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Rosa María Oliart Ros, Ida Soto Rodríguez, María Guadalupe Sánchez Otero, Oscar M López Gil, Israel Escobar-Sagastume, Alfonso Alexander-Aguilera
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have an important role in reducing hypertriglyceridemia, these acids decrease the mortality for Coronary Heart Disease. Very important is the relationship between fatty acid biosynthesis and distribution in organs and tissues involved in insulin resistance and hypertension due to its role in the production of vasoactive eicosanoids and their effects on insulin sensitivity; which is estimated with the HOMA-IR index, which relates the physiological and metabolic behavior of glucose and insulin in the body...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
S Esakkimuthu, S Sylvester Darvin, S Mutheeswaran, M Gabriel Paulraj, P Pandikumar, S Ignacimuthu, N A Al-Dhabi
BACKGROUND: Medicinal properties of the food species are one of the poorly documented and important areas of ethnopharmacology. The present survey quantitatively documented the medicinal foods prescribed by the non-institutionally trained siddha practitioners of Tiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu. METHODS: Field work was carried out between December 2014 and April 2017 using a questionnaire. The illnesses mentioned by the informants were grouped as illness categories on the basis of emic perceptions...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Alejandra Llanos-Rivera, Leonardo R Castro, Paulina Vásquez, Jeannette Silva, Enrique Bay-Schmith
The anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) and sardine (Strangomera bentincki) are coastal pelagic species with important spawning areas off the coast of Chile. The discharge of secondary-treated effluents from a kraft pulp plant near one of these spawning areas has raised environmental concerns. Therefore, effluent effects on the development of anchoveta and sardine eggs were assessed by in vitro exposure. Eggs were sampled between 2007 and 2010 off Talcahuano, Chile. Subsequent toxicity tests (96 h duration, 12 °C) were performed using increasing effluent concentrations, a filtered seawater control, and two potassium dichromate concentrations (to verify consistent embryonic sensitivity)...
June 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tjaša Kogovšek, Martin Vodopivec, Fabio Raicich, Shin-Ichi Uye, Alenka Malej
A prominent increase in the moon jellyfish (genus Aurelia) populations has been observed since 1980 in two semi-enclosed temperate seas: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Inland Sea of Japan. Therefore, we reviewed long-term environmental and biotic data from the two Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites, along with the increase in the moon jellyfish occurrence to elucidate how these coastal seas shifted to the jellyfish-dominated ecosystems. The principal component analysis of atmospheric data revealed a simultaneous occurrence of similar climatic changes in the early 1980s; thereafter, air temperature increased steadily and precipitation decreased but became more extreme...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Frank E Muller-Karger, Yrene M Astor, Claudia R Benitez-Nelson, Kristen N Buck, Kent A Fanning, Laura Lorenzoni, Enrique Montes, Digna T Rueda-Roa, Mary I Scranton, Eric Tappa, Gordon T Taylor, Robert C Thunell, Luis Troccoli, Ramon Varela
TheCARIACO(Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean) Ocean Time-Series Program station, located at 10.50°N, 64.66°W, observed biogeochemical and ecological processes in the Cariaco Basin of the southwestern Caribbean Sea from November 1995 to January 2017. The program completed 232 monthly core cruises, 40 sediment trap deployment cruises, and 40 microbiogeochemical process cruises. Upwelling along the southern Caribbean Sea occurs from approximately November to August. High biological productivity (320-628 g C m-2 y-1 ) leads to large vertical fluxes of particulate organic matter, but only approximately 9-10 g C m-2 y-1 fall to the bottom sediments (∼1-3% of primary production)...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Ana Marçalo, Pedro M Guerreiro, Luís Bentes, Mafalda Rangel, Pedro Monteiro, Frederico Oliveira, Carlos M L Afonso, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Hugues P Benoît, Mike Breen, Karim Erzini, Jorge M S Gonçalves
The effects of two different slipping methods on the survival, physical and physiological response of sardines, Sardina pilchardus, captured in a purse-seine fishery were investigated in southern Portugal. Sardines were collected and transferred into holding tanks onboard a commercial fishing vessel after being captured, crowded and deliberately released using two slipping procedures: standard and modified. The standard slipping procedure aggregated fish at high densities and made them "roll over" the floatline, while the modified procedure aggregated the fish at moderate densities and enabled them to escape through an opening created by adding weights to the floatline...
