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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640898/competition-between-influenza-a-virus-subtypes-through-heterosubtypic-immunity-modulates-re-infection-and-antibody-dynamics-in-the-mallard-duck
#1
Neus Latorre-Margalef, Justin D Brown, Alinde Fojtik, Rebecca L Poulson, Deborah Carter, Monique Franca, David E Stallknecht
Our overall hypothesis is that host population immunity directed at multiple antigens will influence the prevalence, diversity and evolution of influenza A virus (IAV) in avian populations where the vast subtype diversity is maintained. To investigate how initial infection influences the outcome of later infections with homologous or heterologous IAV subtypes and how viruses interact through host immune responses, we carried out experimental infections in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Mallards were pre-challenged with an H3N8 low-pathogenic IAV and were divided into six groups...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638471/rapid-detection-of-avian-influenza-virus-by-fluorescent-diagnostic-assay-using-an-epitope-derived-peptide
#2
Duong Tuan Bao, Do Thi Hoang Kim, Hyun Park, Bui Thi Cuc, Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Phuong Linh, Nguyen Chien Huu, Trinh Thi Thuy Tien, Nguyen Thi Viet Anh, Tung Dao Duy, Chom-Kyu Chong, Seung-Taek Yu, Do-Young Choi, Seon-Ju Yeo
Currently, the point of care testing (POCT) is not fully developed for subtype-specific avian influenza virus detection. In this study, an H5N1 hemaglutinin 1 (HA1) epitope (P0: KPNDAINF) and three modified peptides (P1: KPNTAINF, P2: KPNGAINF, P3: KPNDAINDAINF) were evaluated as POCT elements for rapid detection of avian influenza virus. Based on modeling predictions by Autodock Vina, binding affinity varied depending on alteration of one amino acid in these peptides. The binding energy of P2 indicated its potential for a strong interaction with HA...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637471/enhanced-humoural-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-fused-with-flagellin-in-chickens
#3
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Sudden increases in the number of human A (H7N9) cases reported during December and January have been observed in previous years. Most reported infection cases are due to prior exposure to live poultry or potentially contaminated environments. Low pathogenicity of influenza A (H7N9) virus in avian species complicates timely discovery of infected birds. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry to reduce the risk of human infection and prevent the emergence of novel mutated strains...
June 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636164/a-nanostructured-microfluidic-immunoassay-platform-for-highly-sensitive-infectious-pathogen-detection
#4
Xu Yu, Yiqiu Xia, Yi Tang, Wen-Long Zhang, Yin-Ting Yeh, Huaguang Lu, Si-Yang Zheng
Rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple potential pathogens by portable devices can facilitate early diagnosis of infectious diseases, and allow for rapid and effective implementation of disease prevention and treatment measures. The development of a ZnO nanorod integrated microdevice as a multiplex immunofluorescence platform for highly sensitive and selective detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) is described. The 3D morphology and unique optical property of the ZnO nanorods boost the detection limit of the H5N2 AIV to as low as 3...
June 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635590/imbalance-between-innate-antiviral-and-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-may-contribute-to-different-outcomes-involving-low-and-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n3-infections-in-chickens
#5
John Pasick, Sandra Diederich, Yohannes Berhane, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Wanhong Xu
In order to gain further insight into the early virus-host interactions associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infections in chickens, genome-wide expression profiling of chicken lung and brain was carried out at 24 and 72 h post-inoculation (h p.i.). For this purpose two recombinant H5N3 viruses were utilized, each possessing a polybasic HA0 cleavage site but differing in pathogenicity. The original rH5N3 P0 virus, which has a low-pathogenic phenotype, was passaged six times through chickens to give rise to the derivative rH5N3 P6 virus, which is highly pathogenic (Diederich S, Berhane Y, Embury-Hyatt C, Hisanaga T, Handel K et al...
June 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633988/a-cross-clade-h5n1-influenza-a-virus-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibody-binds-to-a-novel-epitope-within-the-vestigial-esterase-domain-of-hemagglutinin
#6
Subha Sankar Paul, Chee-Keng Mok, Tze-Minn Mak, Oi-Wing Ng, James Odame Aboagye, Teddy John Wohlbold, Florian Krammer, Yee-Joo Tan
The sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus have raised public health concerns. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against hemagglutinin (HA) have been increasingly used successfully for therapeutic purposes. Previously, MAb 9F4, generated against clade 1 H5N1 HA, was observed to have cross-clade neutralizing efficacy and inhibited viral entry by preventing the pH-mediated conformational change of HA. Furthermore, mouse-human chimeric MAb 9F4 was found to retain high degrees of neutralizing activity...
