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Anorectal small cell carcinoma

Chaya Shwaartz, Jordan A Munger, Juan R Deliz, Joseph E Bornstein, Stephan R Gorfine, David B Chessin, Daniel A Popowich, Joel J Bauer
BACKGROUND: Cancer arising from perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease is rare. There are only a small series of articles that describe sporadic cases of perianal cancer in Crohn's disease fistulas. Therefore, there are no clear guidelines on how to appropriately screen patients at risk and choose proper management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe patients diagnosed with cancer in perianal fistulas in the setting of Crohn's disease...
December 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Venkateswar R Surabhi, Christine O Menias, Ahmed M Amer, Mohamed Elshikh, Venkata S Katabathina, Amy K Hara, William C Baughman, Ania Kielar, Khaled M Elsayes, Cary L Siegel
Tumors and tumorlike conditions of the anus and perianal region originate from the anal canal and anal margin or result from direct extension of tumors from adjacent organs. The anatomy of the anal canal is complex, and its different histologic characteristics can lead to diverse pathologic conditions. The anal canal extends from the anorectal junction to the anal verge. The World Health Organization classification of anal canal tumors includes (a) anal intraepithelial neoplasia, the precursor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and (b) invasive tumors...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Bruno Conte, Ben George, Michael Overman, Jeannelyn Estrella, Zhi-Qin Jiang, Amir Mehrvarz Sarshekeh, Renata Ferrarotto, Paulo M Hoff, Asif Rashid, James C Yao, Scott Kopetz, Arvind Dasari
BACKGROUND: Colorectal high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (HGNEC) are a rare but aggressive group of malignancies without standard management recommendations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 100 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed colorectal HGNEC diagnosed at MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1991 and 2013. RESULTS: In our cohort, most tumors (89%) were small cell carcinoma, and most (60%) involved the sigmoid or the anorectal regions...
June 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Eric J Yang, Matthew C Quick, Suchanan Hanamornroongruang, Keith Lai, Leona A Doyle, Frank D McKeon, Wa Xian, Christopher P Crum, Michael Herfs
Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection causes cancers and their precursors (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) near cervical and anal squamocolumnar junctions. Recently described cervical squamocolumnar junction cells are putative residual embryonic cells near the cervical transformation zone. These cells appear multipotential and share an identical immunophenotype (strongly CK7-positive) with over 90% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical carcinomas. However, because the number of new cervical cancers discovered yearly world wide is 17-fold that of anal cancer, we posed the hypothesis that this difference in cancer risk reflects differences in the transition zones at the two sites...
July 2015: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
I Troussier, F Huguet, S Servagi-Vernat, C Benahim, J Khalifa, I Darmon, C Ortholan, L Krebs, C Dejean, P Fenoglietto, S Vieillot, R-J Bensadoun, J Thariat
The standard treatment of locally advanced (stage II and III) squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal consists of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (two cycles of 5-fluoro-uracil, mitomycin C, on a 28-day cycle), with a dose of 45 Gy in 1.8 Gy per fraction in the prophylactic planning target volume and additional 14 to 20 Gy in the boost planning target volume (5 days per week) with a possibility of 15 days gap period between the two sequences. While conformal irradiation may only yield suboptimal tumor coverage using complex photon/electron field junctions (especially on nodal areas), intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques (segmented static, dynamic, volumetric modulated arc therapy and helical tomotherapy) allow better tumour coverage while sparing organs at risk from intermediate/high doses (small intestine, perineum/genitalia, bladder, pelvic bone, etc...
April 2015: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Eric Morinello, Michael Pignatello, Loris Villabruna, Petra Goelzer, Heinrich Bürgin
Vismodegib (Erivedge) is a first-in-class small-molecule hedgehog pathway inhibitor for the treatment of adults with advanced basal-cell carcinoma. Because this pathway is known to play key roles in patterning and growth during vertebrate development, vismodegib was anticipated to be embryotoxic. To support marketing applications, an embryofetal development study was completed in which a limited number of pregnant rats (n = 6/group) was administered vismodegib by oral gavage on gestation days 6 to 17. When vismodegib was administered at ≥60 mg/kg/day, doses associated with evidence of pharmacologic activity in previous rat toxicity studies, all conceptuses were resorbed at an early embryonic stage in the absence of significant maternal toxicity...
