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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730159/antibiotic-prescribing-for-adults-hospitalized-in-the-etiology-of-pneumonia-in-the-community-study
#1
Sara Tomczyk, Seema Jain, Anna M Bramley, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Chris Trabue, D Mark Courtney, Carlos G Grijalva, Grant W Waterer, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Lauri A Hicks
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) 2007 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommend a respiratory fluoroquinolone or beta-lactam plus macrolide as first-line antibiotics for adults hospitalized with CAP. Few studies have assessed guideline-concordant antibiotic use for patients hospitalized with CAP after the 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines. We examine antibiotics prescribed and associated factors in adults hospitalized with CAP...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678546/mortality-prediction-using-serum-biomarkers-and-various-clinical-risk-scales-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#2
Min Woo Kim, Jee Yong Lim, Sang Hoon Oh
We evaluated the predictive value of serum biomarkers and various clinical risk scales for the 28-day mortality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Serum biomarkers including procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated in the emergency department. Scores for the pneumonia severity index (PSI); CURB65 (confusion, urea, respiration, blood pressure; age >65 years); Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines for severe CAP; Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA); and quick SOFA (qSOFA) were calculated...
July 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677020/treatment-discontinuation-adherence-and-real-world-effectiveness-among-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-the-united-states
#3
Amy Puenpatom, Michael Hull, Jeffrey McPheeters, Kay Schwebke
INTRODUCTION: Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment provides an oral interferon-free treatment regimen with high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR). This study assessed treatment discontinuation, factors associated with treatment completion, and real-world effectiveness. METHODS: Patients with HCV treated with LDV/SOF between October 2014 and June 2015 and enrolled in a large US health plan were identified. Expected treatment duration was calculated based on IDSA/AASLD treatment guidelines and US labels using data for genotype, initial treatment regimen, baseline cirrhosis, and prior treatments...
July 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657261/rare-case-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#4
N Marathe, B Canavan
Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial (NTM) infections occur in HIV-negative patients with or without underlying lung disease. It is generally felt that these organisms are acquired from the environment. Unlike tuberculosis, there are no convincing data demonstrating human-to-human OR animal-to-human transmission of NTM. We report a case of NTM infection in a 38 year old patient with underlying emphysematous lung disease. The case highlights the diagnostic dilemma which occurs when persistent sputum Acid- Fast Bacilli (AFB) smears are positive, but Nucleic acid amplification test is negative...
February 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625166/impact-of-gram-stain-results-on-initial-treatment-selection-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-retrospective-analysis-of-two-treatment-algorithms
#5
Jumpei Yoshimura, Takahiro Kinoshita, Kazuma Yamakawa, Asako Matsushima, Naoki Nakamoto, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Satoshi Fujimi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious problem in intensive care units (ICUs). Several studies have suggested that the Gram stain of endotracheal aspirates is a useful method for accurately diagnosing VAP. However, the usefulness of the Gram stain in predicting which microorganisms cause VAP has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a Gram stain of endotracheal aspirates could be used to determine appropriate initial antimicrobial therapy for VAP...
June 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578710/compliance-with-clostridium-difficile-treatment-guidelines-effect-on-patient-outcomes
#6
K T Crowell, K G Julian, M Katzman, A S Berg, A Tinsley, E D Williams, W A Koltun, E Messaris
Guidelines for the severity classification and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were published by Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) in 2010; however, compliance and efficacy of these guidelines has not been widely investigated. This present study assessed compliance with guidelines and its effect on CDI patient outcomes as compared with before these recommendations. A retrospective study included all adult inpatients with an initial episode of CDI treated in a single academic center from January 2009 to August 2014...
August 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577158/adherence-to-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-management-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-japan-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#7
K Kobayashi, N Sekiya, Y Ainoda, H Kurai, A Imamura
This study was conducted to investigate the adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A retrospective multicenter observational study was conducted via chart review at four teaching hospitals in Japan from April 2012 through September 2013. CDI was diagnosed based on positive identification of CD toxin by enzyme immunoassay testing. CDI patients were divided into non-severe and severe groups according to the severity criteria of four published guidelines (SHEA/IDSA 2010, ACG 2013, ESCMID 2009, HPA/DH 2008)...
June 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501465/candiduria-evidence-based-approach-to-management-are-we-there-yet
#8
REVIEW
W A Alfouzan, R Dhar
Candiduria is considered one of the most controversial issues in patient management. Neither the diagnosis nor the optimal treatment options are standardized. This is further complicated by lack of defined laboratory criteria for diagnosis as most of the studies were set for bacterial rather than fungal urinary tract infection (UTI). Furthermore, since Candida species is a known commensal of the genitourinary tract its presence in the urine sample adds ambiguity to making a definitive diagnosis of candidal UTI...
May 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480249/a-proposed-new-classification-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-modeled-on-the-subset-of-diabetic-foot-infection
#9
REVIEW
Benjamin A Lipsky, Michael H Silverman, Warren S Joseph
Schemes for classifying skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) pose limitations for clinicians and regulatory agencies. Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are a subset of SSTIs. We developed and are proposing a classification to harmonize current schemes for SSTIs and DFIs. Existing schemes for classifying SSTIs are limited in both their usefulness to clinicians and to regulatory agencies. The guidelines on SSTI from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration do not adequately address many types of wound infections...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464807/prognostic-factors-in-hospitalized-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-retrospective-study-of-a-prospective-observational-cohort
#10
Akihiro Ito, Tadashi Ishida, Hironobu Tokumasu, Yasuyoshi Washio, Akio Yamazaki, Yuhei Ito, Hiromasa Tachibana
BACKGROUND: To date, only few studies have examined the prognostic factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) defined according to the latest criteria, which excludes healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the factors that affect prognosis, and evaluate the usefulness of existing pneumonia severity scores for predicting the prognosis of CAP. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with CAP, excluding HCAP, who were enrolled prospectively between April 2007 and February 2016...
