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Motor resonance

Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Peter Joseph Massa, Richard L Smith, Tarek Hazem Moharram, John Corrigan, Ian Lee, Lonni Schultz, Jianhui Hu, Suresh Patel, Brent Griffith
Preoperative identification of the eloquent brain is important for neurosurgical planning. One common method of finding the motor cortex is by localizing "the Omega sign." No studies have tested the reliability of imaging to identify the Omega sign. We identified 40 recent and consecutive patients who had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging for identification of the hand motor area prior to tumor resection. We recruited 11 neurosurgical residents of various levels of training and one board-certified neurosurgeon to identify the hand motor cortex Omega...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Rupesh K Chikara, Erik C Chang, Yi-Chen Lu, Dar-Shong Lin, Chin-Teng Lin, Li-Wei Ko
A reward or punishment can modulate motivation and emotions, which in turn affect cognitive processing. The present simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography study examines neural mechanisms of response inhibition under the influence of a monetary reward or punishment by implementing a modified stop-signal task in a virtual battlefield scenario. The participants were instructed to play as snipers who open fire at a terrorist target but withhold shooting in the presence of a hostage...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr, Stephanie A Sassoon, Wesley K Thompson, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Importance: The prevalence of alcohol misuse increased substantially over a decade in adults, particularly in those aged 65 years or older. Ramifications for brain structural integrity are significant, especially in older adults. Objectives: To combine cross-sectional, longitudinal data to test age-alcoholism interactions and examine the association between prevalent comorbidities (drug dependence and hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) and cortical volume deficits in alcohol dependence...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Nancy E Epstein
Background: The risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) due to decreased cord perfusion following thoracic/thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery (T/TL-AAA) and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) ranges up to 20%. For decades, therefore, many vascular surgeons have utilized cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD) to decrease intraspinal pressure and increase blood flow to the spinal cord, thus reducing the risk of SCI/ischemia. Methods: Multiple studies previously recommend utilizing CSFD following T/TL-AAA/TEVAR surgery to treat SCI by increasing spinal cord blood flow...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Ondrej Bezdicek, Tommaso Ballarini, Filip Růžička, Jan Roth, Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Matthias L Schroeter
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects approximately one-third of non-demented Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. We aimed at investigating the neural correlates of MCI in PD combining multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with large-scale data from the literature. We analyzed 31 PD patients and 30 matched controls. The standard neuropsychological assessment of PD-MCI covered memory, attention, executive functions, language and visuospatial abilities. Following validated criteria, 16 patients were classified as showing MCI...
March 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Gang Wang, Jing Liang, Zishan Jia, Lei Wan, Mingxia Yang
RATIONALE: Spinal cord infarction is one of the complications of epidural steroid injections (ESIs), but has only been reported in cervical vertebra by transforaminal injection and lumbar vertebra by transforaminal injection; and up to now, there is no reporting about spinal cord infarction caused by caudal injection. Here, we report a case. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital. He was diagnosed as lumbar disc herniation in other hospital, and the patient suffered bilateral lower limb motor and sensory disorders after administration of caudal ESI...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jie Zhang, Xuehu Wei, Sangma Xie, Zhen Zhou, Desheng Shang, Renjie Ji, Yamei Yu, Fangping He, Yue Du, Xiangming Ye, Benyan Luo
In the dual-route language model, the dorsal pathway is known for sound-to-motor mapping, but the role of the ventral stream is controversial. With the goal of enhancing our understanding of language models, this study investigated the diffusion characteristics of candidate tracts in aphasic patients. We evaluated 14 subacute aphasic patients post-stroke and 11 healthy controls with language assessment and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping found multiple linguistic associations for the ventral stream, while automated fiber quantification (AFQ) showed, via reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity with increased radial diffusivity (all corrected p  < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Sarah Marchina, Andrea Norton, Sandeep Kumar, Gottfried Schlaug
Functional imaging studies have provided insight into the effect of rate on production of syllables, pseudowords, and naturalistic speech, but the influence of rate on repetition of commonly-used words/phrases suitable for therapeutic use merits closer examination. Aim: To identify speech-motor regions responsive to rate and test the hypothesis that those regions would provide greater support as rates increase, we used an overt speech repetition task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to capture rate-modulated activation within speech-motor regions and determine whether modulations occur linearly and/or show hemispheric preference...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Menuka Pallebage-Gamarallage, Sean Foxley, Ricarda A L Menke, Istvan N Huszar, Mark Jenkinson, Benjamin C Tendler, Chaoyue Wang, Saad Jbabdi, Martin R Turner, Karla L Miller, Olaf Ansorge
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, in which therapy is hindered by the rapid progression of disease and lack of biomarkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated its potential for detecting the pathological signature and tracking disease progression in ALS. However, the microstructural and molecular pathological substrate is poorly understood and generally defined histologically...
