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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108493/fine-motor-skill-mediates-visual-memory-ability-with-microstructural-neuro-correlates-in-cerebellar-peduncles-in-prematurely-born-adolescents
#1
Alyssa R Thomas, Cheryl Lacadie, Betty Vohr, Laura R Ment, Dustin Scheinost
Adolescents born preterm (PT) with no evidence of neonatal brain injury are at risk of deficits in visual memory and fine motor skills that diminish academic performance. The association between these deficits and white matter microstructure is relatively unexplored. We studied 190 PTs with no brain injury and 92 term controls at age 16 years. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), the Beery visual-motor integration (VMI), and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) were collected for all participants, while a subset (40 PTs and 40 terms) underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108290/pmp22-mutant-allele-specific-sirna-alleviates-demyelinating-neuropathic-phenotype-in-vivo
#2
Ji-Su Lee, Eun Hyuk Chang, Ok Jae Koo, Dong Hwan Jwa, Won Min Mo, Geon Kwak, Hyo Won Moon, Hwan Tae Park, Young Bin Hong, Byung-Ok Choi
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a genetic disorder that can be caused by aberrations in >80 genes. CMT has heterogeneous modes of inheritance, including autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, and X-linked recessive. Over 95% of cases are dominantly inherited. In this study, we investigated whether regulation of a mutant allele by an allele-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) can alleviate the demyelinating neuropathic phenotype of CMT. We designed 19 different allele-specific siRNAs for Trembler J (Tr-J) mice harboring a naturally occurring mutation (Leu16Pro) in Pmp22...
January 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104413/cognitive-motor-dual-task-interference-a-systematic-review-of-neural-correlates
#3
REVIEW
Leone Carmela, Peter Feys, Lousin Moumdjian, Emanuele D'Amico, Mario Zappia, Patti Francesco
Cognitive-motor interference refers to dual-tasking (DT) interference (DTi) occurring when the simultaneous performance of a cognitive and a motor task leads to a percentage change in one or both tasks. Several theories exist to explain DTi in humans: the capacity-sharing, the bottleneck and the cross-talk theories. Numerous studies investigating whether a specific brain locus is associated with cognitive-motor DTi have been conducted, but not systematically reviewed. We aimed to review the evidences on brain activity associated with the cognitive-motor DT, in order to better understand the neurological basis of the CMi...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102168/brachial-plexus-root-avulsion-injury-with-occipital-condyle-fractures-case-study
#4
Alicja Baranowska, Joanna Baranowska, Agata Pydych, Paweł Baranowski
Avulsion injuries of the brachial plexus with occipital condyle fractures are very rare and usually result from motor vehicle accidents. This paper presents an analysis of the case of a 24-year-old male patient who sustained both these injuries in a car accident. Computed tomography revealed a fracture of the right occipital condyle and a magnetic resonance scan showed spinal nerve disruption at the C3-C7 level on the left. The patient underwent conservative treatment.
August 30, 2016: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101035/early-motor-fluctuations-in-a-patient-with-striatonigral-degeneration
#5
Fumihito Yoshii, Yusuke Moriya, Tomohide Ohnuki, Wakoh Takahashi, Masafuchi Ryo
We report a 44-year-old female with striatonigral degeneration (SND) who showed wearing-off oscillations after 4 months of levodopa treatment. The patient presented with asymmetric left-side dominant rigidity, and levodopa was effective at first. However, she began to show wearing-off oscillations of motor symptoms, which gradually worsened thereafter. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed linear lateral putamen hyperintensities, and positron emission tomography (PET) studies using (18)F-fluorodopa (FD) and (11)C-N-methylspiperon (NMSP) showed a marked decrease of radioactivity in the right putamen, especially in the posterior putamen...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100219/increased-amygdala-reactivity-following-early-life-stress-a-potential-resilience-enhancer-role
#6
Tetsuya Yamamoto, Shigeru Toki, Greg J Siegle, Masahiro Takamura, Yoshiyuki Takaishi, Shinpei Yoshimura, Go Okada, Tomoya Matsumoto, Takashi Nakao, Hiroyuki Muranaka, Yumiko Kaseda, Tsuneji Murakami, Yasumasa Okamoto, Shigeto Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: Amygdala hyper-reactivity is sometimes assumed to be a vulnerability factor that predates depression; however, in healthy people, who experience early life stress but do not become depressed, it may represent a resilience mechanism. We aimed to test these hypothesis examining whether increased amygdala activity in association with a history of early life stress (ELS) was negatively or positively associated with depressive symptoms and impact of negative life event stress in never-depressed adults...
