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avian influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143465/migratory-birds-in-southern-brazil-are-a-source-of-multiple-avian-influenza-virus-subtypes
#1
Jansen de Araujo, Maria Virgínia Petry, Thomas Fabrizio, David Walker, Tatiana Ometto, Luciano M Thomazelli, Angelo L Scherer, Patricia P Serafini, Isaac S Neto, Scott Krauss, Robert G Webster, Richard J Webby, Edison L Durigon
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge about the relation of avian influenza virus (AIV) to migratory birds in South America. Accordingly, we studied samples obtained over a 4-year period (2009-2012) from wild birds at a major wintering site in Southern Brazil. METHODS: We obtained 1212 oropharyngeal/cloacal samples from wild birds at Lagoa do Peixe National Park and screened them for influenza A virus by RT-PCR amplification of the matrix gene. Virus isolates were subjected to genomic sequencing and antigenic characterization...
November 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141334/-human-exposure-to-live-poultry-among-residents-during-the-second-wave-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-epidemic-in-beijing-2013-2014
#2
S S Wu, P Yang, Q Y Wang, H Y Zhang, Y H Chu, H J Li, W Y Hua, Y Q Tang, C Li
Objective: To investigate human exposure to live poultry (poultry feeding and purchasing) in the residents in Beijing and related factors during the second wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) epidemic during 2013-2014, and provide scientific evidence for avian influenza prevention and control. Methods: A total of 7 366 adults aged ≥18 years were selected through multi-stage stratified sampling in Beijing for a questionnaire survey. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the influence factors of human exposure to live poultry...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137330/virtual-screening-approach-to-identifying-influenza-virus-neuraminidase-inhibitors-using-molecular-docking-combined-with-machine-learning-based-scoring-function
#3
Li Zhang, Hai-Xin Ai, Shi-Meng Li, Meng-Yuan Qi, Jian Zhao, Qi Zhao, Hong-Sheng Liu
In recent years, an epidemic of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus has persisted in China, with a high mortality rate. To develop novel anti-influenza therapies, we have constructed a machine-learning-based scoring function (RF-NA-Score) for the effective virtual screening of lead compounds targeting the viral neuraminidase (NA) protein. RF-NA-Score is more accurate than RF-Score, with a root-mean-square error of 1.46, Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.707, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134777/epidemiological-investigation-of-h9-avian-influenza-virus-newcastle-disease-virus-tembusu-virus-goose-parvovirus-and-goose-circovirus-infection-of-geese-in-china
#4
X Niu, H Wang, L Wei, M Zhang, J Yang, H Chen, Y Tang, Y Diao
To deepen the knowledge about epidemic prevalence in the goose breeding field, a triplex PCR assay was established, and 478 samples were collected from scaled goose farms in 11 provinces in China. The results of this epidemiological investigation showed that incidence rates of H9 avian influenza and goose circovirus were the highest among five infectious diseases that were evaluated. In addition, the triplex PCR assay established remarkable sensitivity, rapidity and versatility compared to other diagnostic methods...
November 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134437/a-qualitative-stakeholder-analysis-of-avian-influenza-policy-in-bangladesh
#5
Kaushik Chattopadhyay, Guillaume Fournié, Md Abul Kalam, Paritosh K Biswas, Ahasanul Hoque, Nitish C Debnath, Mahmudur Rahman, Dirk U Pfeiffer, David Harper, David L Heymann
Avian influenza is a major animal and public health concern in Bangladesh. A decade after development and implementation of the first national avian influenza and human pandemic influenza preparedness and response plan in Bangladesh, a two-stage qualitative stakeholder analysis was performed in relation to the policy development process and the actual policy. This study specifically aimed to identify the future policy options to prevent and control avian influenza and other poultry-related zoonotic diseases in Bangladesh...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132684/interactions-between-lactobacilli-and-chicken-macrophages-induce-antiviral-responses-against-avian-influenza-virus
#6
Bahram Shojadoost, Raveendra R Kulkarni, Jennifer T Brisbin, Wanderley Quinteiro-Filho, Tamiru N Alkie, Shayan Sharif
Macrophages are an important cell type of the innate immune system that upon activation, can exert antiviral functions and also can induce virus-specific adaptive immune responses. Macrophage interaction with certain probiotic bacteria such as lactobacilli can enhance antiviral functions of these cells. We have previously shown that administration of lactobacilli to chickens can effectively augment immune response to vaccine antigens. Here, we investigated the effects of representative strains of three Lactobacillus species, L...