April 2014: Birth Defects Research. Part B, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
Leila Ghahramani, Mohammad Mohammadianpanah, Seyed Vahid Hosseini, Masood Hosseinzade, Ahmad Izadpanah, Saba Ebrahimian, Alimohammad Bananzadeh
Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), also known as Von Recklinghausen disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder with incidence of one per 4000. Neurofibromas are benign, heterogeneous, peripheral nerve sheath tumors coming up from the connective tissue of peripheral nerve sheaths, particularly the endoneurium. Visceral involvement in disseminated neurofibromatosis is considered rare. Neurofibroma occurs most frequently in the stomach and jejunum, but colon and anorectal canal may also be involved. Gastrointestinal neurofibromas may lead to bleeding, obstruction, intussusception, protein-losing enteropathy and bowel perforation...
March 2014: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Bilal O Al-Jiffry, Owaid Al-Malki
We describe the treatment of a 46-year-old Saudi man with advanced stage liver metastatic neuroendocrine rectal cancer. The patient presented with a large liver lesion and rectal bleeding. He was cachectic, with a firm tender mass 20 mm above the anal verge. Computed tomography (CT) showed a mass 9.5 × 13 cm in size in the right hemi-liver, abutting the middle hepatic vein. The patient refused treatment, and consulted another hospital. After 3 months, he presented with the same symptoms in addition to delirium...
July 11, 2013: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Karla Sánchez-Lara, Oscar Arrieta, Eric Pasaye, Alessandro Laviano, Roberto E Mercadillo, Ricardo Sosa-Sánchez, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the brain activity manifested while non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with and without anorexia were exposed to visual food stimuli. METHODS: We included 26 treatment-naïve patients who had been recently diagnosed with advanced NSCLC. Patients with brain metastasis were excluded. The patients were classified into anorectic and non-anorectic groups. Data from functional magnetic resonance imaging based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals were analyzed while the patients perceived pleasant and unpleasant food pictures...
July 2013: Nutrition
N M Pantelides, R J Davies, N S Fearnhead, C M Malata
INTRODUCTION: Gluteal fold flaps (GFFs) have been extensively reported for vulvo-vaginal reconstruction but there are no published series of their use for perineal reconstruction following anorectal cancer excision. In this context, abdominal myocutaneous flaps remain the method of choice but may be unavailable because of pre-existing abdominal scars, or need for a colostomy/urostomy. In addition, their abdominal wall morbidity makes them less acceptable, especially given the increasing use of laparoscopic techniques for the extirpative surgery...
June 2013: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Ashley Cimino-Mathews, Rajni Sharma, Peter B Illei
Small cell carcinomas represent <1% of colorectal/anal carcinomas and have a poor prognosis. Anorectal squamous cell carcinomas are often associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, similar to squamous and small cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix. In HPV infection, the oncoprotein E7 inactivates the tumor suppressor Rb, leading to p16 upregulation; however, in small cell carcinomas, the Rb pathway is often blocked by other mechanisms; thus, increased p16 may not indicate HPV infection...
July 2012: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Joshua M Eberhardt, Karen Brown, Shelly Lo, Suneel Nagda, Sherri Yong
Purpose. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma affecting the anal canal is a rare and poorly understood entity which can, in its early stages, masquerade as benign anorectal disease such as hemorrhoids. Methods. We report a case of this rare malignancy which initially presented with hematochezia and anal pain. We also review the literature with regard to previously described cases and management strategies including the role of surgery. Results. Despite aggressive multidisciplinary treatment consisting of chemotherapy and radiation, the disease progressed rapidly with dissemination occurring only three months after completion of treatment...
2012: Case Reports in Medicine
Line Pourtau, Susan Leemburg, Pascale Roux, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Patricia Costaglioli, Bertrand Garbay, Guillaume Drutel, Jan Pieter Konsman
Lack of compensatory or even reduced food intake is frequently observed in weight-losing cancer patients and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Our previous work has shown increased transcription factor expression in the hypothalamus and ventral striatum of anorectic rats bearing small tumors. mRNA expression of molecules known to be involved in pathways regulating appetite in these structures was therefore assessed in this study. Given that pain, pro-inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormones can modify food intake, spinal cord cellular activation patterns and plasma concentrations of cytokines and hormones were also studied...
