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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829296/development-and-characterization-of-electronic-cigarette-exposure-generation-system-ecig-egs-for-the-physico-chemical-and-toxicological-assessment-of-electronic-cigarette-emissions
#1
Jiayuan Zhao, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Electronic cigarettes (e-cig) have been introduced as a nicotine replacement therapy and have gained increasing attention and popularity. However, while findings on possible toxicological implications continue to grow, major knowledge gaps on both the complex chemistry of the exposure and toxicity exist, prohibiting public health assessors from assessing risks. Here, a versatile electronic cigarette exposure generation system (Ecig-EGS) has been developed and characterized. Ecig-EGS allows generation of real world e-cig emission profiles under controlled operational conditions, real time monitoring and time-integrated particle/gas sampling for physico-chemical characterization, and toxicological assessment (both in vitro and in vivo)...
November 10, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798321/detection-of-5-hydroxymethylfurfural-and-furfural-in-the-aerosol-of-electronic-cigarettes
#2
Sarah Soussy, Ahmad El-Hellani, Rima Baalbaki, Rola Salman, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
SIGNIFICANCE: The wide availability of sweet flavours has been hypothesised as a factor in the popularity of electronic cigarette (ECIG), especially among youth. Saccharides, which are commonly used to impart a sweet flavour to ECIG liquids, thermally degrade to produce toxic compounds, like aldehydes and furans. This study investigates the formation of furanic compounds in aerosols when ECIG liquid solutions of varying sweetener concentrations are vaped under different power and puff duration...
October 25, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798087/nicotine-and-carbonyl-emissions-from-popular-electronic-cigarette-products-correlation-to-liquid-composition-and-design-characteristics
#3
Ahmad El-Hellani, Rola Salman, Rachel El-Hage, Soha Talih, Nathalie Malek, Rima Baalbaki, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Rima Nakkash, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
INTRODUCTION: Available in hundreds of device designs and thousands of flavors, electronic cigarette (ECIG) may have differing toxicant emission characteristics. This study assesses nicotine and carbonyl yields in the most popular brands in the U.S. market. These products included disposable, prefilled cartridge, and tank-based ECIGs. METHODS: Twenty-seven ECIG products of 10 brands were procured and their power outputs were measured. The e-liquids were characterized for pH, nicotine concentration, propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) ratio, and water content...
October 7, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768968/expanding-clinical-laboratory-tobacco-product-evaluation-methods-to-loose-leaf-tobacco-vaporizers
#4
Alexa A Lopez, Marzena Hiler, Sarah Maloney, Thomas Eissenberg, Alison B Breland
BACKGROUND: Novel tobacco products entering the US market include electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) and products advertised to "heat, not burn" tobacco. There is a growing literature regarding the acute effects of ECIGs. Less is known about "heat, not burn" products. This study's purpose was to expand existing clinical laboratory methods to examine, in cigarette smokers, the acute effects of a "heat, not burn" "loose-leaf tobacco vaporizer" (LLTV). METHODS: Plasma nicotine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and tobacco abstinence symptom severity were measured before and after two 10-puff (30-s interpuff interval) product use bouts separated by 60min...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717371/basic-science-of-electronic-cigarettes-assessment-in-cell-culture-and-in-vivo-models
#5
Pieter S Hiemstra, Robert Bals
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, ECIGs) were introduced into the market a decade ago as an alternative to tobacco smoking. Whether ECIGs are safe and whether they qualify as smoking cessation tool is currently unknown. Their use has markedly expanded in that period, despite the fact that potential toxic effects of the vapour created by the e-cigarette and the nicotine-containing cartridge fluid have been incompletely studied. Marketing targets diverse groups including older smokers but also young people...
October 7, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701119/molecular-impact-of-electronic-cigarette-aerosol-exposure-in-human-bronchial-epithelium
#6
Elizabeth Moses, Teresa Wang, Sean Corbett, George R Jackson, Eduard Drizik, Catalina Perdomo, Claudia Perdomo, Eric Kleerup, Daniel Brooks, George O'Connor, Steven Dubinett, Patrick Hayden, Marc E Lenburg, Avrum Spira
Little evidence is available regarding the physiological effects of exposure to electronic cigarette (ECIG) aerosol. We sought to determine the molecular impact of ECIG aerosol exposure in human bronchial epithelial cells. Gene expression profiling was conducted in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) grown at Air Liquid Interface and exposed to one of four different ECIG aerosols, traditional cigarette (TCIG) smoke, or clean air. Findings were validated experimentally with qPCR and a reactive oxygen species immunoassay...
