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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633971/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-depicts-brain-activity-in-models-of-acute-and-chronic-pain-a-new-window-to-study-experimental-spontaneous-pain
#1
I M Devonshire, J J Burston, L Xu, A Lillywhite, M J Prior, D J G Watson, C M Greenspon, S J Iwabuchi, D P Auer, V Chapman
Application of functional imaging techniques to animal models is vital to understand pain mechanisms, but is often confounded by the need to limit movement artefacts with anaesthesia, and a focus on evoked responses rather than clinically relevant spontaneous pain and related hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to measure neural responses during on-going pain that underpins hyperalgesia in pre-clinical models of nociception...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633363/development-initial-testing-and-challenges-of-an-ecologically-valid-reward-prediction-error-fmri-task-for-alcoholism
#2
Anita Cservenka, Kelly E Courtney, Dara G Ghahremani, Kent E Hutchison, Lara A Ray
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633076/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampus-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Amit Lazarov, Xi Zhu, Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Bret R Rutherford, Yuval Neria
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of several brain regions within the salience (SN) and default-mode (DMN) networks, including the hippocampus. However, most rs-FC studies have not focused primarily on the hippocampus, nor have they appreciated its structural heterogeneity, despite clear evidence for a dissociation between posterior and anterior hippocampal connectivity. Here, we examine rs-FC of anterior and posterior hippocampus with key regions in the SN (amygdala, insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area) and DMN (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus) previously implicated in PTSD, using a seed-based approach...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632327/photosensitivity-is-an-early-marker-of-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-type-2-disease
#4
Nicola Specchio, Marcello Bellusci, Nicola Pietrafusa, Marina Trivisano, Luca de Palma, Federico Vigevano
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify early clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2) disease to enable early diagnosis, thus providing the key to early treatment, and optimized care and outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective clinical chart review of a series of patients diagnosed with CLN2 disease from 2005 to 2015 at a single center in Italy. Clinical, MRI, and EEG findings were reviewed...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631005/phonological-working-memory-for-words-and-nonwords-in-cerebral-cortex
#5
Tyler K Perrachione, Satrajit S Ghosh, Irina Ostrovskaya, John D E Gabrieli, Ioulia Kovelman
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to identify the brain bases of phonological working memory (the short-term maintenance of speech sounds) using behavioral tasks analogous to clinically sensitive assessments of nonword repetition. The secondary purpose of the study was to identify how individual differences in brain activation were related to participants' nonword repetition abilities. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neurophysiological response during a nonword discrimination task derived from standard clinical assessments of phonological working memory...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629874/neural-activity-during-attentional-conflict-predicts-reduction-in-tinnitus-perception-following-rtms
#6
G A James, J D Thostenson, G Brown, G Carter, H Hayes, S P Tripathi, D J Dobry, R B Govindan, J L Dornhoffer, D K Williams, C D Kilts, M S Mennemeier
BACKGROUND: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing...
June 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626250/association-between-changes-in-visual-evoked-magnetic-fields-and-non-motor-features-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Yoshiro Fujisawa, Tomomi Minato, Jun-Ichi Uemura, Minoru Hoshiyama, Hirohisa Watanabe, Masaaki Hirayama
Visual dysfunction can be caused by several abnormalities, including dysfunctions in the visual cortex and retina. Our aim was to investigate changes in visual evoked brain responses in the primary visual cortex associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Sixteen healthy control subjects and ten patients with PD participated in this study. We assessed the visual evoked magnetic field (VEF) using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Checkerboard pattern reversal (CPR) and monotonous grating pattern (MGP) stimulations were used...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624565/a-case-of-laterally-extended-high-positioned-chordoma-treated-using-the-high-cervical-retropharyngeal-approach
#8
Kiyoshi Ito, Takuya Nakamura, Tatsuro Aoyama, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Kazuhiro Hongo
BACKGROUND: Several surgical approaches for the treatment of pathologies of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) and high cervical regions have been reported. For the best postoperative results, selection of a surgical route to treat such pathologies should be based on a complete understanding of the approach. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with a 5-year history of motor and sensory disturbances in her right upper extremity...