May 2, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461868/the-mask-of-acute-bacterial-pneumonia-may-disguise-the-face-of-tuberculosis
#11
HamidReza Naderi, Fereshte Sheybani, Sedigheh Sadat Erfani, Bezat Amiri, Mehdi Jabbari Nooghabi
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can present as acute pneumonia. Differentiation of tuberculous from non-tuberculous community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important challenge in endemic areas. The purpose of this study was the comparison between characteristics of tuberculous and non-tuberculous CAP patients. METHODS: In this prospective and observational study, all adult patients (aged ≥16 years) who were admitted to Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad (Iran) with the diagnosis of CAP, between February 2013 and January 2014, were enrolled...
March 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450198/are-antibiotic-resistant-pathogens-more-common-in-subsequent-episodes-of-diabetic-foot-infection
#12
Dan Lebowitz, Karim Gariani, Benjamin Kressmann, Elodie von Dach, Benedikt Huttner, Placido Bartolone, Nam Lê, Morad Mohamad, Benjamin A Lipsky, Ilker Uçkay
BACKGROUND: After antibiotic therapy of an initial diabetic foot infection (DFI), pathogens isolated from subsequent episodes might become more resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. If so, this might require a modification of the current recommendations for the selection of empiric antibiotic therapy. This study investigated whether the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) DFI guideline recommendations should be modified based on the number of past DFI episodes. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective cohort survey of DFI patients seen during the years 2010 to 2016...
June 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406709/long-term-outcomes-in-a-population-based-cohort-with-respiratory-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-isolation
#13
Emily Henkle, Shannon A Novosad, Sean Shafer, Katrina Hedberg, Sarah A R Siegel, Jennifer Ku, Cara Varley, D Rebecca Prevots, Theodore K Marras, Kevin L Winthrop
RATIONALE: The natural history of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) respiratory infection in the general population is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To describe the long-term clinical, microbiologic, and radiographic outcomes of patients with respiratory NTM isolates. METHODS: We previously identified a population-based cohort of patients with respiratory NTM isolation during 2005-2006 and categorized patients as cases or noncases using the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America pulmonary NTM disease criteria at that time...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387532/mortality-after-respiratory-isolation-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-a-comparison-of-patients-who-did-and-did-not-meet-disease-criteria
#14
Shannon A Novosad, Emily Henkle, Sean Schafer, Katrina Hedberg, Jennifer Ku, Sarah A R Siegel, Dongseok Choi, Christopher G Slatore, Kevin L Winthrop
RATIONALE: The mortality of patients with respiratory tract isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and their risk factors for death are not well described. OBJECTIVES: To determine age-adjusted mortality rates for patients with respiratory NTM isolates and their causes of death and to examine whether American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) diagnostic criteria identify those at higher risk of death after NTM isolation. METHODS: We linked vital records registries with a previously identified Oregon population-based cohort of patients with NTM respiratory isolation...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375402/hot-topics-in-primary-care-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-is-there-anything-new
#15
REVIEW
Hans Liu
The management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an ongoing challenge in the primary care setting. This is due, in part, to the fact that management guidelines in the United States were published nearly a decade ago. Furthermore, there has been a dearth of new treatments. But that may be about to change. Management guidelines are being updated by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and are expected to be released this summer. In addition, several new antibiotics for the treatment of CAP are on the horizon...
April 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369295/cranial-imaging-before-lumbar-puncture-in-adults-with-community-acquired-meningitis-clinical-utility-and-adherence-to-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-guidelines
#16
Lucrecia Salazar, Rodrigo Hasbun
Background.: The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines delineate criteria for the use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head before lumbar puncture (LP) in adults with community-acquired meningitis (CAM). There are limited data to document adherence to these guidelines and assess the clinical utility of brain imaging. Methods.: This was a retrospective analysis from January 2005 to January 2010 in Houston, Texas. Results...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294090/evaluation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-academic-and-community-based-management-within-the-same-health-system
#17
Sumaya Ased, Hamza Rayes, Jaspreet Dhami, Nick Amosson, Akua Fordjour, Jeff Macaraeg, Renuga Vivekanandan, Josh Wilson, Annie Cabri, Michele Davids, Jennifer Anthone, Stephen Cavalieri, Christopher J Destache
A nonrandomized, retrospective comparison of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia between an academic hospital setting (n=53) and a community hospital setting (n=245) within a single healthcare system was performed. Despite infectious disease consultations, S. aureus bacteremia management recommendations based on Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines were not followed as closely in the community hospital setting. The community hospital setting requires management standardization for patients with S...
June 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166353/validation-of-idsa-ats-algorithm-for-duration-of-pneumonia-therapy-reply
#18
Ane Uranga, Amaia Bilbao, Jose María Quintana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166343/validation-of-idsa-ats-algorithm-for-duration-of-pneumonia-therapy
#19
Takahiro Mori, Makito Yaegashi, Shinya Hasegawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166342/validation-of-idsa-ats-algorithm-for-duration-of-pneumonia-therapy
#20
Werner C Albrich, Benedikt D Huttner, Angela Huttner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
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