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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957438/e-cigarette-aerosol-exposure-can-cause-craniofacial-defects-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos-and-mammalian-neural-crest-cells
#1
Allyson E Kennedy, Suraj Kandalam, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Amanda J G Dickinson
Since electronic cigarette (ECIG) introduction to American markets in 2007, vaping has surged in popularity. Many, including women of reproductive age, also believe that ECIG use is safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes and is not hazardous when pregnant. However, there are few studies investigating the effects of ECIG exposure on the developing embryo and nothing is known about potential effects on craniofacial development. Therefore, we have tested the effects of several aerosolized e-cigarette liquids (e-cigAM) in an in vivo craniofacial model, Xenopus laevis, as well as a mammalian neural crest cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937746/-juice-monsters-sub-ohm-vaping-and-toxic-volatile-aldehyde-emissions
#2
Soha Talih, Rola Salman, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Ahmad El-Hellani, Najat Saliba, Thomas Eissenberg, Alan Shihadeh
An emerging category of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) is sub-Ohm devices (SODs) that operate at ten or more times the power of conventional ECIGs. Because carcinogenic volatile aldehyde (VA) emissions increase sharply with power, SODs may expose users to greater VAs. In this study, we compared VA emissions from several SODs and found that across device, VAs and power were uncorrelated unless power was normalized by coil surface area. VA emissions and liquid consumed were correlated highly. Analyzed in light of EU regulations limiting ECIG liquid nicotine concentration, these findings suggest potential regulatory levers and pitfalls for protecting public health...
September 29, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882640/toxicity-of-the-main-electronic-cigarette-components-propylene-glycol-glycerin-and-nicotine-in-sprague-dawley-rats-in-a-90-day-oecd-inhalation-study-complemented-by-molecular-endpoints
#3
Blaine Phillips, Bjoern Titz, Ulrike Kogel, Danilal Sharma, Patrice Leroy, Yang Xiang, Grégory Vuillaume, Stefan Lebrun, Davide Sciuscio, Jenny Ho, Catherine Nury, Emmanuel Guedj, Ashraf Elamin, Marco Esposito, Subash Krishnan, Walter K Schlage, Emilija Veljkovic, Nikolai V Ivanov, Florian Martin, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck
While the toxicity of the main constituents of electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids, nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), has been assessed individually in separate studies, limited data on the inhalation toxicity of them is available when in mixtures. In this 90-day subchronic inhalation study, Sprague-Dawley rats were nose-only exposed to filtered air, nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG mixtures, with and without nicotine. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics...
September 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843084/assessing-electronic-cigarette-effects-and-regulatory-impact-challenges-with-user-self-reported-device-power
#4
Alyssa K Rudy, Adam M Leventhal, Nicholas I Goldenson, Thomas Eissenberg
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize liquids for user inhalation that usually contain nicotine. ECIG nicotine emission is determined, in part, by user behavior, liquid nicotine concentration, and electrical power. Whether users are able to report accurately nicotine concentration and device electrical power has not been evaluated. This study's purpose was to examine if ECIG users could provide data relevant to understanding ECIG nicotine emission, particularly liquid nicotine concentration (mg/ml) as well as battery voltage (V) and heater resistance (ohms, Ω) - needed to calculate power (watts, W)...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819633/clinical-laboratory-evaluation-of-electronic-cigarettes-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-methodological-challenges
#5
Melissa D Blank, Alison B Breland, Caroline O Cobb, Tory Spindle, Carolina Ramôa, Thomas Eissenberg
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) in the clinical laboratory is critical to understanding their effects. However, laboratory evaluation of ECIGs can be challenging, as they are a novel, varied, and evolving class of products. The objective of this paper is to describe some methodological challenges to the clinical laboratory evaluation of ECIGs. METHODS: The authors gathered information about challenges involved in the laboratory evaluation of ECIGs...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706340/transport-phenomena-governing-nicotine-emissions-from-electronic-cigarettes-model-formulation-and-experimental-investigation
#6
Soha Talih, Zainab Balhas, Rola Salman, Rachel El-Hage, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Ahmad El-Hellani, Mohamad Baassiri, Ezzat Jaroudi, Thomas Eissenberg, Najat Saliba, Alan Shihadeh
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) electrically heat and aerosolize a liquid containing propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), flavorants, water, and nicotine. ECIG effects and proposed methods to regulate them are controversial. One regulatory focal point involves nicotine emissions. We describe a mathematical model that predicts ECIG nicotine emissions. The model computes the vaporization rate of individual species by numerically solving the unsteady species and energy conservation equations. To validate model predictions, yields of nicotine, total particulate matter, PG, and VG were measured while manipulating puff topography, electrical power, and liquid composition across 100 conditions...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686840/carboxylate-counteranions-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-influence-on-nicotine-emissions
#7
Ahmad El-Hellani, Rachel El-Hage, Rola Salman, Soha Talih, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
The wide pH range reported for electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids indicates that nicotine may be present in one or more chemical forms. The nicotine form affects the bioavailability and delivery of nicotine from inhaled products. Protonated nicotine is normally associated with counteranions in tobacco products. The chemical and physical properties of counteranions may differently influence the nicotine form and emissions in ECIG aerosols. In this study, we examined how these anions influence nicotine emissions and their evaporation behavior and potential decomposition during ECIG operation...