June 17, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633891/aids-avian-flu-sars-mers-ebola-zika%C3%A2-what-next
#7
REVIEW
Leslie A Reperant, Albert D M E Osterhaus
Emerging infections have threatened humanity since times immemorial. The dramatic anthropogenic, behavioral and social changes that have affected humanity and the environment in the past century have accelerated the intrusion of novel pathogens into the global human population, sometimes with devastating consequences. The AIDS and influenza pandemics have claimed and will continue to claim millions of lives. The recent SARS and Ebola epidemics have threatened populations across borders. The emergence of MERS may well be warning signals of a nascent pandemic threat, while the potential for geographical spread of vector-borne diseases, such as Zika, but also Dengue and Chikungunya is unprecedented...
June 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633491/optimization-of-inactivated-h5n9-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-vaccine-and-inactivated-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vaccine-with-antigen-dose-and-prime-boost-regimen-in-domestic-ducks
#8
Seong-Su Yuk, Eredene-Ochir To, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Chang-Seon Song
Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain...
June 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632789/movement-and-contact-patterns-of-long-distance-free-grazing-ducks-and-avian-influenza-persistence-in-vietnam
#9
Anne Meyer, Tung Xuan Dinh, Thu Van Nhu, Long Thanh Pham, Scott Newman, Thuy Thi Thanh Nguyen, Dirk Udo Pfeiffer, Timothée Vergne
Presence of ducks, and in particular of free-grazing ducks, has consistently been shown to be one of the most important risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks which has compromised poultry production in South-East Asia since the early 2000s and continues to threaten public health, farmers' livelihood and food security. Although free-grazing duck production has been practised for decades in South-East Asia, there are few published studies describing this production system, which is suspected to play an important role in the maintenance of avian influenza viruses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632771/avian-influenza-in-latin-america-a-systematic-review-of-serological-and-molecular-studies-from-2000-2015
#10
Alejandra Afanador-Villamizar, Carlos Gomez-Romero, Andres Diaz, Julian Ruiz-Saenz
Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631606/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-clade-2-3-2-1-and-clade-2-3-4-viruses-do-not-induce-a-clade-specific-phenotype-in-mallard-ducks
#11
Mariette Ducatez, Stephanie Sonnberg, Jeri Carol Crumpton, Adam Rubrum, Phouvong Phommachanh, Bounlom Douangngeun, Malik Peiris, Yi Guan, Robert Webster, Richard Webby
Among the diverse clades of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses of the goose/Guangdong lineage, only a few have been able to spread across continents: clade 2.2 viruses spread from China to Europe and into Africa in 2005-2006, clade 2.3.2.1 viruses spread from China to Eastern Europe in 2009-2010 and clade 2.3.4.4 viruses of the H5Nx subtype spread from China to Europe and North America in 2014/2015. While the poultry trade and wild-bird migration have been implicated in the spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses, it has been proposed that robust virus-shedding by wild ducks in the absence of overt clinical signs may have contributed to the wider dissemination of the clade 2...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629971/survey-of-pathogens-in-threatened-wild-red-tailed-amazon-parrot-amazona-brasiliensis-nestlings-in-rasa-island-brazil
#12
Frederico Fontanelli Vaz, Patrícia Pereira Serafini, Rosangela Locatelli-Dittrich, Rafael Meurer, Edison Luiz Durigon, Jansen de Araújo, Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli, Tatiana Ometto, Elenise Angelotti Bastos Sipinski, Rafael Meirelles Sezerban, Maria Cecília Abbud, Tânia Freitas Raso
The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis...
June 3, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625993/survival-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-tissues-derived-from-experimentally-infected-chickens
#13
Yu Yamamoto, Kikuyasu Nakamura, Masaji Mase
Eurasian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has been a severe threat to the poultry industry since its emergence in 1996. The carcass or tissues derived from infected birds may have the risk of the virus spreading to humans, animals, and the surrounding environment. In this study, we investigated the survival of the virus in feather, muscle, and liver tissues collected from six chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with H5N1 HPAI virus. The tissues were stored at +4°C or +20°C and viral isolation was performed at different times for 360 days...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624926/limited-awareness-of-animal-influenza-prevention-and-control-among-dai-lue-smallholder-farmers-in-southwest-china
#14
Xiang Zhao, Gareth Davey
Awareness of animal influenza and its prevention and control is important for ensuring livestock health, production and welfare. In China, a country stereotyped as a major source of emerging zoonotic infectious diseases, research on the public understanding of animal influenza is limited to the Han, the main ethnic group. The present qualitative study in Southwest China investigated awareness of animal influenza among the Dai, an ethnic minority. The participants (15 men and 10 women, ages 18-83) were smallholder farmers of pigs and poultry in rural areas of Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province...
