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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340040/identifying-the-dynamics-of-actin-and-tubulin-polymerization-in-ipscs-and-in-ipsc-derived-neurons
#1
Valentina Magliocca, Stefania Petrini, Tiziana Franchin, Rossella Borghi, Alessia Niceforo, Zeinab Abbaszadeh, Enrico Bertini, Claudia Compagnucci
The development of the nervous system requires cytoskeleton-mediated processes coordinating self-renewal, migration, and differentiation of neurons. It is not surprising that many neurodevelopmental problems and neurodegenerative disorders are caused by deficiencies in cytoskeleton-related genes. For this reason, we focus on the cytoskeletal dynamics in proliferating iPSCs and in iPSC-derived neurons to better characterize the underpinnings of cytoskeletal organization looking at actin and tubulin repolymerization studies using the cell permeable probes SiR-Actin and SiR-Tubulin...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339826/using-intracellular-markers-to-identify-a-novel-set-of-surface-markers-for-live-cell-purification-from-a-heterogeneous-hipsc-culture
#2
Elizabeth J Paik, Alison L O'Neil, Shi-Yan Ng, Chicheng Sun, Lee L Rubin
Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide sources for midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neural progenitors (NPCs) for cell therapy to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, the well-known line-to-cell line variability in the differentiation capacity of individual cell lines needs to be improved for the success of this therapy. To address this issue, we sought to identify mDA NPC specific cell surface markers for fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Through RNA isolation after sorting for NPCs based on staining for cell-specific transcription factors followed by microarray, we identified two positive cell surface markers (CORIN and CD166) and one negative cell surface marker (CXCR4) for mDA NPC sorting...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339535/functional-changes-of-ampa-responses-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Venkat Swaroop Achuta, Tommi Möykkynen, Ulla-Kaisa Peteri, Giorgio Turconi, Claudio Rivera, Kari Keinänen, Maija L Castrén
Altered neuronal network formation and function involving dysregulated excitatory and inhibitory circuits are associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined functional maturation of the excitatory transmission system in FXS by investigating the response of FXS patient-derived neural progenitor cells to the glutamate analog (AMPA). Neural progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines generated from boys with FXS had augmented intracellular Ca2+ responses to AMPA and kainate that were mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) lacking the GluA2 subunit...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339324/oscillatory-synchronous-inhibition-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-and-its-primary-dependence-on-nr2a-containing-nmda-receptors
#4
Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Volodymyr I Pidoplichko, Taiza H Figueiredo, Maria F M Braga
Synchronous, rhythmic firing of GABAergic interneurons is a fundamental mechanism underlying the generation of brain oscillations, and evidence suggests that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a key role in oscillatory activity by regulating the activity of interneurons. Consistent with this, derangement of brain rhythms in certain neuropsychiatric disorders, notably schizophrenia and autism, is associated with NMDAR hypofunction and loss of inhibitory interneurons. In the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-dysfunction of which is involved in a host of neuropsychiatric diseases-, principal neurons display spontaneous, rhythmic "bursts" of inhibitory activity, which could potentially be involved in the orchestration of oscillations in the BLA network; here, we investigated the role of NMDARs in these inhibitory oscillations...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337900/age-related-epigenetic-derangement-upon-reprogramming-and-differentiation-of-cells-from-the-elderly
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Ravaioli, Maria G Bacalini, Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani
Aging is a complex multi-layered phenomenon. The study of aging in humans is based on the use of biological material from hard-to-gather tissues and highly specific cohorts. The introduction of cell reprogramming techniques posed promising features for medical practice and basic research. Recently, a growing number of studies have been describing the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from old or centenarian biologic material. Nonetheless, Reprogramming techniques determine a profound remodelling on cell epigenetic architecture whose extent is still largely debated...
January 16, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336212/simulated-microgravity-impairs-cardiac-autonomic-neurogenesis-from-neural-crest-cells
#6
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Zhijie Jiang, Krystalenia Valasaki, Lauro M Takeuchi, Wayne Balkan, Preethi Atluri, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Darcy DiFede, Joshua M Hare
Microgravity-induced alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribute to derangements in both the mechanical and electrophysiologic function of the cardiovascular system, leading to severe symptoms in humans following space travel. Because the ANS forms embryonically from neural crest progenitors (NCs), we hypothesized that microgravity can impair NC derived cardiac structures. Accordingly, we conducted in vitro simulated microgravity experiments employing NC genetic lineage-tracing in mice with cKitCreERT2/+, Isl1nLacZ and Wnt1-Cre reporter alleles...
