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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691995/phylogeography-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-in-indonesia
#1
E N Njoto, M Scotch, C M Bui, D C Adam, A A Chughtai, C R MacIntyre
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described...
April 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691394/replication-and-pathogenic-potential-of-influenza-a-virus-subtypes-h3-h7-and-h15-from-free-range-ducks-in-bangladesh-in-mammals
#2
Rabeh El-Shesheny, Mohammed M Feeroz, Scott Krauss, Peter Vogel, Pamela McKenzie, Richard J Webby, Robert G Webster
Surveillance of wild aquatic birds and free-range domestic ducks in the Tanguar Haor wetlands in Bangladesh has identified influenza virus subtypes H3N6, H7N1, H7N5, H7N9, and H15N9. Molecular characterization of these viruses indicates their contribution to the genesis of new genotypes of H5N1 influenza viruses from clade 2.3.2.1a that are dominant in poultry markets in Bangladesh as well as to the genesis of the highly pathogenic H5N8 virus currently causing disease outbreaks in domestic poultry in Europe and the Middle East...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691381/genetic-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-emerging-h3n2-canine-influenza-virus
#3
Gairu Li, Ruyi Wang, Cheng Zhang, Shilei Wang, Wanting He, Junyan Zhang, Jie Liu, Yuchen Cai, Jiyong Zhou, Shuo Su
The H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) originated from an avian species. Since its emergence, it has circulated in multiple states and has caused pandemics among dog populations; however, no comprehensive studies have explored the causes driving these ongoing cases. The study of the codon usage patterns of viruses can reveal the genetic changes required for the viruses to adapt to new hosts and the external environment. Here we performed a thorough genetic, evolutionary, and codon usage analysis. We identified three evolutionary H3N2 CIV clades from a timescaled phylogenetic tree, namely, Origin, China, and Korea/USA, by principal component analysis (PCA)...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687218/assessment-of-biosecurity-level-in-small-scale-broiler-farms-in-the-western-highlands-of-cameroon-central-africa
#4
Marc K Kouam, Manjeli Jacouba, Inouss N Nsangou, Alexis Teguia
The recent outbreak of avian influenza in the poultry sector of Cameroon has raised a concern about the level of implementation of biosecurity measures (BM) on poultry farms. Therefore, a study using a questionnaire on 102 randomly selected poultry farms was undertaken. Some measures with high adoption levels (> 90%) included "protection of airing openings of poultry barns by a wire mesh," "no external animal allowed to enter the farm," "respect of all-in all-out principle," "functional footbath," "rodent control," and "feedstuff protection from access to rodents...
April 23, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686993/low-and-high-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5-and-h7-spread-risk-assessment-within-and-between-australian-commercial-chicken-farms
#5
Angela Bullanday Scott, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Mini Singh, Peter Groves, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Black, Marta Hernandez-Jover
This study quantified and compared the probability of avian influenza (AI) spread within and between Australian commercial chicken farms via specified spread pathways using scenario tree mathematical modeling. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature, expert opinion, and a farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 on Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland. Outputs from the models indicate that the probability of no establishment of infection in a shed is the most likely end-point after exposure and infection of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in one chicken for all farm types (non-free range meat chicken, free range meat chicken, cage layer, barn layer, and free range layer farms)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685225/n-halamine-incorporated-antimicrobial-nonwoven-fabrics-for-use-against-avian-influenza-virus
#6
Tian Ren, Teresa V Dormitorio, Mingyu Qiao, Tung-Shi Huang, Jean Weese
Airborne pathogens are one of the most common avenues leading to poultry diseases. Preventing the avian influenza (AI) virus from entering the chicken hatchery house is critical for reducing the spread and transmission of AI disease. Many studies have investigated the incorporation of antimicrobials into air filters to prevent viruses from entering the indoor environment. N-halamines are one of the most effective antimicrobial agents against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. In this study, 1-chloro-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-imidazolidinone (MC, a variety of N-halamine) was coated on nonwoven fabrics to give the fabric antimicrobial activity against the AI virus...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685054/analysis-of-antigen-conservation-and-inactivation-of-gamma-irradiated-avian-influenza-virus-subtype-h9n2
#7
Bahareh Salehi, Farahnaz Motamedi-Sedeh, Omid Madadgar, Iraj Khalili, Arash Ghalyan Chi Langroudi, Hermann Unger, Viskam Wijewardana
Avian influenza (AI) A subtype H9N2 virus belongs to Orthomyxoviridae family and causes low-pathogenic disease AI. The use of gamma-irradiated viral antigens has been developed in the production of effective vaccines. In this research, LPAIV H9N2 strain, A/Chicken/IRN/Ghazvin/2001, was multiplied on SPF eggs and irradiated by a Nordian gamma cell instrument. Irradiated and non-irradiated AI virus (AIV) samples were titrated by EID50 method and hemagglutinin (HA) antigen was analyzed by HA test as the WHO pattern method...