June 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619605/the-prognostic-value-of-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-term-newborns-treated-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-following-asphyxia
#9
Paul E Sijens, Katharina Wischniowsky, Hendrik J Ter Horst
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to correlate brain metabolism assessed shortly after therapeutic hyperthermia by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS: At the age of 6.0±1.8days, brain metabolites of 35 term asphyxiated newborns, treated with therapeutic hypothermia, were quantified by multivoxel proton MRS of a volume cranial to the corpus callosum, containing both gray and white matter. At the age of 30months the Bayley Scale of Infant Development-III was performed...
June 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616638/piriformis-muscle-syndrome-with-assessment-of-sciatic-nerve-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-tractography-a-case-report
#10
Keizo Wada, Tomohiro Goto, Tomoya Takasago, Daisuke Hamada, Koichi Sairyo
Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is difficult to diagnose by objective evaluation of sciatic nerve injury. Here we report a case of PMS diagnosed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the sciatic nerve, which can assess and visualize the extent of nerve injury. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 2-year history of continuous pain and numbness in the left leg. His symptoms worsened when sitting. Physical examination, including sensorimotor neurologic tests, the deep tendon reflex test, and the straight leg raise test, revealed no specific findings...
June 14, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607750/noninvasive-tongue-stimulation-combined-with-intensive-cognitive-and-physical-rehabilitation-induces-neuroplastic-changes-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#11
Gabriel Leonard, Yves Lapierre, Jen-Kai Chen, Rima Wardini, Joelle Crane, Alain Ptito
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have central nervous system (CNS) lesions that may impede cognitive and sensorimotor function. Few rehabilitative therapies are available. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to study effects of noninvasive tongue stimulation using the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS™) combined with intensive cognitive and physical rehabilitation on working memory, gait, balance and concomitant changes in the brain...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602921/the-shared-neural-basis-of-music-and-language
#12
Mengxia Yu, Miao Xu, Xueting Li, Zhencai Chen, Yiying Song, Jia Liu
Human musical ability is proposed to play a key phylogenetical role in the evolution of language, and the similarity of hierarchical structure in music and language has led to considerable speculation about their shared mechanisms. While behavioral and electrophysioglocial studies have revealed associations between music and linguistic abilities, results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on their relations are contradictory, possibly because these studies usually treat music or language as single entities without breaking down to their components...
June 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599059/a-silicon-nanowire-as-a-spectrally-tunable-light-driven-nanomotor
#13
Jizhuang Wang, Ze Xiong, Xiaojun Zhan, Baohu Dai, Jing Zheng, Jun Liu, Jinyao Tang
Over the last decades, scientists have endeavored to develop nanoscopic machines and envisioned that these tiny machines could be exploited in biomedical applications and novel material fabrication. Here, a visible-/near-infrared light-driven nanomotor based on a single silicon nanowire is reported. The silicon nanomotor harvests energy from light and propels itself by the self-electrophoresis mechanism. Due to the high efficiency, the silicon nanowire can be readily driven by visible and near-infrared illumination at ultralow light intensity (≈3 mW cm(-2) )...
June 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597560/l-dopa-responsiveness-is-associated-with-distinctive-connectivity-patterns-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Harith Akram, Chengyuan Wu, Jonathan Hyam, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Enrico De Vita, Tarek Yousry, Marjan Jahanshahi, Marwan Hariz, Timothy Behrens, John Ashburner, Ludvic Zrinzo
BACKGROUND: Neuronal loss and dopamine depletion alter motor signal processing between cortical motor areas, basal ganglia, and the thalamus, resulting in the motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Dopamine replacement therapy can reverse these manifestations with varying degrees of improvement. METHODS: To evaluate functional connectivity in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and changes in functional connectivity in relation to the degree of response to l-dopa, 19 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in the on-medication state...
