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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920801/evaluation-of-a-commercial-competitive-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-detection-of-avian-influenza-virus-subtype-h5-antibodies-in-zoo-birds
#1
Trine Hammer Jensen, Jannie Holmegaard Andersen, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Mariann Chriél, Mads Frost Bertelsen
The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is the current gold standard for detecting antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been explored for use in poultry and certain wild bird species because of high efficiency and lower cost. This study compared a commercial ELISA for detection of AIV subtype H5 antibodies with HI test of 572 serum samples from zoo birds. There was no significant difference between the results of the two tests when statistically compared by a McNemar χ(2) test (P = 0...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915920/current-situation-of-h9n2-subtype-avian-influenza-in-china
#2
REVIEW
Min Gu, Lijun Xu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiufan Liu
In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry. In addition, H9N2 has demonstrated significance to public health as it could not only directly infect mankind, but also donate partial or even whole cassette of internal genes to generate novel human-lethal reassortants like H5N1, H7N9, H10N8 and H5N6 viruses...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905526/transmission-and-immunopathology-of-the-avian-influenza-virus-a-anhui-1-2013-h7n9-human-isolate-in-three-commonly-commercialized-avian-species
#3
B Vidaña, R Dolz, N Busquets, A Ramis, R Sánchez, R Rivas, R Valle, I Cordón, D Solanes, J Martínez, N Majó
H7N9 virus infection is a global concern, given that it can cause severe infection and mortality in humans. However, the understanding of H7N9 epidemiology, animal reservoir species and zoonotic risk remains limited. This work evaluates the pathogenicity, transmissibility and local innate immune response of three avian species harbouring different respiratory distribution of α2,6 and α2,3 SA receptors. Muscovy ducks, European quails and SPF chickens were intranasally inoculated with 10(5) embryo infectious dose (EID)50 of the human H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013) influenza isolate...
September 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903878/thermal-inactivation-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-poultry-litter-as-a-method-to-decontaminate-poultry-houses
#4
Christopher B Stephens, Erica Spackman
Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903072/the-role-of-nuclear-ns1-protein-in-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-influenza-viruses
#5
Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Honglian Liu, Pin Chen, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Xiaofeng Huang, Yen-Chin Liu, Pui Wang, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
The non-structural protein (NS1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) performs multiple functions during viral infection. NS1 contains two nuclear localization signals (NLS): NLS1 and NLS2. The NS1 protein is located predominantly in the nucleus during the early stages of infection and subsequently exported to the cytoplasm. A nonsense mutation that results in a large deletion in the carboxy-terminal region of the NS1 protein that contains the NLS2 domain was found in some IAV subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 and H5N1 viruses...
September 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903035/functional-insights-into-anp32a-dependent-influenza-a-virus-polymerase-host-restriction
#6
Patricia Domingues, Benjamin G Hale
Host restriction of influenza A virus limits pandemic emergence. The viral RNA polymerase (vPol) is an essential enzyme that must adapt for avian viruses to replicate in humans. Species differences in host ANP32A dictate adaptation: human ANP32A lacks an uncharacterized 33 amino-acid insertion that is present in avian ANP32A. Here, we uncover important contributions of host SUMOylation to vPol activity, including avANP32A function. We also identify a hydrophobic SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-like sequence unique to avANP32A that critically supports avian-signature vPol...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900762/novel-reassortant-clade-2-3-4-4-avian-influenza-a-h5n8-virus-in-a-grey-heron-in-south-korea-in-2017
#7
Chanjin Woo, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Dong-Hun Lee, Youngsik Kim, Kwanghee Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Ki Dong Son, Jae-Ku Oem, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Jeonghwa Shin, Chang-Seon Song, Weonhwa Jheong, Jipseol Jeong
We report the identification of a novel reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 virus from a dead grey heron in Korea in 2017. Outbreaks of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 HPAIVs have been reported worldwide, and they have evolved into multiple genotypes among wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this virus likely originated from Qinghai Lake and Western Siberia and further evolved through reassortment with Eurasian LPAI during the 2016 fall migration of wild birds. Enhanced surveillance and comparative genetic analysis will help to monitor the further evolution and dissemination of clade 2...