April 24, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681998/global-dynamics-of-an-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-epidemic-model-with-latent-period-and-nonlinear-recovery-rate
#8
Rui Mu, Youping Yang
An SEIR type of compartmental model with nonlinear incidence and recovery rates was formulated to study the combined impacts of psychological effect and available resources of public health system especially the number of hospital beds on the transmission and control of A(H7N9) virus. Global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria is determined by the basic reproduction number as a threshold parameter and is obtained by constructing Lyapunov function and second additive compound matrix. The results obtained reveal that psychological effect and available resources do not change the stability of the steady states but can indeed diminish the peak and the final sizes of the infected...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675804/lactobacillus-plantarum-displaying-conserved-m2e-and-ha2-fusion-antigens-induces-protection-against-influenza-virus-challenge
#9
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Liang Zhao, Yu-Bei Jin, Yan-Long Jiang, Hai-Bin Huang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Guan Wang, Yuan-Huan Kang, Chun-Feng Wang
Avian influenza virus (AIV) can infect poultry, mammals, and other hosts and causes enormous economic losses to the global poultry industry. In this study, to develop a novel and potent oral vaccine based on Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) for controlling the spread of AIV in the poultry industry, we constructed a recombinant L. plantarum strain displaying the 3M2e-HA2 protein of the influenza virus and determined the effect of N/pgsA'-3M2e-HA2 against AIV in chicks. We first confirmed that the 3M2e-HA2 fusion protein was expressed on the surface of L...
April 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675418/comparative-epidemiology-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-h5n1-and-h5n6-in-vietnamese-live-bird-markets-spatiotemporal-patterns-of-distribution-and-risk-factors
#10
Kate C Mellor, Anne Meyer, Doaa A Elkholly, Guillaume Fournié, Pham T Long, Ken Inui, Pawin Padungtod, Marius Gilbert, Scott H Newman, Timothée Vergne, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Kim B Stevens
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been circulating in Vietnam since 2003, whilst outbreaks of HPAI H5N6 virus are more recent, having only been reported since 2014. Although the spatial distribution of H5N1 outbreaks and risk factors for virus occurrence has been extensively studied, there have been no comparative studies for H5N6. Data collected through active surveillance of Vietnamese live bird markets (LBMs) between 2011 and 2015 were used to explore and compare the spatiotemporal distributions of H5N1- and H5N6-positive LBMs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673109/risk-factors-associated-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-subtype-h5n8-outbreaks-on-broiler-duck-farms-in-south-korea
#11
W-H Kim, J-U An, J Kim, O-K Moon, S H Bae, J B Bender, S Cho
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in South Korea in 2014 resulting in significant damage to the poultry industry. Between 2014 and 2016, the pandemic disease caused significant economic loss and social disruption. To evaluate the risk factors for HPAI infection in broiler duck farms, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on broiler duck farms. Forty-three farms with confirmed laboratories on premises were selected as the case group, and 43 HPAI-negative farms were designated as the control group...