June 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592562/functional-neuroimaging-of-high-risk-6-month-old-infants-predicts-a-diagnosis-of-autism-at-24-months-of-age
#15
Robert W Emerson, Chloe Adams, Tomoyuki Nishino, Heather Cody Hazlett, Jason J Wolff, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, John N Constantino, Mark D Shen, Meghan R Swanson, Jed T Elison, Sridhar Kandala, Annette M Estes, Kelly N Botteron, Louis Collins, Stephen R Dager, Alan C Evans, Guido Gerig, Hongbin Gu, Robert C McKinstry, Sarah Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin Styner, Bradley L Schlaggar, John R Pruett, Joseph Piven
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits and repetitive behaviors that typically emerge by 24 months of age. To develop effective early interventions that can potentially ameliorate the defining deficits of ASD and improve long-term outcomes, early detection is essential. Using prospective neuroimaging of 59 6-month-old infants with a high familial risk for ASD, we show that functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging correctly identified which individual children would receive a research clinical best-estimate diagnosis of ASD at 24 months of age...
June 7, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589071/a-case-report-on-complicated-tuberculous-meningitis
#16
Nadia Jawad, Saira Jafri, Syeda Naqvi, Syed Masroor Ahmad, Shabnam Naveed, Zeeshan Ali
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is associated with significant complications of central nervous system. It is accompanied by nonspecific and heterogeneous clinical symptoms. We focused on the significance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment. We describe a case of TBM in a 19-year-old Asian female. She had a progressive motor weakness with no sensory findings. She was started on antituberculous therapy. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast of dorsolumbar spine showed syringomyelia. Her culture and sensitivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) came negative...
May 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583705/associations-of-newborn-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-long-term-neurodevelopmental-impairments-in-very-preterm-children
#17
Peter J Anderson, Karli Treyvaud, Jeffrey J Neil, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Rodney W Hunt, Deanne K Thompson, Katherine J Lee, Lex W Doyle, Terrie E Inder
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between brain abnormalities on newborn magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurodevelopmental impairment at 7 years of age in very preterm children. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 223 very preterm infants (<30 weeks of gestation or <1250 g) born at Melbourne's Royal Women's Hospital had a brain MRI scan at term equivalent age. Scans were scored using a standardized system that assessed structural abnormality of cerebral white matter, cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, and cerebellum...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583457/vertebrobasilar-insufficiency-due-to-distal-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-compression-in-chiari-1-5
#18
M Burhan Janjua, Iryna Ivasyk, Jeffrey P Greenfield
Chiari malformation is characterized by radiographic evidence of herniation of cerebellar tonsils below the foramen magnum, and symptoms complex of headaches, breathing, swallowing or sleep difficulties, ataxia, restless, motor and/or sensory deficits. We report a case of a 34-year old female whose imaging indicated a Chiari 1.5 with brainstem (caudal medulla) herniation, and an expansive cervical syrinx. Her symptom complex showed signs both of cervical syringomyelia, as well as ones localizable to the medulla...
June 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579975/the-eight-and-a-half-year-journey-of-undiagnosed-ad-gene-sequencing-and-funding-of-advanced-genetic-testing-has-led-to-hope-and-new-beginnings
#19
Illana Gozes, Marc C Patterson, Anke Van Dijck, R Frank Kooy, Joseph N Peeden, Jacob A Eichenberger, Angela Zawacki-Downing, Sandra Bedrosian-Sermone
BACKGROUND: Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is one of the most prevalent de novo mutated genes in syndromic autism spectrum disorders, driving a general interest in the gene and the syndrome. AIM: The aim of this study was to provide a detailed developmental case study of ADNP p.Tyr719* mutation toward improvements in (1) diagnostic procedures, (2) phenotypic scope, and (3) interventions. METHODS: Longitudinal clinical and parental reports...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579797/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-studies-of-rat-behavior-transient-motor-deficit-in-skilled-reaching-rears-and-activity-in-rats-after-a-single-dose-of-mncl2
#20
Mariam Alaverdashvili, Valerie Lapointe, Ian Q Whishaw, Albert R Cross
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been suggested to be a useful tool to visualize and map behavior-relevant neural populations at large scale in freely behaving rodents. A primary concern in MEMRI applications is Mn(2+) toxicity. Although a few studies have specifically examined toxicity on gross motor behavior, Mn(2+) toxicity on skilled motor behavior was not explored. Thus, the objective of this study was to combine manganese as a functional contrast agent with comprehensive behavior evaluation...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
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