March 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Evangelia Tsolaki, Angela Downes, William Speier, W Jeff Elias, Nader Pouratian
Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused UltraSound (MRgFUS) offers an incisionless approach to treat essential tremor (ET). Due to lack of evident internal anatomy on traditional structural imaging, indirect targeting must still be used to localize the lesion. Here, we investigate the potential predictive value of probabilistic tractography guided thalamic targeting by defining how tractography-defined targets, lesion size and location, and clinical outcomes interrelate. MR imaging and clinical outcomes from 12 ET patients that underwent MRgFUS thalamotomy in a pilot study at the University of Virginia were evaluated in this analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sumito Maruyama, Kenzo Muroi, Yoshiyuki Hosokai
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In general functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, the task onset time of the statistical model is typically set according to the timing of stimulation. In this study, using a high temporal resolution fMRI data, we examined the way of dynamically visualizing the difference in the activation timing between the brain activation areas by analyzing the task onset time of the statistical model shifted from the actual stimulation timing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: fMRI data with high temporal resolution was acquired using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging for 10 right-handed healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Academic Radiology
R Dean Astumian
Recent developments in synthetic molecular motors and pumps have sprung from a remarkable confluence of experiment and theory. Synthetic accomplishments have facilitated the ability to design and create molecules, many of them featuring mechanically bonded components, to carry out specific functions in their environment-walking along a polymeric track, unidirectional circling of one ring about another, synthesizing stereoisomers according to an external protocol, or pumping rings onto a long rod-like molecule to form and maintain high-energy, complex, nonequilibrium structures from simpler antecedents...
March 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Antonino Raco, Alessandro Pesce, Flavia Fraschetti, Giancarlo D'Andrea, Filippo Maria Polli, Michele Acqui, Alessandro Frati
BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECTIVE:  In surgery for gliomas and brain metastases, preservation of neurologic functions is essential to ensure a good quality of life and the eligibility for adjuvant therapies. This article assesses which factors could influence the functional outcome in patients with lesions located in the motor pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A total of 92 patients with gliomas and metastases involving the motor pathways were studied for concerns regarding quality of life (Karnofsky performance status [KPS] and modified Rankin scale [mRS]) before and after surgical treatment supported by intraoperative neuromonitoring...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Ghazwan Abdulla Hasan, Saif Mohammed Kani, Ahmed Alqatub
INTRODUCTION: Spinal Epidural abscess (SEA) is an uncommon pathology that needs an urgent intervention to decompress the pressure on the spinal epidural sac, cord, and roots. The authors report a rare case of a young adult with lumbar spinal epidural tuberculous abscess occupying the spinal canal from L2-L5 vertebrae with extesion to the posterior paraspinal muscles and presenting with bilateral progressive lower limb weakness.   Case report: A 42 years old male teacher presented with a 15-day history of progressive difficulty to walking and bilateral lower limb weakness associated with fever, malaise and later on urinary incontinence...
2018: SICOT-J
Matilde Balbi, Matthieu P Vanni, Max J Vega, Gergely Silasi, Yuki Sekino, Jamie D Boyd, Jeffrey M LeDue, Timothy H Murphy
Small vessel disease is characterized by sporadic obstruction of small vessels leading to neuronal cell death. These microinfarcts often escape detection by conventional magnetic resonance imaging and are identified only upon postmortem examination. Our work explores a brain-wide microinfarct model in awake head-fixed mice, where occlusions of small penetrating arterioles are reproduced by endovascular injection of fluorescent microspheres. Mesoscopic functional connectivity was mapped longitudinally in awake GCaMP6 mice using genetically encoded calcium indicators for transcranial wide-field calcium imaging...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Jian Wang, Yuanfang Li, Zhen Huang, Wenbing Wan, Yong Zhang, Changpeng Wang, Xiaoqin Cheng, Fang Ye, Kai Liu, Guoqiang Fei, Mengsu Zeng, Lirong Jin
BACKGROUND: Neuromelanin of the brainstem, which is considered a marker of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), can be detected by T1-weighted neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NM-MRI). We aimed to investigate the NM-MRI features of de novo PD and to determine whether these features are associated with motor and non-motor symptoms in de novo PD patients. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with de novo PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2) and 28 healthy controls were recruited...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Hongpeng Yu, Qiquan Quan, Xinqi Tian, He Li
A novel U-shaped piezoelectric ultrasonic motor that mainly focused on miniaturization and high power density was proposed, fabricated, and tested in this work. The longitudinal vibrations of the transducers were excited to form the elliptical movements on the driving feet. Finite element method (FEM) was used for design and analysis. The resonance frequencies of the selected vibration modes were tuned to be very close to each other with modal analysis and the movement trajectories of the driving feet were gained with transient simulation...
March 7, 2018: Sensors
J Zhang, M Liu, L Zhou, Z B Zhang, J M Wang, Y W Jiang, Y Wu
Objective: To analyze the clinical and imaging features of hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) due to mutations in DARS, and to identify DARS mutations responsible for HBSL. Methods: Data on 2 HBSL patients who were admitted to the pediatric department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2009 through December 2016 were reviewed and the 2 patients were followed up. Targeted next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were employed to identify potential genetic variations of the children and their parents...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Sung Ho Jang, Younghyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: A 45-year-old right-handed female patient suffered head trauma after being hit by a truck that ran into a house. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient lost consciousness for 1 hour and experienced posttraumatic amnesia for 1 month after the accident. DIAGNOSES: She underwent conservative management for a subdural hematoma in the left frontotemporal lobes and intracerebral hematoma in the left frontal lobe. INTERVENTIONS: The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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