October 31, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129538/pneumonia-in-the-tropics-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Steve McGloughlin, Pravin R Amin
The aetiology of community acquired pneumonia varies according to the region in which it is acquired. This review discusses those causes of CAP that occur in the tropics and might not be readily recognizable when transplanted to other sites. Various forms of pneumonia including the viral causes such as influenza (seasonal and avian varieties), the coronaviruses and the Hantavirus as well as bacterial causes, specifically the pneumonic form of Yersinia pestis and melioidosis are discussed.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129490/rnalater-%C3%A2-is-a-viable-storage-option-for-avian-influenza-sampling-in-logistically-challenging-conditions
#8
Michelle Wille, Hong Yin, Åke Lundkvist, Juan Xu, Shaman Muradrasoli, Josef D Järhult
Surveillance of wild birds is critical in monitoring for highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV). However, a successful surveillance regime requires proper treatment of samples in the field - rapid placement of samples in -80°C and subsequent maintenance of cold-chain. Given the logistical difficulties of this, many avian taxa and/or geographic locations are not sampled, or, when sampled may result in false negatives due to poor sample treatment in the field. Here, we assessed the utility of RNAlater(®) as a stabilization agent for AIV sampling...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129489/development-and-application-of-a-triplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-avian-influenza-virus-subtype-h5-h7-and-h9
#9
Junli Liu, Lu Yao, Feifei Zhai, Yuqing Chen, Jing Lei, Zhenwei Bi, Jianhua Hu, Qian Xiao, Suquan Song, Liping Yan, Jiyong Zhou
Avian influenza virus (AIV), especially subtypes H5, H7 and H9, has contributed to enormous economic losses and poses a potential pandemic threat to global human public health. Early screening of suspected cases is key to controlling the spread of AIVs. In this study, an accurate, rapid, and triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of AIV subtypes H5, H7 and H9. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR was at least 100 times higher than that of the conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 50 copies and an EID50 of 1 (50% egg infections dose) for the H5, H7, and H9 subtypes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128273/epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-humans-with-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-infection-in-guangdong-china-2013-2017
#10
Yuwei Yang, Haojie Zhong, Tie Song, Jianfeng He, Lan Guo, Xiaohua Tan, Guofeng Huang, Min Kang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with A (H7N9) infection, to test the differences in the distribution of demographics and clinical characteristics by clinical severity, and to explore potential factors associated with clinical severity. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted to collect epidemiological and clinical information regarding the confirmed cases in Guangdong through field investigation and review of medical records...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126666/preparation-and-immunological-evaluation-of-inactivated-avian-influenza-virus-vaccine-encapsulated-in-chitosan-nanoparticles
#11
Samah H Mohamed, Abdel Satar Arafa, Wesam H Mady, Hanan A Fahmy, Lamiaa M Omer, Rania E Morsi
Efficacy maximization of inactivated avian influenza vaccine using safe adjuvants was investigated. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method with average size of 150 nm and their Zeta potential was 11.5 mV. After encapsulation of avian influenza vaccine, the average size was 397 nm and Zeta potential was 4.29 mV. The highest HI antibody titer results were shown in chicken group vaccinated with inactivated avian influenza virus AIV-chitosan followed by the group vaccinated with inactivated AIV-chitosan nanoparticles then the group vaccinated with oil inactivated AIV vaccine, on using chicken antigen at 2 weeks post second vaccination...
November 8, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124060/avian-influenza-virus-surveillance-in-south-central-spain-using-fecal-samples-of-aquatic-birds-foraging-at-landfills
#12
Andreia Bárbara, Olalla Torrontegi, Maria-Cruz Camacho, Marta Barral, Jose-Manuel Hernández, Ursula Höfle
Aquatic wild birds have been intensively studied to better understand their role in avian influenza virus (AIV) maintenance and spread. To date, AIV surveillance has primarily focused on natural aquatic environments where different bird species aggregate and viral survival is enhanced. However, artificial habitats such as landfills are attracting substantial numbers of wild birds, AIV reservoir species included. The use of landfills as a predictable food source has significantly influenced population size, migratory traits, and feeding behavior of white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) among others...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118117/a-y161f-hemagglutinin-substitution-increases-thermostability-and-improves-yields-of-2009-h1n1-influenza-a-virus-in-cells
#13
Feng Wen, Lei Li, Nan Zhao, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Jim Cooley, Richard Webby, Peng George Wang, Xiu-Feng Wan
Vaccination is the primary strategy for influenza prevention and control. Yet egg-based vaccines, the predominant production platform, have several disadvantages including the emergence of viral antigenic variants that can be induced during egg passage. These limitations have prompted development of cell-based vaccines which themselves are not without issue. Most importantly, vaccine seed viruses often do not grow efficiently in mammalian cell lines. Here we aimed to identify novel high-yield signatures for influenza viruses in continuous Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115743/survivability-of-low-pathogenic-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-water-in-the-presence-of-atyopsis-moluccensis-bamboo-shrimp
#14
A P Pathak, H V Murugkar, S Nagarajan, R Sood, C Tosh, M Kumar, C K Athira, A Praveen
Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) exhibits an ecological climax with the aquatic ecosystem. The most widely prevalent subtype of LPAIV is H9N2. Wild aquatic birds being the natural reservoirs and ducks, the "Trojan horses" for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), can contaminate the natural water bodies inhabited by them. The virus can persist in the contaminated water from days to years depending upon the environmental conditions. Various aquatic species other than ducks can promote the persistence and transmission of AIV; however, studies on the role of aquatic fauna in persistence and transmission of avian influenza virus are scarce...