September 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900145/characterization-of-influenza-a-viruses-with-polymorphism-in-pb2-residues-701-and-702
#8
Alex W H Chin, Nathaniel K C Leong, John M Nicholls, Leo L M Poon
The 701 and 702 positions of influenza PB2 polymerase subunit are previously shown to have roles on host range. Limited polymorphisms at these two residues are identified in natural isolates, thereby limiting the study of their role in the polymerase. In this study, we generated 31 viable viruses by random mutagenesis at this region, indicating that these positions can tolerate a wide range of amino acids. These mutants demonstrated varying polymerase activities and viral replication rates in mammalian and avian cells...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900092/-impact-of-delivery-method-on-antiviral-activity-of-phosphodiester-phosphorothioate-and-phosphoryl-guanidine-oligonucleotides-in-mdck-cells-infected-with-h5n1-bird-flu-virus
#9
A S Levina, M N Repkova, B P Chelobanov, E V Bessudnova, N A Mazurkova, D A Stetsenko, V F Zarytova
We have previously described nanocomposites containing conjugates or complexes of native oligodeoxyribonucleotides with poly-L-lysine and TiO2 nanoparticles. We have shown that these nanocomposites efficiently suppressed influenza A virus reproduction in MDCK cells. Here, we have synthesized previously undescribed nanocomposites that consist of TiO2 nanoparticles and polylysine conjugates with oligonucleotides that contain phosphoryl guanidine or phosphorothioate internucleotide groups. These nanocomposites have been shown to exhibit antiviral activity in MDCK cells infected with H5N1 influenza A virus...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895884/interaction-of-recombinant-gallus-gallus-sept5-and-brain-proteins-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-infected-chickens
#10
Jasmine Elanie Khairat, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Iekhsan Othman, Abdul Rahman Omar, Sharifah Syed Hassan
Septin forms a conserved family of cytoskeletal guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding proteins that have diverse roles in protein scaffolding, vesicle trafficking, and cytokinesis. The involvement of septins in infectious viral disease pathogenesis has been demonstrated by the upregulation of SEPT5 protein and its mRNA in brain tissues of H5N1-infected chickens, thus, providing evidence for the potential importance of this protein in the pathogenesis of neurovirulence caused by the avian influenza virus. In this study, cloning, expression, and purification of Gallus gallus SEPT5 protein was performed in Escherichia coli...
September 12, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895870/protection-of-commercial-turkeys-following-inactivated-or-recombinant-h5-vaccine-application-against-the-2015u-s-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#11
Darrell R Kapczynski, Matthew J Sylte, Mary L Killian, Mia K Torchetti, Klaudia Chrzastek, David L Suarez
Between December 2014 and June 2015, North America experienced the largest recorded foreign animal disease outbreak with over 47 million poultry dead or euthanized from viral exposure to a clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic. Soon after the epizootic began, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) began testing the efficacy of different vaccines as a possible future control strategy. The aim of these studies were to evaluate the efficacy three H5 vaccines to aid in control of HPAI in commercial turkeys...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893180/annexin-a2-anxa2-interacts-with-nonstructural-protein-1-and-promotes-the-replication-of-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus
#12
Yong Ma, Jiashan Sun, Linlin Gu, Hongmei Bao, Yuhui Zhao, Lin Shi, Wei Yao, Guobin Tian, Xiurong Wang, Hualan Chen
BACKGROUND: Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein and a crucial regulatory factor in the replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV). Studies have shown that NS1 can interact with a variety of host proteins to modulate the viral life cycle. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody against NS1 protein; In the current research study, using this antibody, we immunoprecipitated host proteins that interact with NS1 to better understand the roles played by NS1 in communications between virus and host...
September 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892736/five-distinct-reassortants-of-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-viruses-affected-japan-during-the-winter-of-2016-2017
#13
Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Kirill Sharshov, Taichiro Tanikawa, Yuko Uchida, Hiroshi Ito, Kosuke Soda, Tatsufumi Usui, Ivan Sobolev, Alexander Shestopalov, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Junki Mine, Toshihiro Ito, Takehiko Saito
To elucidate the evolutionary pathway, we sequenced the entire genomes of 89 H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) isolated in Japan during winter 2016-2017 and 117 AIV/HPAIVs isolated in Japan and Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least 5 distinct genotypes of H5N6 HPAIVs affected poultry and wild birds during that period. Japanese H5N6 isolates shared a common genetic ancestor in 6 of 8 genomic segments, and the PA and NS genes demonstrated 4 and 2 genetic origins, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889970/genomic-signature-analysis-of-the-recently-emerged-highly-pathogenic-a-h5n8-avian-influenza-virus-implying-an-evolutionary-trend-for-bird-to-human-transmission
#14
Wei Xu, Yanyan Dai, Chen Hua, Qian Wang, Peng Zou, Qiwen Deng, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
In early 2014, a novel subclade (2.3.4.4) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused the first outbreak in domestic ducks and migratory birds in South Korea. Since then, it has spread to 44 countries and regions. To date, no human infections with A(H5N8) virus have been reported, but the possibility cannot be excluded. By analyzing the genomic signatures of A(H5N8) strains, we found that among the 47 species-associated signature positions, three positions exhibited human-like signatures (HLS), including PA-404S, PB2-613I and PB2-702R and that mutation trend of host signatures of avian A(H5N8) is different before and after 2014...