May 2011: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Pascal Gervaz, Philippe Morel, Marie-Catherine Vozenin-Brotons
Radiation therapy is a key component of the management of various pelvic tumors, including prostate, gynecological, and anorectal carcinomas. Unfortunately, normal tissues located in the vicinity of target organs are radiosensitive, and long-term cancer survivors may develop late treatment-related injury, most notably radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) of the small bowel. The cellular mediators of intestinal fibrosis are mesenchymal cells (i.e. myofibroblasts, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) which, when activated, serve as the primary collagen-producing cells, and are responsible for excess deposition of extracellular matrix components, eventually leading to intestinal loss of function...
April 2009: Current Molecular Medicine
Hiroki Ikeuchi, Hiroki Nakano, Motoi Uchino, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Hiroki Matsuoka, Yoshihiro Fukuda, Takayuki Matsumoto, Yoshio Takesue, Naohiro Tomita
AIMS: We investigated Crohn's Disease (CD) patients with carcinomas in the intestinal tract to emphasize the difficulty in establishing a diagnosis, as well as show the importance of establishing formal guidelines for screening and surveillance of cancers associated with perianal CD. METHODOLOGY: We studied 504 CD patients treated in our department with surgical intervention. RESULTS: In 9 of the patients, carcinomas developed in relation to CD, 7 of whom had cancer of the lower rectum and anus with severe anorectal CD lesions...
November 2008: Hepato-gastroenterology
Robert J Myerson, Elesyia D Outlaw, Albert Chang, Elisa H Birnbaum, James W Fleshman, Perry W Grigsby, Ira J Kodner, Robert S Malayapa, Matthew G Mutch, Parag Parikh, Joel Picus, Benjamin R Tan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the factors associated with disease control and morbidity after radiotherapy for anal carcinoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1975 and 2005, 194 patients with localized epidermoid anal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy. Treatment evolved from radiotherapy with or without surgery, to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The radiotherapy techniques also evolved. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 61 months, 57 patients had persistence or recurrence, 9 of whom were successfully salvaged, resulting in 146 (75%) ultimately free of disease (UNED)...
October 1, 2009: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Alessio Imperiale, Cyrille Blondet, Philippe Choquet, André Constantinesco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2006: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Michael W T Chao, Peter Gibbs
Giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA) is a tumour that primarily affects the genital and perianal areas. Despite the histologically benign appearance, it behaves in a malignant fashion, destroying adjacent tissues, and is regarded as an entity intermediate between an ordinary condyloma acuminatum and squamous cell carcinoma. Primary anorectal lesions account for only a small number of GCA cases and, as with squamous cell carcinoma, the human papilloma virus is the causative agent. The hallmark of GCA is the high rate of local recurrence and transformation into squamous cell carcinoma...
July 2005: Asian Journal of Surgery
Limei Guo, Naoto Kuroda, Eriko Miyazaki, Yulan Jin, Makoto Toi, Tadashi Hamauzu, Makoto Hiroi, Takeshi Inoue, Atsushi Inoue, Hideaki Enzan
A case of anal canal neuroendocrine carcinoma with Pagetoid intraepithelial extension is presented. An 80-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a complaint of pain in the anorectal region. Clinical examination revealed a hard and fixed mass in the anal canal, and subsequent biopsy of the lesion showed it to be a carcinoma. The surgically resected specimen showed a solid tumor measuring 3.4 x 3.2 cm within the area from the surgical anal canal to the anatomical anal canal. Tumor cells proliferated predominantly with compact nests...
August 2004: Pathology International
Abrar Maqbool, Rebecca Lintner, Aqiba Bokhari, Tariq Habib, Irfan Rahman, Babar K Rao
Anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease. Histologically, the tumor may mimic adenocarcinomas, small cell carcinomas, and sarcomas; grossly, the lesion often mimics hemorrhoids. We report 3 cases of anorectal melanoma: a 40-year-old woman with anorectal melanoma with local recurrence after an abdominoperineal resection (APR); a 30-year-old woman with anorectal melanoma and multiple liver metastases returning with multiple masses in the rectum and 2 nodules above and below the left clavicle after receiving chemotherapy; and a 62-year-old woman with inguinal node metastases...
June 2004: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
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