2018: PloS One
Maxence de Taffin de Tilques, Jean-Paul Lasserre, François Godard, Elodie Sardin, Marine Bouhier, Marina Le Guedard, Roza Kucharczyk, Patrice X Petit, Eric Testet, Jean-Paul di Rago, Déborah Tribouillard-Tanvier
Cardiolipin (CL) optimizes diverse mitochondrial processes, including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To function properly, CL needs to be unsaturated, which requires the acyltransferase Tafazzin (TAZ). Loss-of-function mutations in the TAZ gene are responsible for the Barth syndrome (BTHS), a rare X-linked cardiomyopathy, presumably because of a diminished OXPHOS capacity. Herein we show that a partial inhibition of cytosolic protein synthesis, either chemically with the use of cycloheximide or by specific genetic mutations, fully restores biogenesis and the activity of the oxidative phosphorylation system in a yeast BTHS model ( taz1 Δ)...
February 18, 2018: Microbial Cell
Fabio Fuentes-Gandara, Claudia Herrera-Herrera, José Pinedo-Hernández, José Marrugo-Negrete, Sergi Díez
The decline in marine and freshwaters catches in recent years in Colombia has led to a change in dietary habits, with an increase in the purchase and consumption of imported fish. This is of particular concern as fish are sometimes caught in mercury-contaminated waters, and are subsequently sold canned or uncanned. In addition, canned tuna has received little attention as it is widely assumed that concentrations are low. In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated in three imported fish species marketed in Colombia, Prochilodus lineatus, Prochilodus reticulatus, and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, plus four brands of canned tuna and one of sardines...
August 2018: Environmental Research
F Affane, F Bensalah, N I Harrat, H Chekkal, S Louala, M Y Lamri-Senhadji
AIM OF THE STUDY: The effects of sardine by-products (SBy-P) and fillet proteins (SF-P) were compared to casein (Cas) ; these effects were assessed on blood pressure, glycemic control, reverse cholesterol transport, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity in obese rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar rats were subjected for three months, to a high-fat diet. The obese rats were divided into three groups and consumed the same high-fat diet for 28 days after addition of either, 20% SBy-P, SF-P or Cas...
June 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Tommaso Filippini, Marcella Malavolti, Silvia Cilloni, Lauren A Wise, Federica Violi, Carlotta Malagoli, Luciano Vescovi, Marco Vinceti
Regular consumption of fish is generally recommended by authorities because fish is an important source of essential nutrients. However, the presence of potentially toxic contaminants in fish has raised many concerns about the food's safety for human health. In the present study, we used a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess the dietary habits of a representative sample of 719 individuals (319 males and 400 females) aged 18-87 years residing in Northern Italy. We estimated weekly dietary intakes of Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg), and we compared them with safety standards set by the European Food Safety Authority...
June 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Aleksandar R Popović, Dubravka J Relić, Danijela V Vranić, Jelena A Babić-Milijašević, Lato L Pezo, Jasna M Đinović-Stojanović
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe in three canned fish species marketed Serbia to see if they meet recommended daily intake requirements or exceed safety limits. We collected a total of 207 samples of canned tuna, sardine, and mackerel, in oil or tomato sauce and analysed them with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid digestion. The highest levels were obtained for Zn (15.1 mg kg-1) and Cu (1.37 mg kg-1) in sardine in oil and tomato sauce, respectively, and for Fe (18...
March 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Joshua P Egan, Devin D Bloom, Chien-Hsien Kuo, Michael P Hammer, Prasert Tongnunui, Samuel P Iglésias, Marcus Sheaves, Chaiwut Grudpan, Andrew M Simons
Biotic and abiotic forces govern the evolution of trophic niches, which profoundly impact ecological and evolutionary processes and aspects of species biology. Herbivory is a particularly interesting trophic niche because there are theorized trade-offs associated with diets comprised of low quality food that might prevent the evolution of herbivory in certain environments. Herbivory has also been identified as a potential evolutionary "dead-end" that hinders subsequent trophic diversification. For this study we investigated trophic niche evolution in Clupeoidei (anchovies, sardines, herrings, and their relatives) and tested the hypotheses that herbivory is negatively correlated with salinity and latitude using a novel, time-calibrated molecular phylogeny, trophic guilds delimited using diet data and cluster analysis, and standard and phylogenetically-informed statistical methods...