April 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673075/limited-pathogenicity-and-transmissibility-of-korean-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n6-clade-2-3-4-4-in-ferrets
#12
J-Y Noh, D-H Lee, S-S Yuk, J-H Kwon, E-O Tseren-Ochir, W-T Hong, J-H Jeong, S Jeong, C-S Song
The pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza A (H5N6) virus were evaluated in ferrets. Virus excretion was detected in the upper respiratory tract, but the ferrets did not show any clinical signs of infection. Transmission did not occur between cohoused or respiratory droplet-contact ferrets.
April 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671336/vidit-cactus-an-inexpensive-and-versatile-library-preparation-and-sequence-analysis-method-for-virus-discovery-and-other-microbiology-applications
#13
Joost Theo Petra Verhoeven, Marta Canuti, Hannah J Munro, Suzanne C Dufour, Andrew S Lang
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are becoming increasingly important within microbiology research, but aspects of library preparation, such as high cost per sample or strict input requirements, make HTS difficult to implement in some niche applications and for research groups on a budget. To answer these necessities, we developed ViDiT, a customizable, PCR-based, extremely low-cost (<5 US dollars per sample) and versatile library preparation method, and CACTUS, an analysis pipeline designed to rely on cloud computing power to generate high-quality data from ViDiT-based experiments without the need of expensive servers...
April 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670587/influenza-viral-vectors-expressing-two-kinds-of-ha-proteins-as-bivalent-vaccine-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-of-clade-2-3-4-4-h5-and-h7n9
#14
Jinping Li, Guangyu Hou, Yan Wang, Suchun Wang, Cheng Peng, Xiaohui Yu, Wenming Jiang
The H5 and H7N9 subtypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in China pose a serious challenge to public health and the poultry industry. In this study, a replication competent recombinant influenza A virus of the Í5N1 subtype expressing the H7 HA1 protein from a tri-cistronic NS segment was constructed. A heterologous dimerization domain was used to combine with the truncated NS1 protein of 73 amino acids to increase protein stability. H7 HA1, nuclear export protein coding region, and the truncated NS1 were fused in-frame into a single open reading frame via 2A self-cleaving peptides...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670227/simultaneous-detection-of-eight-avian-influenza-a-virus-subtypes-by-multiplex-reverse-transcription-pcr-using-a-gexp-analyser
#15
Meng Li, Zhixun Xie, Zhiqin Xie, Jiabo Liu, Liji Xie, Xianwen Deng, Sisi Luo, Qing Fan, Li Huang, Jiaoling Huang, Yanfang Zhang, Tingting Zeng, Sheng Wang
Recent studies have demonstrated that at least eight subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) can infect humans, including H1, H2, H3, H5, H6, H7, H9 and H10. A GeXP analyser-based multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (GeXP-multiplex RT-PCR) assay was developed in our recent studies to simultaneously detect these eight AIV subtypes using the haemagglutinin (HA) gene. The assay consists of chimeric primer-based PCR amplification with fluorescent labelling and capillary electrophoresis separation. RNA was extracted from chick embryo allantoic fluid or liquid cultures of viral isolates...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670093/wild-ducks-excrete-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-h5n8-2014-2015-without-clinical-or-pathological-evidence-of-disease
#16
Judith M A van den Brand, Josanne H Verhagen, Edwin J B Veldhuis Kroeze, Marco W G van de Bildt, Rogier Bodewes, Sander Herfst, Mathilde Richard, Pascal Lexmond, Theo M Bestebroer, Ron A M Fouchier, Thijs Kuiken
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is essentially a poultry disease. Wild birds have traditionally not been involved in its spread, but the epidemiology of HPAI has changed in recent years. After its emergence in southeastern Asia in 1996, H5 HPAI virus of the Goose/Guangdong lineage has evolved into several sub-lineages, some of which have spread over thousands of kilometers via long-distance migration of wild waterbirds. In order to determine whether the virus is adapting to wild waterbirds, we experimentally inoculated the HPAI H5N8 virus clade 2...