January 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335361/correction-to-discovery-of-novel-small-molecule-inducers-of-heme-oxygenase-1-that-protect-human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-from-oxidative-stress
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335356/single-bursts-of-individual-granule-cells-functionally-rearrange-feed-forward-inhibition
#8
Máté Neubrandt, Viktor János Oláh, János Brunner, Endre Marosi, Ivan Soltesz, János Szabadics
The sparse single spike activity of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) is punctuated by occasional brief bursts of 3 to 7 action potentials. It is well-known that such presynaptic bursts in individual mossy fibers (MFs; axons of granule cells) are often able to discharge postsynaptic CA3 pyramidal cells due to powerful short-term facilitation. However, what happens in the CA3 network after the passage of a brief MF burst, before the arrival of the next burst or solitary spike, is not understood. Because MFs innervate significantly more CA3 interneurons than pyramidal cells, we focused on unitary MF responses in identified interneurons in the seconds-long post-burst period, using paired recordings in rat hippocampal slices...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335068/imprinted-gene-zinc-finger-protein-127-is-a-novel-regulator-of-master-pluripotency-transcription-factor-oct4
#9
Yoo-Wook Kwon, Hyo-Suk Ahn, Joo-Young Park, Han-Mo Yang, Hyun-Jai Cho, Hyo-Soo Kim
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show great promise for replacing current stem cell therapies in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the original method for cellular reprogramming, involving four exogenous transcription factors, is characterized by low efficiency. Here, we focused on using epigenetic modifications to enhance the reprogramming efficiency. We hypothesized that there would be a new reprogramming factor involved in DNA demethylation, acting on the promoters of pluripotency-related genes...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335067/gata6-in-pluripotent-stem-cells-enhance-the-potential-to-differentiate-into-cardiomyocytes
#10
Chang-Hwan Yoon, Tae-Won Kim, Seok-Jin Koh, Young-Eun Choi, Jin Hur, Yoo-Wook Kwon, Hyun-Jai Cho, Hyo-Soo Kim
Pluripotent stem cell (PSC) variations can cause significant differences in the efficiency of cardiac differentiation. This process is unpredictable, as there is not an adequate indicator at the undifferentiated stage of the PSCs. We compared global gene expression profiles of two PSCs showing significant differences in cardiac differentiation potential. We identified 12 up-regulated genes related to heart development, and we found that 4 genes interacted with multiple genes. Among these genes, Gata6 is the only gene that was significantly induced at the early stage of differentiation of PSCs to cardiomyocytes...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334630/generation-of-an-integration-free-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-csc-43j-from-a-patient-with-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Ana Marote, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Stefano Goldwurm, Anna Collin, Nuno J Lamas, Luísa Pinto, António J Salgado, Laurent Roybon
An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was generated from a 36-year-old patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line (CSC-43) exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into three germ layers and normal karyotype. This iPSC line can be used to study the mechanisms underlying the development of PD.
January 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334629/generation-of-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-csc-42-from-a-patient-with-sporadic-form-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Ekaterina Savchenko, Ana Marote, Kaspar Russ, Anna Collin, Stefano Goldwurm, Laurent Roybon, Yuriy Pomeshchik
Skin fibroblasts were collected from a 44-year-old patient with sporadic case of Parkinson's disease (PD). The non-integrating Sendai virus vector encoding OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 was used to reprogram fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Generated iPSCs had normal karyotypes, expressed common stem cell markers, and were capable of differentiating into all three germ layers. Generated line could be used for PD modeling to understand the mechanisms that influence the disorder.