July 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
N Mejrhit, O Azdad, L Aarab
Objectives. The aim of this work was to study the effect of industrial processing on the allergenicity of three commonly consumed Moroccan fish species in Fez region (sardine, common pandora, and shrimp). Methods. This work was conducted by a sera-bank obtained from 1248 patients recruited from Fez Hospitals. Their sera were analyzed for specific IgE binding to raw fish extracts. Among them, 60 patients with higher specific IgE levels were selected, and used to estimate the binding variation of IgE to these products under several processing (frying, cooking, canning, marinade, and fermentation) using ELISA analysis...
March 2, 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
A R Fernandes, D Mortimer, M Holmes, M Rose, L Zhihua, X Huang, F Smith, S Panton, L Marshall
The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated...
May 2018: Environment International
Fouad Affane, Sabrine Louala, Nour El Imane Harrat, Fatima Bensalah, Hadjera Chekkal, Amine Allaoui, Myriem Lamri-Senhadji
AIMS: Fish by-products valorization on account of their richness in bioactive compounds may represent a better alternative to marine products with a view to economic profitability and sustainable development. In this study, we compared the effect of sardine by-product proteins (SBy-P), with those of the fillets (SF-P) or casein (Cas), on growth parameters, serum leptin level, lipids disorders, lipid peroxidation and reverse cholesterol transport, in diet-induced obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Obesity was induced by feeding rats a high-fat diet (20% sheep fat), during 12 weeks...
April 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Taeko Miyazaki, Sergei L Kondrashev, Tohru Tsuchiya
The spectral absorbance of photoreceptor visual pigments and the opsin gene class of the visual pigments was investigated in Sardinops melanostictus. Microspectrophotometric (MSP) measurements showed that the rod photoreceptors had peak absorbance spectra (λmax ) at 502 nm. The spectral sensitivity of single cones was centered at 393 nm. Double cones had a λmax of 493/522 nm, but a few displayed a red-shifted absorbance of the long-wave member at 542 nm. The mRNAs of six different opsins were isolated from the retina, retrotranscribed, cloned, and sequenced...
April 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Ernesto Jardim, Margit Eero, Alexandra Silva, Clara Ulrich, Lionel Pawlowski, Steven J Holmes, Leire Ibaibarriaga, José A A De Oliveira, Isabel Riveiro, Nekane Alzorriz, Leire Citores, Finlay Scott, Andres Uriarte, Pablo Carrera, Erwan Duhamel, Iago Mosqueira
This paper describes a methodology that combines meta-population theory and stock assessment models to gain insights about spatial heterogeneity of the meta-population in an operational time frame. The methodology was tested with stochastic simulations for different degrees of connectivity between sub-populations and applied to two case studies, North Sea cod (Gadus morua) and Northeast Atlantic sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Considering that the biological components of a population can be partitioned into discrete spatial units, we extended this idea into a property of additivity of sub-population abundances...
2018: PloS One
A Arumugam, V Ponnusami
Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA) content (32 mg KOH/g of oil). Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively...
December 2017: Heliyon
Charanyaa Sampath, Prasanna D Belur, Regupathi Iyyasami
Considering the advantages of bioimprinting and carrier free immobilization, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA) were prepared by using bioimprinted Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) with Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde. Effect of various factors such as CRL-Oleic acid ratio, CRL-BSA ratio, CRL- Polyethyleneimine ratio, glutaraldehyde loading, cross-linking time etc., on lipase activity recovery and aggregate yield were studied and optimized. This immobilized lipase (CRL-CLEA) was used for the selective hydrolysis of ester linkages of non-PUFA glycerides, with an aim to concentrate EPA and DHA glycerides in the Sardine oil...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Takuya Onuma, Hiroaki Maruyama, Nobuyuki Sakai
Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce...
February 26, 2018: Chemical Senses
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