June 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624679/neuraminidase-based-recombinant-virus-like-particles-protect-against-lethal-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-virus-infection-in-ferrets
#15
Gale E Smith, Xiangjie Sun, Yaohui Bai, Ye V Liu, Michael J Massare, Melissa B Pearce, Jessica A Belser, Taronna R Maines, Hannah M Creager, Gregory M Glenn, David Flyer, Peter Pushko, Min Z Levine, Terrence M Tumpey
Avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses represent a growing threat for an influenza pandemic. The presence of widespread avian influenza virus infections further emphasizes the need for vaccine strategies for control of pre-pandemic H5N1 and other avian influenza subtypes. Influenza neuraminidase (NA) vaccines represent a potential strategy for improving vaccines against avian influenza H5N1 viruses. To evaluate a strategy for NA vaccination, we generated a recombinant influenza virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine comprised of the NA protein of A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) virus...
June 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623934/serological-and-virological-surveillance-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-domestic-ducks-of-the-north-east-region-of-bangladesh
#16
Rahul Deb Sarker, Mohammad Giasuddin, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam
BACKGROUND: Wild waterfowl are considered as the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Bangladesh has been experiencing highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks since 2007, mostly in chickens and occasionally in ducks. Ducks play an important role in the persistence and genetic recombination of AI viruses. This paper presents the results of serological and virological monitoring of AI in domestic ducks in 2013 in the north-east region of Bangladesh. RESULTS: A total of 871 and 662 serum samples and 909 and 302 pairs of cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs from domestic ducks of Mymensingh and Sylhet division, respectively, were analysed...
June 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622865/pa-x-protein-decreases-replication-and-pathogenicity-of-swine-influenza-virus-in-cultured-cells-and-mouse-models
#17
Xiao-Qian Gong, Ying-Feng Sun, Bao-Yang Ruan, Xiao-Min Liu, Qi Wang, Hai-Ming Yang, Shuai-Yong Wang, Peng Zhang, Xiu-Hui Wang, Tong-Ling Shan, Wu Tong, Yan-Jun Zhou, Guo-Xin Li, Hao Zheng, Guang-Zhi Tong, Hai Yu
Swine influenza viruses have been circulating in pigs throughout world and might be potential threats to human health. PA-X protein is a newly discovered protein produced from the PA gene by ribosomal frameshifting and the effects of PA-X on the 1918 H1N1, the pandemic 2009 H1N1, the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the avian H9N2 influenza viruses have been reported. However, the role of PA-X in the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus is still unknown. In this study, we rescued the H1N1 wild-type (WT) classical swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (H1N1)) and H1N1 PA-X deficient virus containing mutations at the frameshift motif, and compared their replication properties and pathogenicity of swine influenza virus in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622853/preexisting-salmonella-specific-immunity-interferes-with-the-subsequent-development-of-immune-responses-against-the-salmonella-strains-delivering-h9n2-hemagglutinin
#18
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
Recombinant Salmonella strains expressing foreign heterologous antigens have been extensively studied as promising live vaccine delivery vehicles. In this study, we constructed attenuated smooth (S-HA) and rough (R-HA) Salmonella strains expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of H9N2, a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus. We then investigated the HA-specific immune responses following oral immunization with either S-HA or R-HA strain in chicken model. We further examined the effects of the preexisting anti-Salmonella immunity on the subsequent elicitation of the HA and the Salmonella ompA specific immune responses...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620809/single-gene-reassortment-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-in-the-low-pathogenic-h9n2-backbone-and-its-impact-on-pathogenicity-and-infectivity-of-novel-reassortant-viruses
#19
Yassmin Moatasim, Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Sary Khaleel Abd Elghaffar, Rabeh El Shesheny, Ahmed Helmy M Elwahy, Mohamed Ahmed Ali
Avian influenza A H5N1 and H9N2 viruses have been extensively circulating in various avian species and frequently infect mammals, including humans. The synchronous circulation of both viruses in Egypt provides an opportunity for possible genetic assortment, posing a probable threat to global public health. To assess the potential risk of the IAV reassortants derived from co-circulation of these two AI subtypes, reverse genetics technology was used to generate a set of IAV reassortants carrying single genetic segments of clade 2...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620679/are-poultry-or-wild-birds-the-main-reservoirs-for-avian-influenza-in-bangladesh
#20
Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Md Ahasanul Hoque, Nitish Chandra Debnath, Mat Yamage, Marcel Klaassen
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are of great socioeconomic and health concern, notably in Southeast Asia where highly pathogenic strains, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and other H5 and H7 AIVs, continue to occur. Wild bird migrants are often implicated in the maintenance and spread of AIV. However, little systematic surveillance of wild birds has been conducted in Southeast Asia to evaluate whether the prevalence of AIV in wild birds is higher than in other parts of the world where HPAI outbreaks occur less frequently...
June 15, 2017: EcoHealth
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