January 18, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094680/changes-in-the-corticospinal-tract-after-wearing-prosthesis-in-bilateral-transtibial-amputation
#7
Sang Yoon Lee, Si Hyun Kang, Don-Kyu Kim, Kyung Mook Seo, Hee Joon Ro, Jae Kyun Kim
BACKGROUND: After amputation, the brain is known to be reorganized especially in the primary motor cortex. We report a case to show changes in the corticospinal tract in a patient with serial bilateral transtibial amputations using diffusion tensor imaging. Case Description and Methods: A 78-year-old man had a transtibial amputation on his left side in 2008 and he underwent a right transtibial amputation in 2011. An initial brain magnetic resonance imaging with a diffusion tensor imaging was performed before starting rehabilitation on his right transtibial prosthesis, and a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging was performed 2 years after this...
January 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091928/effects-of-no-synthase-blocker-l-name-on-functional-state-of-the-neuromotor-system-during-traumatic-disease-of-the-spinal-cord
#8
G G Yafarova, V V Andrianov, R Kh Yagudin, I I Shaikhytdinov, Kh L Gainutdinov
Functional state of the neuromotor system after administration of a nonspecific NO synthase blocker L-NAME was studied on the model of experimental contusion of the spinal cord. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of NO production in the damaged segment of the spinal cord were performed for estimation of the dynamics of intensity of NO production during traumatic disease of the spinal cord and selection of optimal period for L-NAME administration. The status of the neuromotor system was evaluated by stimulation electromyography...
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089970/spatial-working-memory-impairment-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#9
Chun-Min Zhu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Shou-Xing Duan, Zhi-Rong Lin, Jing-Jing Yin, Hong-Bo Le, Dan-Miao Sun, Wen-Can Xu, Shu-Hua Ma
OBJECTIVE: Using ethology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore mild cognitive dysfunction and spatial working memory (WM) impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) and to study whether any clinical biomarkers could serve as predictors of brain dysfunction in this disease. METHODS: Eighteen non-NPSLE patients and 18 matched subjects were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test and scanned using blood-oxygen-level dependent fMRI while performing the n-back task to investigate the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089807/ultrasonography-detects-ulnar-nerve-dislocation-despite-normal-electrophysiology-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Jared M Pisapia, Zarina S Ali, Eric D Hudgins, Viviane Khoury, Gregory G Heuer, Eric L Zager
BACKGROUND: Dislocation of the ulnar nerve (UN) occurs in a subset of patients with ulnar neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are performed to support the clinical diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with ulnar neuropathy with normal electrodiagnostic and MRI studies but with ultrasound (US) showing UN dislocation, which prompted successful treatment by UN submuscular transposition. CASE DESCRIPTION: A healthy 15 year-old female softball player presented with right medial elbow pain and paresthesias of the fourth and fifth digits...
January 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089563/diagnostic-and-prognostic-relevance-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-electrophysiological-findings-in-acute-spinal-ischemia
#11
Dimitrios Artemis, Marc Wolf, Christian Blahak, Kristina Szabo, Michael G Hennerici, Marc Fatar
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to classify the rare entity of spontaneous spinal ischemia with clinical, magnetic resonance-tomographic, and electrophysiological parameters to determine criteria for outcome prediction. METHODS: We analyzed the stroke registry database of the University Hospital Mannheim, Germany, from 2004 to 2010 for patients with a diagnosis of vascular spinal cord ischemia. RESULTS: Ten patients were identified (mean age 65 years [range 50-83], 5 women)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089452/co-folding-of-a-flif-flig-split-domain-forms-the-basis-of-the-ms-c-ring-interface-within-the-bacterial-flagellar-motor
#12
Michael J Lynch, Robert Levenson, Eun A Kim, Ria Sircar, David F Blair, Frederick W Dahlquist, Brian R Crane
The interface between the membrane (MS) and cytoplasmic (C) rings of the bacterial flagellar motor couples torque generation to rotation within the membrane. The structure of the C-terminal helices of the integral membrane protein FliF (FliFC) bound to the N terminal domain of the switch complex protein FliG (FliGN) reveals that FliGN folds around FliFC to produce a topology that closely resembles both the middle and C-terminal domains of FliG. The interface is consistent with solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance, small-angle X-ray scattering, in vivo interaction studies, and cellular motility assays...