November 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113821/multiple-adaptive-amino-acid-substitutions-increase-the-virulence-of-a-wild-waterfowl-origin-reassortant-h5n8-avian-influenza-virus-in-mice
#15
Zhijun Yu, Kaihui Cheng, Weiyang Sun, Xinghai Zhang, Xianzhu Xia, Yuwei Gao
A novel H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) caused poultry outbreaks in the Republic of Korea in 2014. The novel H5N8 HPAIV has spread to Asia, Europe, and North America and caused great public concern from then on. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a wild waterfowl-origin H5N8 HPAIV to identify adaptive mutants that confer enhanced pathogenicity in mammals. The mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of the mouse-adapted variants were reduced 31623-fold compared to the wild-type (WT) virus. Mouse-adapted variants displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and expanded tissue tropism in mice...
November 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104227/inter-species-host-gene-expression-differences-in-response-to-human-and-avian-influenza-a-virus-strains
#16
Biruhalem Taye, Dawn Yeo, Raphael Tze Chuen Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Richard J Sugrue, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are a source of sporadic human infections and could also contribute to future pandemic outbreaks but little is known about inter-species differences in the host responses to these viruses. Here, we studied host gene expression signatures of cell lines from three species (human, chicken, and canine) in response to six different viruses (H1N1/WSN, H5N2/F59, H5N2/F118, H5N2/F189, H5N3 and H9N2). Comprehensive microarray probe set re-annotation and ortholog mapping of the host genes was necessary to allow comparison over extended functionally annotated gene sets and orthologous pathways...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104094/a-two-year-monitoring-period-of-the-genetic-properties-of-clade-2-3-2-1c-h5n1-viruses-in-nigeria-reveals-the-emergence-and-co-circulation-of-distinct-genotypes
#17
Agnes Laleye, Tony Joannis, Ismaila Shittu, Clement Meseko, Gianpiero Zamperin, Adelaide Milani, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Isabella Monne, Celia Abolnik
Phylogenetic analyses of the complete genomes of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2.3.2.1c H5N1 virus strains causing outbreaks in Nigeria's poultry population from 2014 to 2016 showed evidence of distinct co-circulating genotypes and the emergence of reassortant viruses. One of these reassortants became the predominant strain by 2016, and the NA protein of this strain possessed the V96A substitution known to confer reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibiting antiviral drugs. Our findings also demonstrated evolutionary relationships between Nigerian isolates and European and Middle Eastern strains of H5N1 which provides further evidence for the proposed role of migratory birds in spreading the virus, although the involvement of the live poultry trade cannot be excluded...
November 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103391/identifying-the-genetic-basis-for-resistance-to-avian-influenza-in-commercial-egg-layer-chickens
#18
W Drobik-Czwarno, A Wolc, J E Fulton, J Arango, T Jankowski, N P O'Sullivan, J C M Dekkers
Two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks have affected commercial egg production flocks in the American continent in recent years; a H7N3 outbreak in Mexico in 2012 that caused 70% to 85% mortality and a H5N2 outbreak in the United States in 2015 with over 99% mortality. Blood samples were obtained from survivors of each outbreak and from age and genetics matched non-affected controls. A total of 485 individuals (survivors and controls) were genotyped with a 600 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to detect genomic regions that influenced the outcome of highly pathogenic influenza infection in the two outbreaks...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102115/molecular-epidemiology-of-swine-influenza-a-viruses-in-the-southeastern-united-states-highlights-regional-differences-in-circulating-strains
#19
Constantinos S Kyriakis, Ming Zhang, Stefan Wolf, Les P Jones, Byoung-Shik Shim, Anna H Chocallo, Jarod M Hanson, MingRui Jia, Dong Liu, Ralph A Tripp
Swine influenza A virus (IAV) can cause widespread respiratory disease with high morbidity, low mortality, and have a substantial economic impact to the swine industry. Swine infection may contribute to pandemic IAV given their susceptibility to both avian and human IAVs. Currently, three IAV subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2) circulate in swine in North America frequently combining gene segments from avian or human viruses. This study investigated the prevalence of IAV in commercial swine herds. A total of 1878 oral fluid samples were collected from pigs of all ages from 201 commercial farms located in North Carolina and South Carolina...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102108/increased-virulence-of-a-pb2-ha-mutant-of-an-avian-h9n2-influenza-strain-after-three-passages-in-porcine-differentiated-airway-epithelial-cells
#20
Wei Yang, Ruth L O Lambertz, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Sarah R Leist, Jürgen Stech, Klaus Schughart, Georg Herrler, Nai-Huei Wu, Fandan Meng
We analyzed the adaptation of influenza viruses to growth in differentiated airway epithelial cells of a new host by passaging an avian H9N2 virus three times in porcine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). Sequence analysis revealed four mutations: one each in the PB2 and NS1 proteins, and two in the HA protein. In this study, we characterized the PB2 mutation G685R by generating recombinant H9N2 viruses containing the PB2 single mutation alone or in combination with one of the HA mutations (A190V or T212I). When analyzed in porcine cells - a tracheal cell line (NPTr) or PCLS - the PB2-685 mutant did not provide a growth advantage and had no effect on the ciliary activity which is a virulence marker of swine influenza viruses...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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