October 3, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613914/the-influence-of-a-mouthpiece-based-topography-measurement-device-on-electronic-cigarette-user-s-plasma-nicotine-concentration-heart-rate-and-subjective-effects-under-directed-and-ad-libitum-use-conditions
#7
Tory R Spindle, Marzena M Hiler, Alison B Breland, Nareg V Karaoghlanian, Alan L Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. METHODS: Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed in 29 experienced e-cigarette users using their preferred e-cigarette battery and liquid (≥12mg/mL nicotine) in two sessions differing only by the presence of a mouthpiece-based device...
July 11, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460860/reasons-for-using-flavored-liquids-among-electronic-cigarette-users-a-concept-mapping-study
#8
Eric K Soule, Alexa A Lopez, Mignonne C Guy, Caroline O Cobb
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize liquids often containing flavorants for inhalation. Few studies have examined the role of flavors in ECIG use. This study's purpose was to examine reasons for flavored ECIG use using a mixed-method approach, concept mapping (CM). METHODS: Forty-six past 30-day adult ECIG users recruited from vape forums/conferences completed three online CM tasks. Participants brainstormed responses to a prompt: "A specific reason I use flavored e-liquid in my electronic cigarette product is…"...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941050/a-transdisciplinary-model-to-inform-randomized-clinical-trial-methods-for-electronic-cigarette-evaluation
#9
Alexa A Lopez, Caroline O Cobb, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, Miao-Shan Yen, Jonathan Foulds, Thomas Eissenberg
BACKGROUND: This study is a systematic evaluation of a novel tobacco product, electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) using a two-site, four-arm, 6-month, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a follow-up to 9 months. Virginia Commonwealth University is the primary site and Penn State University is the secondary site. This RCT design is important because it is informed by analytical work, clinical laboratory results, and qualitative/quantitative findings regarding the specific ECIG products used...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880745/electronic-cigarette-use-and-indoor-air-quality-in-a-natural-setting
#10
Eric K Soule, Sarah F Maloney, Tory R Spindle, Alyssa K Rudy, Marzena M Hiler, Caroline O Cobb
INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke (SHS) from combustible cigarettes causes numerous diseases. Policies have been developed to prevent SHS exposure from indoor cigarette use to reduce health risks to non-smokers. However, fewer policies have been implemented to deter electronic cigarette (ECIG) use indoors, and limited research has examined the impact of secondhand exposure to ECIG aerosol. METHODS: Indoor air quality was measured at a 2-day ECIG event held in a large room at a hotel...
February 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803400/reasons-for-electronic-cigarette-use-beyond-cigarette-smoking-cessation-a-concept-mapping-approach
#11
Eric K Soule, Scott R Rosas, Aashir Nasim
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) continue to grow in popularity, however, limited research has examined reasons for ECIG use. METHODS: This study used an integrated, mixed-method participatory research approach called concept mapping (CM) to characterize and describe adults' reasons for using ECIGs. A total of 108 adults completed a multi-module online CM study that consisted of brainstorming statements about their reasons for ECIG use, sorting each statement into conceptually similar categories, and then rating each statement based on whether it represented a reason why they have used an ECIG in the past month...
May 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26774031/electronic-cigarettes-what-are-they-and-what-do-they-do
#12
Alison Breland, Eric Soule, Alexa Lopez, Carolina Ramôa, Ahmad El-Hellani, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) use electricity to power a heating element that aerosolizes a liquid containing solvents, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine for user inhalation. ECIGs have evolved rapidly in the past 8 years, and the changes in product design and liquid constituents affect the resulting toxicant yield in the aerosol and delivery to the user. This rapid evolution has been accompanied by dramatic increases in ECIG use prevalence in many countries among adults and, especially, adolescents in the United States...
January 15, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26563262/adverse-effects-of-electronic-cigarette-use-a-concept-mapping-approach
#13
Eric K Soule, Aashir Nasim, Scott Rosas
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use has grown rapidly in popularity within a short period of time. As ECIG products continue to evolve and more individuals begin using ECIGs, it is important to understand the potential adverse effects that are associated with ECIG use. The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the acute adverse effects associated with ECIG use. METHODS: This study used an integrated, mixed-method participatory approach called concept mapping (CM)...