December 31, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081451/how-specialized-are-writing-specific-brain-regions-an-fmri-study-of-writing-drawing-and-oral-spelling
#13
Samuel Planton, Marieke Longcamp, Patrice Péran, Jean-François Démonet, Mélanie Jucla
Several brain imaging studies identified brain regions that are consistently involved in writing tasks; the left premotor and superior parietal cortices have been associated with the peripheral components of writing performance as opposed to other regions that support the central, orthographic components. Based on a meta-analysis by Planton, Jucla, Roux, and Demonet (2013), we focused on five such writing areas and questioned the task-specificity and hemispheric lateralization profile of the brain response in an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment where 16 right-handed participants wrote down, spelled out orally object names, and drew shapes from object pictures...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079169/abnormalities-of-regional-brain-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#14
PingLei Pan, Yang Zhang, Yi Liu, He Zhang, DeNing Guan, Yun Xu
There is convincing evidence that abnormalities of regional brain function exist in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, many resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) have reported inconsistent results about regional spontaneous neuronal activity in PD. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis using the Seed-based d Mapping and several complementary analyses. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for eligible whole-brain rs-fMRI studies that measured ALFF differences between patients with PD and healthy controls published from January 1st, 2000 until June 24, 2016...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078364/-ligament-injuries-of-fingers-and-thumbs
#15
R Schmitt
Degenerative and traumatic ligament lesions of the carpometacarpal joints frequently occur at the thumb ray, whereas the carpometacarpal amphiarthrosis of other finger rays are rarely affected. The metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of the thumb and fingers are stabilized by bilaterally running collateral ligaments and palmar plates. At the base of the metacarpophalangeal joints, several ligaments of the extensor hoods guide the extensor tendons and coordinate the fine motoric skills of phalangeal flexing and extending...
January 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077513/cognitive-control-structures-in-the-imitation-learning-of-spatial-sequences-and-rhythms-an-fmri-study
#16
Katrin Sakreida, Satomi Higuchi, Cinzia Di Dio, Michael Ziessler, Martine Turgeon, Neil Roberts, Stefan Vogt
Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved an additional network for auditory working memory...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072803/neural-correlates-of-maladaptive-pain-behavior-in-chronic-neck-pain-a-single-case-control-fmri-study
#17
Konstantin Beinert, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michael Mouthon, Jean-Marie Annoni, Wolfgang Taube
Chronic neck pain patients display functional impairments like decreased range of motion, decreased strength, and reduced sensorimotor function. In patients without structural damage, the reason for the persistence of pain is not well understood. Therefore, it is assumed that in chronic pain states, memory processes play an important role. We have now detected and tested a patient that might help us to better understand the neural correlates of maladaptive pain expectation/memory. This patient displays chronic neck pain and restricted unilateral motion of the cervical spine to the left...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069925/cerebellar-tdcs-modulates-neural-circuits-during-semantic-prediction-a-combined-tdcs-fmri-study
#18
Anila M D'Mello, Peter E Turkeltaub, Catherine J Stoodley
: It has been proposed that the cerebellum acquires internal models of mental processes that enable prediction, allowing for the optimization of behavior. In language, semantic prediction speeds speech production and comprehension. Right cerebellar lobules VI and VII (including Crus I/II) are engaged during a variety of language processes and are functionally connected with cerebral cortical language networks. Further, right posterolateral cerebellar neuromodulation modifies behavior during predictive language processing...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068565/retinal-thinning-is-uniquely-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-in-neurologically-normal-older-adults
#19
Kaitlin B Casaletto, Michael E Ward, Nicholas S Baker, Brianne M Bettcher, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Yaqiao Li, Robert Chen, Shubir Dutt, Bruce Miller, Joel H Kramer, Ari J Green
Given the converging pathologic and epidemiologic data indicating a relationship between retinal integrity and neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), we aimed to determine if retinal structure correlates with medial temporal lobe (MTL) structure and function in neurologically normal older adults. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, verbal and visual memory testing, and 3T-magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were performed in 79 neurologically normal adults enrolled in a healthy aging cohort study...
December 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061502/brain-abscesses-associated-with-asymptomatic-pulmonary-arteriovenous-fistulas
#20
Taek-Kyun Nam, Yong-Sook Park, Jeong-Taik Kwon
Brain abscess commonly occurs secondary to an adjacent infection (mostly in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses) or due to hematogenous spread from a distant infection or trauma. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal direct communications between the pulmonary artery and vein. We present two cases of brain abscess associated with asymptomatic pulmonary AVF. A 65-year-old woman was admitted with a headache and cognitive impairment that aggravated 10 days prior. An magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a brain abscess with severe edema in the right frontal lobe...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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