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Motor resonance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924564/signal-processing-of-functional-nirs-data-acquired-during-overt-speaking
#1
Xian Zhang, Jack Adam Noah, Swethasri Dravida, Joy Hirsch
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers an advantage over traditional functional imaging methods [such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] by allowing participants to move and speak relatively freely. However, neuroimaging while actively speaking has proven to be particularly challenging due to the systemic artifacts that tend to be located in the critical brain areas. To overcome these limitations and enhance the utility of fNIRS, we describe methods for investigating cortical activity during spoken language tasks through refinement of deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) signals with principal component analysis (PCA) spatial filtering to remove global components...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923025/intrafamilial-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-a-taiwanese-family-with-a-mapt-p-r5h-mutation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Hui-Chi Lin, Chin-Hsien Lin, Pei-Lung Chen, Shih-Jung Cheng, Pei-Hao Chen
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in executive function that frequently overlaps with parkinsonism and motor neuron disorders. Several genes have been identified to cause autosomal dominant forms of FTD, including the gene coding for the protein associated with microtubule tau (MAPT). While most reported pathogenic mutations in MAPT occur in exons 9-13, few families have been reported with mutations outside of this region...
September 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922830/connectivity-neurofeedback-training-can-differentially-change-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-performance
#3
Ayumu Yamashita, Shunsuke Hayasaka, Mitsuo Kawato, Hiroshi Imamizu
Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to provide real-time feedback on brain activity. Neurofeedback has been applied to therapeutic interventions for psychiatric disorders. Since many studies have shown that most psychiatric disorders exhibit abnormal brain networks, a novel experimental paradigm named connectivity neurofeedback, which can directly modulate a brain network, has emerged as a promising approach to treat psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in functional connectivity, and the differential change in cognitive performance according to the direction of change in connectivity...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919442/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-the-c-terminal-region-of-flig-an-essential-motor-component-of-vibrio-na-driven-flagella
#4
Yohei Miyanoiri, Atsushi Hijikata, Yuuki Nishino, Mizuki Gohara, Yasuhiro Onoue, Seiji Kojima, Chojiro Kojima, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Masatsune Kainosho, Michio Homma
The flagellar motor protein complex consists of rotor and stator proteins. Their interaction generates torque of flagellum, which rotates bidirectionally, clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise. FliG, one of the rotor proteins, consists of three domains: N-terminal (FliGN), middle (FliGM), and C-terminal (FliGC). We have identified point mutations in FliGC from Vibrio alginolyticus, which affect the flagellar motility. To understand the molecular mechanisms, we explored the structural and dynamic properties of FliGC from both wild-type and motility-defective mutants...
September 6, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919314/24-hour-alberta-stroke-program-early-ct-score-assessment-in-post-stroke-spasticity-development-in-patients-with-a-first-documented-anterior-circulation-ischemic-stroke
#5
Ondrej Volny, Maria Justanova, Petra Cimflova, Linda Kasickova, Ivana Svobodova, Jan Muzik, Martin Bares
BACKGROUND: Neuroanatomic substrates responsible for development of post-stroke spasticity are still poorly understood. The study is focused on identification of brain regions within the territory of the middle cerebral artery associated with spasticity development. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective cohort study of first documented anterior circulation ischemic strokes with a neurologic deficit lasting >7 days (from March 2014 to September 2016, all patients are involved in a registry)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916500/early-life-stress-modulates-neural-networks-associated-with-habitual-use-of-reappraisal
#6
Elissa El Khawli, Yan Fan, Sabine Aust, Katharina Wirth, Luisa Bönke, Amie Stevense, Ana Herrera, Sophie Metz, Andrea Loayza, Malek Bajbouj, Simone Grimm
Recent evidence shows that early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, as well as with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and negative mood. However, the relation between ELS and maladaptive emotion regulation is not deterministic. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal can also ensue from experience and learning in adulthood and can prevent negative mood. The present study aims to investigate the joint influence of ELS, in particular early-life emotional abuse (EA), and habitual use of reappraisal on amygdala-centered RSFC and mood...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913163/general-and-selective-brain-connectivity-alterations-in-essential-tremor-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#7
Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Martina Hoskovcová, Olga Ulmanová, Dušan Urgošík, Josef Vymazal, Evžen Růžička
Although essential tremor is the most common movement disorder, there is little knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease. Therefore, we explored brain connectivity based on slow spontaneous fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in patients with essential tremor (ET). A cohort of 19 ET patients and 23 healthy individuals were scanned in resting condition using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). General connectivity was assessed by eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911257/fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-contribution-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-reorganization
#8