April 18, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669294/a-gene-constellation-in-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-viruses-may-have-facilitated-the-fifth-wave-outbreak-in-china
#17
Wenfei Zhu, Jie Dong, Ye Zhang, Lei Yang, Xiyan Li, Tao Chen, Xiang Zhao, Hejiang Wei, Hong Bo, Xiaoxu Zeng, Weijuan Huang, Zi Li, Jing Tang, Jianfang Zhou, Rongbao Gao, Li Xin, Jing Yang, Shumei Zou, Wenbing Chen, Jia Liu, Yuelong Shu, Dayan Wang
The 2016-2017 epidemic of influenza A (H7N9) virus in China prompted concern that a genetic change may underlie increased virulence. Based on an evolutionary analysis of H7N9 viruses from all five outbreak waves, we find that additional subclades of the H7 and N9 genes have emerged. Our analysis indicates that H7N9 viruses inherited NP genes from co-circulating H7N9 instead of H9N2 viruses. Genotypic diversity among H7N9 viruses increased following wave I, peaked during wave III, and rapidly deceased thereafter with minimal diversity in wave V, suggesting that the viruses entered a relatively stable evolutionary stage...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666618/reassortant-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-bearing-pb2-gene-from-a-2009-pandemic-h1n1-exhibits-increased-pathogenicity-in-mice
#18
Xian Lin, Shiman Yu, Kelei Guo, Xin Sun, Haiming Yi, Meilin Jin
Reassortment is a key driving force of the evolution and host adaptation of the influenza virus. A(H1N1)pdm2009 (pdm09), a novel H1N1 influenza viral subtype, caused a pandemic in 2009. The strain was established in pig herds and cocirculated with the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. The coexistence of pdm09 with H5N1 raises concerns that reassortment may cause the development of novel viral strains with unpredictable virulence. Given that the viral polymerase subunit PB2 is a determinant of host range and pathogenicity, and that the substantial amino acid differences in PB2 between pdm09 and H5N1, including positions 590/591 and 271, which are shown to play key roles in enhanced polymerase activity in mammalian host cells, we generated a reassortant virus containing PB2 derived from a pdm09 (A/Liaoning/1/2009, LN/09) to investigate if pdm09-derived PB2 can function in a heterologous avian virus isolate as an adaptive strategy, with H5N1 (A/duck/Hubei/hangmei01/2006, HM/06) as the backbone...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657407/intranasal-administration-of-inactivated-avian-influenza-virus-of-h5n1-subtype-vaccine-induced-systemic-immune-response-in-chicken-and-mice
#19
I N Suartha, G A A Suartini, I W Wirata, N M A R K Dewi, G N N Putra, G A Y Kencana, G N Mahardika
Aim: The need for non-parenteral administration of inactivated avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (AIV-H5N1) vaccine is paramount. Here, we provide preliminary data on the immune response of chicken and mice after intranasal administration of AIV-H5N1-inactivated vaccine with ISCOMS, Inmunair (INM), and combined ISCOMS and INM as an adjuvant. Materials and Methods: The AIV isolate of A/Chicken/Denpasar/01/2004 (H5N1) was cultivated in specific pathogen-free chicken eggs and inactivated with formaldehyde...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651056/evidence-of-exposure-of-domestic-pigs-to-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-in-nigeria
#20
Clement Meseko, Anja Globig, Jeremiah Ijomanta, Tony Joannis, Chika Nwosuh, David Shamaki, Timm Harder, Donata Hoffman, Anne Pohlmann, Martin Beer, Thomas Mettenleiter, Elke Starick
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) potentially transmit to swine as shown by experiments, where further reassortment may contribute to the generation of pandemic strains. Associated risks of AIV inter-species transmission are greater in countries like Nigeria with recurrent epidemics of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) in poultry and significant pig population. Analysis of 129 tracheal swab specimens collected from apparently healthy pigs at slaughterhouse during presence of HPAI virus H5N1 in poultry in Nigeria for influenza A by RT-qPCR yielded 43 positive samples...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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