August 21, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528203/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity-and-withdrawal-symptoms-are-associated-with-acute-electronic-cigarette-use
#8
Andréa L Hobkirk, Travis T Nichols, Jonathan Foulds, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, John Richie, Thomas Eissenberg, Stephen J Wilson
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439113/microrna-expression-profiling-defines-the-impact-of-electronic-cigarettes-on-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#9
Siva Kumar Solleti, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Ausaf Ahmad, Qian Wang, Jared Mereness, Tirumalai Rangasamy, Thomas J Mariani
While all forms of tobacco exposure have negative health effects, the significance of exposure to electronic cigarettes (eCig) is not fully understood. Here, we studied the global effects of eCig on the micro RNA (miRNA) transcriptome in human lung epithelial cells. Primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells differentiated at air-liquid interface were exposed to eCig liquid. Exposure of NHBE to any eCig liquid resulted in the induction of oxidative stress-response genes including GCLM, GCLC, GPX2, NQO1 and HO-1...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393367/increasing-popularity-of-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-and-electronic-cigarette-use-implications-for-oral-healthcare
#10
REVIEW
C P Ramôa, T Eissenberg, S E Sahingur
Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing several systemic conditions including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Cigarette smoking is also detrimental to oral health as it increases the incidence and severity of oral cancer, periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis, as well as impacting negatively on the dental patients' response to therapy. Therefore, consideration of smoking behavior and recommendation of smoking cessation are important parts of dental treatment planning. However, cigarettes are no longer the most popular form of tobacco use among adolescents in the United States and globally...
October 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277706/user-identified-positive-outcome-expectancies-of-electronic-cigarette-use-a-concept-mapping-study
#11
Eric K Soule, Sarah F Maloney, Mignonne C Guy, Thomas Eissenberg, Pebbles Fagan
Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use is growing in popularity, but little is known about the perceived positive outcomes of ECIG use. This study used concept mapping (CM) to examine positive ECIG outcome expectancies. Sixty-three past 30-day ECIG users (38.1% female) between the ages of 18 and 64 (M = 37.8, SD = 13.3) completed a CM module. In an online program, participants provided statements that completed a prompt: "A specific positive, enjoyable, or exciting effect (i.e., physical or psychological) that I have experienced WHILE USING or IMMEDIATELY AFTER USING an electronic cigarette/electronic vaping device is...
May 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248987/why-do-people-use-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-electronic-cigarettes-a-content-analysis-of-twitter-2012-2015
#12
John W Ayers, Eric C Leas, Jon-Patrick Allem, Adrian Benton, Mark Dredze, Benjamin M Althouse, Tess B Cruz, Jennifer B Unger
The reasons for using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are poorly understood and are primarily documented by expensive cross-sectional surveys that use preconceived close-ended response options rather than allowing respondents to use their own words. We passively identify the reasons for using ENDS longitudinally from a content analysis of public postings on Twitter. All English language public tweets including several ENDS terms (e.g., "e-cigarette" or "vape") were captured from the Twitter data stream during 2012 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829296/development-and-characterization-of-electronic-cigarette-exposure-generation-system-ecig-egs-for-the-physico-chemical-and-toxicological-assessment-of-electronic-cigarette-emissions
#13
Jiayuan Zhao, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Electronic cigarettes (e-cig) have been introduced as a nicotine replacement therapy and have gained increasing attention and popularity. However, while findings on possible toxicological implications continue to grow, major knowledge gaps on both the complex chemistry of the exposure and toxicity exist, prohibiting public health assessors from assessing risks. Here, a versatile electronic cigarette exposure generation system (Ecig-EGS) has been developed and characterized. Ecig-EGS allows generation of real world e-cig emission profiles under controlled operational conditions, real time monitoring and time-integrated particle/gas sampling for physico-chemical characterization, and toxicological assessment (both in vitro and in vivo)...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798321/detection-of-5-hydroxymethylfurfural-and-furfural-in-the-aerosol-of-electronic-cigarettes
#14
Sarah Soussy, Ahmad El-Hellani, Rima Baalbaki, Rola Salman, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
SIGNIFICANCE: The wide availability of sweet flavours has been hypothesised as a factor in the popularity of electronic cigarette (ECIG), especially among youth. Saccharides, which are commonly used to impart a sweet flavour to ECIG liquids, thermally degrade to produce toxic compounds, like aldehydes and furans. This study investigates the formation of furanic compounds in aerosols when ECIG liquid solutions of varying sweetener concentrations are vaped under different power and puff duration...