Alvino Bisecco, Federica Di Nardo, Renato Docimo, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Alessandro d'Ambrosio, Simona Bonavita, Rocco Capuano, Leonardo Sinisi, Mario Cirillo, Fabrizio Esposito, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Antonio Gallo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) of the default-mode network (DMN) and of sensorimotor network (SMN) network in relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with fatigue (F) and without fatigue(NF). METHODS: In all, 59 RRMS patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol including resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI). Functional connectivity of the DMN and SMN was evaluated by independent component analysis (ICA)...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911049/aberrant-hyperconnectivity-in-the-motor-system-at-rest-is-linked-to-motor-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#9
Sebastian Walther, Katharina Stegmayer, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Petra V Viher
Motor abnormalities are frequently observed in schizophrenia and structural alterations of the motor system have been reported. The association of aberrant motor network function, however, has not been tested. We hypothesized that abnormal functional connectivity would be related to the degree of motor abnormalities in schizophrenia. In 90 subjects (46 patients) we obtained resting stated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for 8 minutes 40 seconds at 3T. Participants further completed a motor battery on the scanning day...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910390/identify-changes-of-brain-regional-homogeneity-in-early-and-later-adult-onset-patients-with-first-episode-depression-using-resting-state-fmri
#10
Zonglin Shen, Linling Jiang, Shuran Yang, Jing Ye, Nan Dai, Xiaoyan Liu, Na Li, Jin Lu, Fang Liu, Yi Lu, Xuejin Sun, Yuqi Cheng, Xiufeng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Previous work exhibited different brain grey matter volume (GMV) changes between patients with early adult onset depression (EOD, age 18-29) and later adult onset depression (LOD, age 30-44) by using 30-year-old as the cut-off age. To identify whether regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes are also different between EOD and LOD by using same cut-off age, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect the abnormal ReHo between patients with EOD and LOD in the present study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905408/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-rat-cervical-spinal-cord-at-9-4-t
#11
Tung-Lin Wu, Feng Wang, Arabinda Mishra, George H Wilson, Nellie Byun, Li Min Chen, John C Gore
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have adopted resting-state functional MRI methods to infer functional connectivity between cortical regions, but very few have translated them to the spinal cord, despite its critical role in the central nervous system. Resting-state functional connectivity between gray matter horns of the spinal cord has previously been shown to be detectable in humans and nonhuman primates, but it has not been reported previously in rodents. METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI of the cervical spinal cord of live anesthetized rats was performed at 9...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904586/case-of-childhood-ataxia-with-central-nervous-system-hypomyelination-with-a-novel-mutation-in-eif2b3-gene
#12
Vykuntaraju K Gowda, Varun M Srinivasan, Maya Bhat, Asha Benakappa
A 4-year-old boy presented with loss of motor milestones following viral fever. On examination, the child had increased tone and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed white matter hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, which revealed partial inversion on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Clinical exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous mutation c.1270T>G: pCys424Gly in exon 11 of the EIF2B3 gene. This novel mutation is reported in this article along with a literature review...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900267/investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-smoking-feasibility-and-results-of-combining-electronic-cigarettes-with-fmri
#13
Matthew B Wall, Alexander Mentink, Georgina Lyons, Oliwia S Kowalczyk, Lysia Demetriou, Rexford D Newbould
Cigarette addiction is driven partly by the physiological effects of nicotine, but also by the distinctive sensory and behavioural aspects of smoking, and understanding the neural effects of such processes is vital. There are many practical difficulties associated with subjects smoking in the modern neuroscientific laboratory environment, however electronic cigarettes obviate many of these issues, and provide a close simulation of smoking tobacco cigarettes. We have examined the neural effects of 'smoking' electronic cigarettes with concurrent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899937/treating-breathlessness-via-the-brain-changes-in-brain-activity-over-a-course-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation
#14
Mari Herigstad, Olivia K Faull, Anja Hayen, Eleanor Evans, F Maxine Hardinge, Katja Wiech, Kyle T S Pattinson
Breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often discordant with airway pathophysiology ("over-perception"). Pulmonary rehabilitation profoundly affects breathlessness, without influencing lung function. Learned associations influence brain mechanisms of sensory perception. We hypothesised that improvements in breathlessness with pulmonary rehabilitation may be explained by changing neural representations of learned associations.In 31 patients with COPD, we tested how pulmonary rehabilitation altered the relationship between brain activity during a breathlessness-related word-cue task (using functional magnetic resonance imaging), and clinical and psychological measures of breathlessness...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898485/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-dorsal-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-inhibits-medial-orbitofrontal-activity-in-smokers
#15
Xingbao Li, Gregory L Sahlem, Bashar W Badran, Lisa M McTeague, Colleen A Hanlon, Karen J Hartwell, Scott Henderson, Mark S George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), can reduce cue-elicited craving in smokers. Currently, the mechanism of this effect is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effect of a single treatment of rTMS on cortical and sub-cortical neural activity in non-treatment seeking nicotine-dependent participants. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover trial in which participants attended two experimental visits separated by at least 1 week...