September 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888649/identification-of-two-novel-avian-influenza-a-h5n6-viruses-in-wild-birds-shanghai-in-2016
#15
Guimei He, Lichen Zhou, Caihui Zhu, Hongliang Shi, Xiaofang Li, Di Wu, Jing Liu, Jiamin Lv, Chuanxia Hu, Zhihui Li, Zhenghuan Wang, Tianhou Wang
The H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) has been continuously reported in wild birds, which may contribute to further geographical spread during their long-distance migrations. Active AIV surveillance in wild birds was conducted during October and November 2016 in Shanghai, China. Two novel influenza A (H5N6) viruses were detected in samples from migratory waterfowl that are genetically similar to recent South Korea and Japan H5N6 viruses collected in 2016 and 2017, highlighting the role of migratory waterfowl in the dissemination of H5N6 viruses along migratory flyways...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886943/short-and-long-term-protective-efficacy-against-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n2-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-following-prime-boost-vaccination-in-turkeys
#16
Jefferson J S Santos, Adebimpe O Obadan, Stivalis Cardenas Garcia, Silvia Carnaccini, Darrell R Kapczynski, Mary Pantin-Jackwood, David L Suarez, Daniel R Perez
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections are frequently associated with systemic disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, particularly in chickens and turkeys. Clade 2.3.4.4 represents a genetic cluster within the Asian HPAIV H5 Goose/Guangdong lineage that has transmitted through migratory birds and spread throughout the world. In 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 strains entered the U.S. via the Pacific flyway, reassorted with local strains of the North American lineage, and produced novel HPAIV strains of the H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 subtypes...
September 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884667/influenza-virus-replication-in-macrophages-balancing-protection-and-pathogenesis
#17
Troy D Cline, Donald Beck, Elizabeth Bianchini
Macrophages are essential for protection against influenza A virus infection, but are also implicated in the morbidity and mortality associated with severe influenza disease, particularly during infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. While influenza virus infection of macrophages was once thought to be abortive, it is now clear that certain virus strains can replicate productively in macrophages. This may have important consequences for the antiviral functions of macrophages, the course of disease and the outcome of infection for the host...
September 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883554/adaptive-mutations-of-neuraminidase-stalk-truncation-and-deglycosylation-confer-enhanced-pathogenicity-of-influenza-a-viruses
#18
Sehee Park, Jin Il Kim, Ilseob Lee, Joon-Yong Bae, Kirim Yoo, Misun Nam, Juwon Kim, Mee Sook Park, Ki-Joon Song, Jin-Won Song, Sun-Ho Kee, Man-Seong Park
It has been noticed that neuraminidase (NA) stalk truncation has arisen from evolutionary adaptation of avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry. We identified this molecular alteration after the adaptation of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1) in BALB/c mice. The mouse-adapted pH1N1 lost its eight consecutive amino acids including one potential N-linked glycosite from the NA stalk region. To explore the relationship of NA stalk truncation or deglycosylation with viral pathogenicity changes, we generated NA stalk mutant viruses on the pH1N1 backbone by reverse genetics...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880856/update-increase-in-human-infections-with-novel-asian-lineage-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-viruses-during-the-fifth-epidemic-china-october-1-2016-august-7-2017
#19
James C Kile, Ruiqi Ren, Liqi Liu, Carolyn M Greene, Katherine Roguski, A Danielle Iuliano, Yunho Jang, Joyce Jones, Sharmi Thor, Ying Song, Suizan Zhou, Susan C Trock, Vivien Dugan, David E Wentworth, Min Z Levine, Timothy M Uyeki, Jacqueline M Katz, Daniel B Jernigan, Sonja J Olsen, Alicia M Fry, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, C Todd Davis
Among all influenza viruses assessed using CDC's Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT), the Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (Asian H7N9), first reported in China in March 2013,* is ranked as the influenza virus with the highest potential pandemic risk (1). During October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China; CDC, Taiwan; the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection; and the Macao CDC reported 759 human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses, including 281 deaths, to the World Health Organization (WHO), making this the largest of the five epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections that have occurred since 2013 (Figure 1)...
September 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880836/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-tennessee-usa-march-2017
#20
Dong-Hun Lee, Mia K Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Yohannes Berhane, David E Swayne
In March 2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) was detected at 2 poultry farms in Tennessee, USA. Surveillance data and genetic analyses indicated multiple introductions of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus before mutation to high pathogenicity and interfarm transmission. Poultry surveillance should continue because low pathogenicity viruses circulate and spill over into commercial poultry.
November 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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