November 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798087/nicotine-and-carbonyl-emissions-from-popular-electronic-cigarette-products-correlation-to-liquid-composition-and-design-characteristics
#15
Ahmad El-Hellani, Rola Salman, Rachel El-Hage, Soha Talih, Nathalie Malek, Rima Baalbaki, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Rima Nakkash, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
INTRODUCTION: Available in hundreds of device designs and thousands of flavors, electronic cigarette (ECIG) may have differing toxicant emission characteristics. This study assesses nicotine and carbonyl yields in the most popular brands in the U.S. market. These products included disposable, prefilled cartridge, and tank-based ECIGs. METHODS: Twenty-seven ECIG products of 10 brands were procured and their power outputs were measured. The e-liquids were characterized for pH, nicotine concentration, propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) ratio, and water content...
October 7, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768968/expanding-clinical-laboratory-tobacco-product-evaluation-methods-to-loose-leaf-tobacco-vaporizers
#16
Alexa A Lopez, Marzena Hiler, Sarah Maloney, Thomas Eissenberg, Alison B Breland
BACKGROUND: Novel tobacco products entering the US market include electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) and products advertised to "heat, not burn" tobacco. There is a growing literature regarding the acute effects of ECIGs. Less is known about "heat, not burn" products. This study's purpose was to expand existing clinical laboratory methods to examine, in cigarette smokers, the acute effects of a "heat, not burn" "loose-leaf tobacco vaporizer" (LLTV). METHODS: Plasma nicotine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and tobacco abstinence symptom severity were measured before and after two 10-puff (30-s interpuff interval) product use bouts separated by 60min...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717371/basic-science-of-electronic-cigarettes-assessment-in-cell-culture-and-in-vivo-models
#17
Pieter S Hiemstra, Robert Bals
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, ECIGs) were introduced into the market a decade ago as an alternative to tobacco smoking. Whether ECIGs are safe and whether they qualify as smoking cessation tool is currently unknown. Their use has markedly expanded in that period, despite the fact that potential toxic effects of the vapour created by the e-cigarette and the nicotine-containing cartridge fluid have been incompletely studied. Marketing targets diverse groups including older smokers but also young people...
October 7, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701119/molecular-impact-of-electronic-cigarette-aerosol-exposure-in-human-bronchial-epithelium
#18
Elizabeth Moses, Teresa Wang, Sean Corbett, George R Jackson, Eduard Drizik, Catalina Perdomo, Claudia Perdomo, Eric Kleerup, Daniel Brooks, George O'Connor, Steven Dubinett, Patrick Hayden, Marc E Lenburg, Avrum Spira
Little evidence is available regarding the physiological effects of exposure to electronic cigarette (ECIG) aerosol. We sought to determine the molecular impact of ECIG aerosol exposure in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Gene-expression profiling was conducted in primary grown at air liquid interface and exposed to 1 of 4 different ECIG aerosols, traditional tobacco cigarette (TCIG) smoke, or clean air. Findings were validated experimentally with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and a reactive oxygen species immunoassay...
January 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613914/the-influence-of-a-mouthpiece-based-topography-measurement-device-on-electronic-cigarette-user-s-plasma-nicotine-concentration-heart-rate-and-subjective-effects-under-directed-and-ad-libitum-use-conditions
#19
Tory R Spindle, Marzena M Hiler, Alison B Breland, Nareg V Karaoghlanian, Alan L Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction: Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. Methods: Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed in 29 experienced e-cigarette users using their preferred e-cigarette battery and liquid (≥12mg/mL nicotine) in two sessions differing only by the presence of a mouthpiece-based device...
April 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460860/reasons-for-using-flavored-liquids-among-electronic-cigarette-users-a-concept-mapping-study
#20
Eric K Soule, Alexa A Lopez, Mignonne C Guy, Caroline O Cobb
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize liquids often containing flavorants for inhalation. Few studies have examined the role of flavors in ECIG use. This study's purpose was to examine reasons for flavored ECIG use using a mixed-method approach, concept mapping (CM). METHODS: Forty-six past 30-day adult ECIG users recruited from vape forums/conferences completed three online CM tasks. Participants brainstormed responses to a prompt: "A specific reason I use flavored e-liquid in my electronic cigarette product is…"...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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