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Joshua P Egan, Devin D Bloom, Chien-Hsien Kuo, Michael P Hammer, Prasert Tongnunui, Samuel P Iglésias, Marcus Sheaves, Chaiwut Grudpan, Andrew M Simons
Biotic and abiotic forces govern the evolution of trophic niches, which profoundly impact ecological and evolutionary processes and aspects of species biology. Herbivory is a particularly interesting trophic niche because there are theorized trade-offs associated with diets comprised of low quality food that might prevent the evolution of herbivory in certain environments. Herbivory has also been identified as a potential evolutionary "dead-end" that hinders subsequent trophic diversification. For this study we investigated trophic niche evolution in Clupeoidei (anchovies, sardines, herrings, and their relatives) and tested the hypotheses that herbivory is negatively correlated with salinity and latitude using a novel, time-calibrated molecular phylogeny, trophic guilds delimited using diet data and cluster analysis, and standard and phylogenetically-informed statistical methods...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
N Mejrhit, O Azdad, L Aarab
Objectives. The aim of this work was to study the effect of industrial processing on the allergenicity of three commonly consumed Moroccan fish species in Fez region (sardine, common pandora, and shrimp). Methods. This work was conducted by a sera-bank obtained from 1248 patients recruited from Fez Hospitals. Their sera were analyzed for specific IgE binding to raw fish extracts. Among them, 60 patients with higher specific IgE levels were selected, and used to estimate the binding variation of IgE to these products under several processing (frying, cooking, canning, marinade, and fermentation) using ELISA analysis...
March 2, 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
A R Fernandes, D Mortimer, M Holmes, M Rose, L Zhihua, X Huang, F Smith, S Panton, L Marshall
The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated...
March 6, 2018: Environment International
Fouad Affane, Sabrine Louala, Nour El Imane Harrat, Fatima Bensalah, Hadjera Chekkal, Amine Allaoui, Myriem Lamri-Senhadji
AIMS: Fish by-products valorization on account of their richness in bioactive compounds may represent a better alternative to marine products with a view to economic profitability and sustainable development. In this study, we compared the effect of sardine by-product proteins (SBy-P), with those of the fillets (SF-P) or casein (Cas), on growth parameters, serum leptin level, lipids disorders, lipid peroxidation and reverse cholesterol transport, in diet-induced obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Obesity was induced by feeding rats a high-fat diet (20% sheep fat), during 12 weeks...
March 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Taeko Miyazaki, Sergei L Kondrashev, Tohru Tsuchiya
The spectral absorbance of photoreceptor visual pigments and the opsin gene class of the visual pigments was investigated in Sardinops melanostictus. Microspectrophotometric (MSP) measurements showed that the rod photoreceptors had peak absorbance spectra (λmax ) at 502 nm. The spectral sensitivity of single cones was centered at 393 nm. Double cones had a λmax of 493/522 nm, but a few displayed a red-shifted absorbance of the long-wave member at 542 nm. The mRNAs of six different opsins were isolated from the retina, retrotranscribed, cloned, and sequenced...
February 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Ernesto Jardim, Margit Eero, Alexandra Silva, Clara Ulrich, Lionel Pawlowski, Steven J Holmes, Leire Ibaibarriaga, José A A De Oliveira, Isabel Riveiro, Nekane Alzorriz, Leire Citores, Finlay Scott, Andres Uriarte, Pablo Carrera, Erwan Duhamel, Iago Mosqueira
This paper describes a methodology that combines meta-population theory and stock assessment models to gain insights about spatial heterogeneity of the meta-population in an operational time frame. The methodology was tested with stochastic simulations for different degrees of connectivity between sub-populations and applied to two case studies, North Sea cod (Gadus morua) and Northeast Atlantic sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Considering that the biological components of a population can be partitioned into discrete spatial units, we extended this idea into a property of additivity of sub-population abundances...
2018: PloS One
A Arumugam, V Ponnusami
Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA) content (32 mg KOH/g of oil). Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively...
December 2017: Heliyon
Charanyaa Sampath, Prasanna D Belur, Regupathi Iyyasami
Considering the advantages of bioimprinting and carrier free immobilization, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA) were prepared by using bioimprinted Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) with Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde. Effect of various factors such as CRL-Oleic acid ratio, CRL-BSA ratio, CRL- Polyethyleneimine ratio, glutaraldehyde loading, cross-linking time etc., on lipase activity recovery and aggregate yield were studied and optimized. This immobilized lipase (CRL-CLEA) was used for the selective hydrolysis of ester linkages of non-PUFA glycerides, with an aim to concentrate EPA and DHA glycerides in the Sardine oil...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Takuya Onuma, Hiroaki Maruyama, Nobuyuki Sakai
Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce...
January 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
Luiz Jardim de Queiroz, Gislene Torrente-Vilara, Claudio Quilodran, Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria, Juan I Montoya-Burgos
Understanding the processes that drive population genetic divergence in the Amazon is challenging because of the vast scale, the environmental richness and the outstanding biodiversity of the region. We addressed this issue by determining the genetic structure of the widespread Amazonian common sardine fish Triportheus albus (Characidae). We then examined the influence, on this species, of all previously proposed population-structuring factors, including isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-barrier (the Teotônio Falls) and isolation-by-environment using variables that describe floodplain and water characteristics...