May 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377515/effects-of-electronic-cigarette-liquid-nicotine-concentration-on-plasma-nicotine-and-puff-topography-in-tobacco-cigarette-smokers-a-preliminary-report
#14
Alexa A Lopez, Marzena M Hiler, Eric K Soule, Carolina P Ramôa, Nareg V Karaoghlanian, Thokozeni Lipato, Alison B Breland, Alan L Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine in various concentrations. This study examined the extent to which ECIG liquid nicotine concentration is related to user plasma nicotine concentration in ECIG-naïve tobacco cigarette smokers. METHODS: Sixteen ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed four laboratory sessions that differed by the nicotine concentration of the liquid (0, 8, 18, or 36 mg/ml) that was placed into a 1...
May 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26324250/electronic-cigarette-nicotine-delivery-can-exceed-that-of-combustible-cigarettes-a-preliminary-report
#15
Carolina P Ramôa, Marzena M Hiler, Tory R Spindle, Alexa A Lopez, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Thokozeni Lipato, Alison B Breland, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolise a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerine, flavourants and the dependence-producing drug, nicotine, in various concentrations. This laboratory study examined the relationship between liquid nicotine concentration and plasma nicotine concentration and puffing behaviour in experienced ECIG users. METHODS: Sixteen ECIG-experienced participants used a 3.3-Volt ECIG battery attached to a 1...
April 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26272212/acute-exposure-to-electronic-and-combustible-cigarette-aerosols-effects-in-an-animal-model-and-in-human-alveolar-cells
#16
Ahmad Husari, Alan Shihadeh, Soha Talih, Yasmine Hashem, Marwan El Sabban, Ghazi Zaatari
BACKGROUND: Smoking electronic cigarettes (ECIG) is promoted as a safer alternative to smoking combustible cigarettes. This study investigates the effects of ECIG aerosol and cigarette smoke (CS) in an animal model and in human alveolar cell cultures (A549). METHODS: Mice were divided into Control, ECIG, and CS. Animals were exposed for 6h/d to either lab air, ECIG or CS, for of 3 days. Total particulate matter exposure for the ECIG was set at higher levels compared to CS...
May 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26190363/science-and-the-evolving-electronic-cigarette
#17
Alexa A Lopez, Thomas Eissenberg
OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) have continued to gain popularity among the general public since their introduction in 2003. While all ECIGs work by heating a liquid solution into an aerosol that is then inhaled by the user, there are differences in engineering characteristics and appearance of the devices as well as how the liquid is stored and heated, its nicotine concentration, its ratio of propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin, and the flavorants added to the liquid...
November 2015: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26158618/free-base-and-protonated-nicotine-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-and-aerosols
#18
Ahmad El-Hellani, Rachel El-Hage, Rima Baalbaki, Rola Salman, Soha Talih, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
As with other tobacco aerosols, nicotine delivery from e-cigarettes (ECIG) depends on the total nicotine and its partitioning between free-base (Nic) and protonated (NicH(+)) forms. Previous studies of ECIG nicotine emissions have generally reported "nicotine yield" without attention to whether the methods employed resulted in quantification of the total nicotine or only one of its forms, making reported results difficult to compare across studies or to evaluate against reported blood exposure. This study reports a convenient solvent extraction method for determining total nicotine and its partitioning in ECIG liquids and aerosols by gas chromatography...
August 17, 2015: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25998379/electronic-cigarettes-and-nicotine-dependence-evolving-products-evolving-problems
#19
Caroline O Cobb, Peter S Hendricks, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) use an electric heater to aerosolize a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine. ECIG-induced nicotine dependence has become an important concern, as some ECIGs deliver very little nicotine while some may exceed the nicotine delivery profile of a tobacco cigarette. This variability is relevant to tobacco cigarette smokers who try to switch to ECIGs. Products with very low nicotine delivery may not substitute for tobacco cigarettes, so that ECIG use is accompanied by little reduced risk of cigarette-caused disease...
2015: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25863521/-direct-dripping-a-high-temperature-high-formaldehyde-emission-electronic-cigarette-use-method
#20
Soha Talih, Zainab Balhas, Rola Salman, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Alan Shihadeh
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) electrically heat and vaporize a liquid solution to produce an inhalable nicotine-containing aerosol. Normally the electrical heater is fed the liquid via an automatic wick system. Some ECIG users, however, elect to directly drip liquid onto an exposed heater coil, reportedly for greater vapor production and throat hit. Use of such "direct drip atomizers" (DDAs) may involve greater exposure to non-nicotine toxicants due to the potentially higher temperatures reached by the coil...
April 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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