September 12, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895316/action-observation-produces-motor-resonance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Judith Bek, Emma Gowen, Stefan Vogt, Trevor Crawford, Ellen Poliakoff
Observation of movement activates the observer's own motor system, influencing the performance of actions and facilitating social interaction. This motor resonance is demonstrated behaviourally through visuomotor priming, whereby response latencies are influenced by the compatibility between an intended action and an observed (task-irrelevant) action. The impact of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) on motor resonance is unclear, as previous studies of visuomotor priming have not separated imitative compatibility (specific to human movement) from general stimulus-response compatibility effects...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894333/the-role-of-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-in-the-differential-diagnosis-with-atypical-parkinsonism
#17
REVIEW
Romulo Varella de Oliveira, João Santos Pereira
Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Clinically, it is characterized by motor symptoms. Parkinson's disease should be differentiated from atypical parkinsonism conditions. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging is the primary imaging method employed in order to facilitate the differential diagnosis, and its role has grown after the development of advanced techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging. The purpose of this article was to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease and in the differential diagnosis with atypical parkinsonism, emphasizing the diffusion technique...
July 2017: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893572/reduced-severity-of-outcome-of-recurrent-ipsilateral-transient-cerebral-ischemia-compared-with-contralateral-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#18
Chenyu Fan, Li Zhang, Zhijie He, Peng Shao, Li Ding, Guili Wang, Wenxiu Niu, Jie Jia
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether prior transient ischemic attack (TIA) had a preconditioning effect on subsequent cerebral infarction in a rat model using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). METHODS: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: those with transient (5 minutes) left MCAO (left TIA) (n = 15), those with transient right MCAO (right TIA) (n = 15), and a sham operation group (n = 6). Seven days after the initial transient MCAO, rats in all groups underwent permanent left MCAO...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892464/network-wide-reorganization-of-procedural-memory-during-nrem-sleep-revealed-by-fmri
#19
Shahabeddin Vahdat, Stuart Fogel, Habib Benali, Julien Doyon
Sleep is necessary for the optimal consolidation of newly acquired procedural memories. However, the mechanisms by which motor memory traces develop during sleep remain controversial in humans, as this process has been mainly investigated indirectly by comparing pre- and post-sleep conditions. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography during sleep following motor sequence learning to investigate how newly-formed memory traces evolve dynamically over time. We provide direct evidence for transient reactivation followed by downscaling of functional connectivity in a cortically-dominant pattern formed during learning, as well as gradual reorganization of this representation toward a subcortically-dominant consolidated trace during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep...
September 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891004/cerebral-imaging-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-after-entero-and-human-parechovirus-sepsis-in-young-infants
#20
Eveline P de Jong, Herma C Holscher, Sylke J Steggerda, Jeanine M M Van Klink, Erika P M van Elzakker, Enrico Lopriore, Frans J Walther, Frank Brus
Enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) are major causes of sepsis-like illness in infants under 90 days of age and have been identified as neurotropic. Studies about acute and long-term neurodevelopment in infants with sepsis-like illness without the need for intensive care are few. This study investigates cerebral imaging and neurodevelopmental outcome following EV and HPeV infection in these infants. We studied infants under 90 days of age who were admitted to a medium care unit with proven EV- or HPeV-induced sepsis-like illness...
September 10, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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