40% efficiency. Natural radionuclides 40K, 238U (226Ra) and 232Th(228Ra) series were observed with a varying range in all analyzed samples. The values found to be 192.3 ± 14.6, 1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.0 ± 0.6 Bq kg-1 for canned tuna and 219.8 ± 15.8, 0.37 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.3 Bq kg-1 for canned sardines, respectively...
July 14, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948709/phenological-and-distributional-shifts-in-ichthyoplankton-associated-with-recent-warming-in-the-northeast-pacific-ocean
#6
Toby D Auth, Elizabeth A Daly, Richard D Brodeur, Jennifer L Fisher
Understanding changes in the migratory and reproductive phenology of fish stocks in relation to climate change is critical for accurate ecosystem-based fisheries management. Relocation and changes in timing of reproduction can have dramatic effects upon the success of fish populations and throughout the food web. During anomalously warm conditions (1-4°C above normal) in the northeast Pacific Ocean during 2015-2016, we documented shifts in timing and spawning location of several pelagic fish stocks based on larval fish samples...
September 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946698/immobilization-of-moniliella-spathulata-r25l270-lipase-on-ionic-hydrophobic-and-covalent-supports-functional-properties-and-hydrolysis-of-sardine-oil
#7
Lívia T de A Souza, Sonia Moreno-Perez, Gloria Fernández Lorente, Eliane P Cipolatti, Débora de Oliveira, Rodrigo R Resende, Benevides C Pessela
The oleaginous yeast Moniliella spathulata R25L270 was the first yeast able to grow and produce extracellular lipase using Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeate) cake as substrate. The novel lipase was recently identified, and presented promising features for biotechnological applications. The M. spathulata R25L270 lipase efficiently hydrolyzed vegetable and animal oils, and showed selectivity for generating cis-5,8,11,15,17-eicosapentaenoic acid from sardine oil. The enzyme can act in a wide range of temperatures (25-48 °C) and pH (6...
September 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946274/a-lumped-model-of-the-lipase-catalyzed-hydrolysis-of-sardine-oil-to-maximize-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-content-in-acylglycerols
#8
R Morales-Medina, M Munio, A Guadix, E M Guadix, F Camacho
The aim of this work was to produce diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Rhizomucor miehei lipase mediated-hydrolysis of sardine oil was conducted at several water activities. The system was mechanistically modeled to predict the time evolution of the concentration of triacylglycerols, DAG, MAG and free fatty acids (FFA) and the concentration of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The release of the first fatty acid from the triacylglycerol was independent on the unsaturation degree...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924085/an-improved-enzymatic-indirect-method-for-simultaneous-determinations-of-3-mcpd-esters-and-glycidyl-esters-in-fish-oils
#9
Kinuko Miyazaki, Kazuo Koyama
The enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-Es) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (Gly-Es) make use of lipase from Candida cylindracea (previously referred to as C. rugosa). Because of low substrate specificity of the lipase for esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fish oils high in PUFAs are currently excluded from the range of application of the method. The objective of this study was to make the enzymatic indirect method applicable to fats and oils containing PUFAs...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912799/triportheus-albus-cope-1872-in-the-blackwater-clearwater-and-whitewater-of-the-amazon-a-case-of-phenotypic-plasticity
#10
José D A Araújo, Andrea Ghelfi, Adalberto L Val
The Amazon basin includes 1000s of bodies of water, that are sorted according to their color in three types: blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater, which significantly differ in terms of their physicochemical parameters. More than 3,000 species of fish live in the rivers of the Amazon, among them, the sardine, Triportheus albus, which is one of the few species that inhabit all three types of water. The purpose of our study was to analyze if the gene expression of T. albus is determined by the different types of water, that is, if the species presents phenotypic plasticity to live in blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911322/sharing-fishers%C3%A2-ethnoecological-knowledge-of-the-european-pilchard-sardina-pilchardus-in-the-westernmost-fishing-community-in-europe
#11
Heitor de Oliveira Braga, Miguel Ângelo Pardal, Ulisses Miranda Azeiteiro
BACKGROUND: With the present difficulties in the conservation of sardines in the North Atlantic, it is important to investigate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen about the biology and ecology of these fish. The ethnoecological data of European pilchard provided by local fishermen can be of importance for the management and conservation of this fishery resource. Thus, the present study recorded the ethnoecological knowledge of S. pilchardus in the traditional fishing community of Peniche, Portugal...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898945/microplastic-and-mesoplastic-contamination-in-canned-sardines-and-sprats
#12
Ali Karami, Abolfazl Golieskardi, Cheng Keong Choo, Vincent Larat, Samaneh Karbalaei, Babak Salamatinia
No report was found on the occurrence of microplastics in processed seafood products that are manufactured for direct human consumption. This study investigates the potential presence of micro- and mesoplastics in 20 brands of canned sardines and sprats originating from 13 countries over 4 continents followed by their chemical composition determination using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The particles were further inspected for their inorganic composition through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Plastic particles were absent in 16 brands while between 1 and 3 plastic particles per brand were found in the other 4 brands...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873724/combinative-effect-of-sardine-peptides-and-quercetin-alleviates-hypertension-through-inhibition-of-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-activity-and-inflammation
#13
Jianming Luo, Cheng Zhang, Qianyue Liu, Shiyi Ou, Lili Zhang, Xichun Peng