2017: PloS One
Gioacchino Bono, Charles Odilichukwu R Okpala, Sergio Vitale, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Annamaria Di Noto, Antonella Costa, Calogero Di Bella, Daniela Lo Monaco
Combining different preservative treatments for improving quality and safety of fishery products increasingly receives global research attention. Consistent with this pursuit, the current research was undertaken to determine the effects of different ozonized slurry-ice treatments and superchilling (-1°C) storage on microbial spoilage of European anchovy ( Eugraulis encrasicolus ) and sardine ( Sardina pilchardus ), which are two commercially important pelagic fish species. After the catch (within <5 hr) and at defined scheduled storage times, ozone has been discharged once on sardine (herein referred to as "One-T") and repeatedly/sequentially on European anchovy (herein referred to as "Seq-T")...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Abdurahman Polat, Sevim Polat, Ayşe Simsek, Tuba Terbiyik Kurt, Gülsün Ozyurt
Pesticide residues in muscles of nine marine fish and four seaweed species of Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean) have been investigated. In sampled fish species, two herbicides, three insecticides, two fungicides, and one synergist were identified and quantified. Metribuzin DADK, propamocarb HCl, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were detected in all the muscles of sampled fish species. Metribuzin DADK was the most abundant pesticide residue in fish muscles and the highest metribuzin DADK concentration was found in sardine (311...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Adnan M Massadeh, Ayat Allah T Al-Massaedh, Sameh Kharibeh
In this study, the concentrations of seven heavy metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in imported canned food samples of different brands including tuna, beef, sardines, and mushroom were determined. Samples were collected from popular Jordanian market, Irbid city, Northern Jordan (44 samples of each type). The metal concentrations in canned food samples were found to be in the range of 1.85-4.50 μg/g for As, 0.42-0.58 μg/g for Cd, 0.47-1.67 μg/g for Cr, 0.73-0.90 μg/g for Cu, 1.08-2.77 μg/g for Ni, 2...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Renato Salvatteci, David Field, Dimitri Gutiérrez, Tim Baumgartner, Vicente Ferreira, Luc Ortlieb, Abdel Sifeddine, Daniel Grados, Arnaud Bertrand
The Humboldt Current System (HCS) has the highest production of forage fish in the world, although it is highly variable and the future of the primary component, anchovy, is uncertain in the context of global warming. Paradigms based on late 20th century observations suggest that large-scale forcing controls decadal-scale fluctuations of anchovy and sardine across different boundary currents of the Pacific. We develop records of anchovy and sardine fluctuations since 1860 AD using fish scales from multiple sites containing laminated sediments and compare them with Pacific basin-scale and regional indices of ocean climate variability...
March 2018: Global Change Biology
Ayla Güngör, Derya Kara
Bream, anchovy, horse mackerel, sea bass, sardine, and whiting that are commonly consumed by the Turkish community were collected from the Marmara Sea in September and March and were analyzed for trace elements and for fat content. The total concentrations of some metals in these fish were determined using ICP-MS in acid extracts obtained after microwave digestion. The seasonal fat contents of the fish samples were determined gravimetrically following a Soxhlet extraction method. Experimental results were evaluated statistically using t tests and principal component analyses...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sebastian Matuszewski, Marcel E Hildebrandt, Guillaume Achaz, Jeffrey D Jensen
Non-equilibrium demography impacts coalescent genealogies leaving detectable, well-studied signatures of variation. However, similar genomic footprints are also expected under models of large reproductive skew, posing a serious problem when trying to make inference. Furthermore, current approaches consider only one of the two processes at a time, neglecting any genomic signal that could arise from their simultaneous effects, preventing the possibility of jointly inferring parameters relating to both offspring distribution and population history...
November 10, 2017: Genetics
Fernanda S Ferreira, Geni R Sampaio, Laura M Keller, Alexandra C H F Sawaya, Davy W H Chávez, Elizabeth A F S Torres, Tatiana Saldanha
The high temperatures used to fry fish may induce thermo-oxidation of cholesterol, forming cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). COPs have been associated to coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Air fryers are an alternative thermal process technology to fry foods without oil, and are considered a healthier cooking method. This study is the 1st to evaluate the formation of COPs and the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in air-fried sardine fillets. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of fresh herbs added as natural antioxidants to sardines subjected to air frying...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science
Narcisa Maria Bandarra, Ana Marçalo, Ana Rita Cordeiro, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira
Atlantic sardines (Sardina pilchardus) captured in the Portuguese mainland coast and maintained in captivity for one year feeding on artificial diet showed significant differences in muscle total lipids (TL) content in relation to wild fish (25% after one year compared to 14% in wild). Captive sardines had higher percentage of non-polar lipids (NPL) in their muscle, presented higher levels of 18:1n-9 and lower of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in NPL than those observed in wild fish. TL in the liver were not significantly different between captive and wild fish, but the NPL fraction of captive sardines presented higher levels of 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 than those registered in the wild...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Dalal A Aloraini, Gharam A Alharshan, Aljawharah H Almuqrin, Hanan Al-Ghamdi, Khaled M El-Azony
Twenty-six brands of canned tuna and sardines imported from several countries in Southeast Asia to consume in the KSA. All samples were prepared and analyzed by using a High Pure Germanium Detector of 40% efficiency. Natural radionuclides 40K, 238U (226Ra) and 232Th(228Ra) series were observed with a varying range in all analyzed samples. The values found to be 192.3 ± 14.6, 1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.0 ± 0.6 Bq kg-1 for canned tuna and 219.8 ± 15.8, 0.37 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.3 Bq kg-1 for canned sardines, respectively...
July 14, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Toby D Auth, Elizabeth A Daly, Richard D Brodeur, Jennifer L Fisher
Understanding changes in the migratory and reproductive phenology of fish stocks in relation to climate change is critical for accurate ecosystem-based fisheries management. Relocation and changes in timing of reproduction can have dramatic effects upon the success of fish populations and throughout the food web. During anomalously warm conditions (1-4°C above normal) in the northeast Pacific Ocean during 2015-2016, we documented shifts in timing and spawning location of several pelagic fish stocks based on larval fish samples...
September 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
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