January 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334628/production-and-characterization-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipscs-from-joubert-syndrome-cssi001-a-2850
#13
Jessica Rosati, Filomena Altieri, Silvia Tardivo, Elisa Maria Turco, Marina Goldoni, Iolanda Spasari, Daniela Ferrari, Laura Bernardini, Giuseppe Lamorte, Enza Maria Valente, Angelo Luigi Vescovi
Joubert Syndrome (JS) is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked condition characterized by a peculiar cerebellar malformation, known as the molar tooth sign (MTS), associated with other neurological phenotypes and multiorgan involvement. JS is a ciliopathy, a spectrum of disorders whose causative genes encode proteins involved in the primary cilium apparatus. In order to elucidate ciliopathy-associated molecular mechanisms, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were derived from a patient affected by JS carrying a homozygous missense mutation in the AHI1 gene (p...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333086/ethical-and-safety-issues-of-stem-cell-based-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Vladislav Volarevic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Marina Gazdic, Ana Volarevic, Nemanja Jovicic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Lyle Armstrong, Valentin Djonov, Majlinda Lako, Miodrag Stojkovic
Results obtained from completed and on-going clinical studies indicate huge therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapy in the treatment of degenerative, autoimmune and genetic disorders. However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. We describe ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, emphasizing that ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is a major factor that may have limited the development of hESC-based clinical therapies...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331938/generation-of-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-csc-40-from-a-parkinson-s-disease-patient-with-a-pink1-p-q456x-mutation
#15
Kaspar Russ, Ana Marote, Ekaterina Savchenko, Anna Collin, Stefano Goldwurm, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Laurent Roybon
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with unknown etiology. Here we show the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, named CSC-40, from dermal fibroblasts obtained from a 59-year-old male patient with a homozygous p.Q456X mutation in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK/PARK6) gene and a confirmed diagnosis of PD, which could be used to model familial PD. A non-integrating Sendai virus-based delivery of the reprogramming factors OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 was employed...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330035/harmine-enhances-gabaergic-transmission-onto-basoamygdala-projection-neurons-in-mice
#16
Wei-Zhu Liu, Bo-Wei Huang, Wen-Jie You, Ping Hu, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Bin Xu, Zong-Yong Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang
Emerging evidence indicates that loss of inhibitory tone in amygdala with its subsequent overactivation contributes to the development of multiple mental disorders such as anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Harmine is a member of natural β-carboline alkaloids which can readily cross the blood brain barrier and displays significant antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in rodents. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, by using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in in vitro amygdala slices, we examined the effect of harmine on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission onto basal amygdala (BA) projection neurons (PNs)...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328972/establishment-of-tusmi003-a-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-62-year-old-chinese-han-patient-with-alzheimer-s-disease-with-apoe3-4-genetic-background
#17
Ying Wang, Hongxiang Yu, Yue Zhang, Jing Zhang, Keni Chen, Heng Sun, Shulin Meng, Gang Li, Ying Lei, Jian Zhao
A 62-year old Chinese Han Alzheimer's disease (AD) female patient with ApoE3/4 genetic background donated her Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The non-integrating episomal vector system was used to reprogrammed PBMCs with the human OKSM transcription factors. The pluripotency of transgene-free iPSCs was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for pluripotency markers and by the ability of the iPSCs to differentiate spontaneously into 3 germ layers in vitro. In addition, the iPSC line displayed a normal karyotype...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328449/bioinformatics-analysis-to-screen-key-genes-implicated-in-the-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-hepatocytes
#18
Rui Lin, Yufeng Wang, Kun Ji, Zhongyan Liu, Shuai Xiao, Dehua Zhou, Quanning Chen, Baomin Shi
Due to the lack of potential organs, hepatocellular transplantation has been considered for treating end-stage liver disease. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reverted from somatic cells and are able to differentiate into hepatocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying iPSC differentiation to hepatocytes. GSE66076 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus; this database includes data from 3 undifferentiated (T0), 3 definitive endoderm (T5), and 3 early hepatocyte (T24) samples across hepatic‑directed differentiation of iPSCs...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327674/insoluble-microenvironment-facilitating-the-generation-and-maintenance-of-pluripotency
#19
Xiaofang Chen, Jiaqi Li, Yan Huang, Peng Liu, Yubo Fan
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold enormous potential as a tool to generate cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since the initial report of iPSCs in 2006, many different methods have been developed in order to enhance the safety and efficiency of this technology. Recent studies indicate that the extracellular signals can promote the production of iPSCs, and even replace the Yamanaka factors. Noticeably, abundant evidences suggest that the insoluble microenvironment, including the culture substrate and neighboring cells, directly regulates the expression of core pluripotency genes and the epigenetic modification of the chromatins, hence impact the reprogramming dynamics...
January 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320756/generation-of-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-from-an-adult-male-with-45-x-46-xy-mosaicism
#20
Yumei Luo, Detu Zhu, Xiangye Xu, Lingxia Ge, Xiaofang Sun, Guokai Chen, Yaoyong Chen
Turner syndrome (TS) with 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype is a rare sex chromosome disorder with an occurrence of 0.15‰ at birth. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a Chinese adult male with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The iPSC line retains the original 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. Therefore, it offers an unprecedented cellular model to investigate the profound symptoms like infertility of TS in the male, and serve as a useful tool to develop therapies for the disease...
January 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research
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