Hypertension had relation to angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity and inflammation. In our previous research, sardine peptides (SP) with ACE inhibitory activity were prepared. However, the combinative effect of SP and quercetin (QC) on hypertension alleviation was still unknown. In the present study, the antihypertensive effect of SP and QC was discovered and the optimal proportion of SP and QC (v/v=8:2, with 20.00mg/mL of SP and 12.99μg/mL of QC for their original concentrations) was screened on ACE activity inhibition in vitro...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873723/substrates-emulsification-process-to-improve-lipase-catalyzed-sardine-oil-glycerolysis-in-different-systems-evaluation-of-lipid-oxidation-of-the-reaction-products
#14
Ángela García Solaesa, María Teresa Sanz, Rodrigo Melgosa, Sagrario Beltrán
Mono- and diacylglycerols rich in omega-3 have a great interest due to their good bioavailability and oxidation stability compared with other kind of omega-3 concentrates. The main drawback in mono- and diacylglycerols production by glycerolysis is the immiscibility of the substrates, oil and glycerol. To improve mass transfer rates, avoiding the use of organic solvents, emulsification of both reactants as reverse micelles (glycerol-in-oil) was carried out previous to lipase-catalyzed sardine oil glycerolysis...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869529/different-covalent-immobilizations-modulate-lipase-activities-of-hypocrea-pseudokoningii
#15
Marita G Pereira, Susana Velasco-Lozano, Sonia Moreno-Perez, Aline M Polizeli, Paulo R Heinen, Fernanda D A Facchini, Ana C Vici, Mariana Cereia, Benevides C Pessela, Gloria Fernandez-Lorente, Jose M Guisan, João A Jorge, Maria de Lourdes T M Polizeli
Enzyme immobilization can promote several advantages for their industrial application. In this work, a lipase from Hypocrea pseudokoningii was efficiently linked to four chemical supports: agarose activated with cyanogen bromide (CNBr), glyoxyl-agarose (GX), MANAE-agarose activated with glutaraldehyde (GA) and GA-crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. Results showed a more stable lipase with both the GA-crosslinked and GA derivatives, compared to the control (CNBr), at 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. Moreover, all derivatives were stabilized when incubated with organic solvents at 50%, such as ethanol, methanol, n-propanol and cyclohexane...
September 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832597/decadal-scale-variation-in-diet-forecasts-persistently-poor-breeding-under-ocean-warming-in-a-tropical-seabird
#16
Emily M Tompkins, Howard M Townsend, David J Anderson
Climate change effects on population dynamics of natural populations are well documented at higher latitudes, where relatively rapid warming illuminates cause-effect relationships, but not in the tropics and especially the marine tropics, where warming has been slow. Here we forecast the indirect effect of ocean warming on a top predator, Nazca boobies in the equatorial Galápagos Islands, where rising water temperature is expected to exceed the upper thermal tolerance of a key prey item in the future, severely reducing its availability within the boobies' foraging envelope...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821102/microencapsulation-of-sardine-oil-application-of-vanillic-acid-grafted-chitosan-as-a-bio-functional-wall-material
#17
K V Vishnu, Niladri S Chatterjee, K K Ajeeshkumar, R G K Lekshmi, C S Tejpal, Suseela Mathew, C N Ravishankar
Vanillic acid grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch) was evaluated as a new antioxidant wall material for microencapsulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid rich sardine oil. A high grafting ratio of 305mg vanillic acid equivalent/g of polymer was achieved using a free radical mediated grafting reaction. Oil in water emulsion was prepared with an optimised combination of Va-g-Ch and Tween 20 (3.2:1). Sardine oil loaded microparticles (SO-M) were produced (∼75% yield) by spray drying. The average diameter and polydispersity Index (PDI) of the particles were found to be 2...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766116/sardine-oil-loaded-vanillic-acid-grafted-chitosan-microparticles-a-new-functional-food-ingredient-attenuates-myocardial-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-cardiomyoblast-cell-lines-h9c2
#18
K V Vishnu, K K Ajeesh Kumar, Niladri S Chatterjee, R G K Lekshmi, P R Sreerekha, Suseela Mathew, C N Ravishankar
Fish oil has been widely recognized as an excellent dietary source of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA. However, it can undergo oxidation easily resulting in the formation of toxic off flavor compounds such as hydroperoxides. These compounds adversely affect the nutritional quality and may induce several stress reactions in body. To solve this problem, a new antioxidant bio-material, vanillic acid-grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch), was synthesized and used as a wall material for microencapsulation of fish oil...
August 2, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726095/fatty-acid-composition-of-fish-species-with-different-feeding-habits-from-an-arctic-lake
#19
M I Gladyshev, N N Sushchik, L A Glushchenko, V A Zadelenov, A E Rudchenko, Y Y Dgebuadze
We compared the composition and content of fatty acids (FAs) in fish with different feeding habits (sardine (least) cisco Coregonus sardinella, goggle-eyed charr (pucheglazka) form of Salvelinus alpinus complex, humpback whitefish Coregonus pidschian, broad whitefish Coregonus nasus, boganid charr Salvelinus boganidae, and northern pike Esox lucius from an Arctic Lake. Feeding habits of the studied fish (planktivore, benthivore, or piscivore) significantly affected the composition of biomarker fatty acids and the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in their biomass...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718014/protein-hydrolysate-from-canned-sardine-and-brewing-by-products-improves-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-in-an-intestinal-endothelial-co-culture-cell-model
#20
Elsa F Vieira, John Van Camp, Isabel M P L V O Ferreira, Charlotte Grootaert
PURPOSE: The anti-inflammatory activity of sardine protein hydrolysates (SPH) obtained by hydrolysis with proteases from brewing yeast surplus was ascertained. METHODS: For this purpose, a digested and desalted SPH fraction with molecular weight lower than 10 kDa was investigated using an endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) as such and in a co-culture model with an intestinal cell line (Caco-2). Effects of SPH <10 kDa on nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibition and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chemokine IL-8 (IL-8) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were evaluated in TNF-α-treated and untreated cells...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
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