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epilepsy review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336937/the-combination-of-stereo-eeg-and-radiofrequency-ablation
#1
Hélène Catenoix, Pierre Bourdillon, Marc Guénot, Jean Isnard
SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation (SEEG-guided RFTC), a combination of Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) and radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC), has been performed since 2001 in drug resistant epilepsy. The interest of this procedure is to aim at total or partial destruction of the epileptogenic zone, as tailored in each individual patient by the SEEG exploration. These multiple SEEG-guided RFTC lesions of epileptic foci are produced by using a radiofrequency generator connected to the electrode contacts...
January 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334039/refractory-epilepsy-the-role-of-positron-emission-tomography
#2
Tommy L H Chan, Jonathan Romsa, David A Steven, Jorge G Burneo
RATIONALE: Presurgical localization of the epileptogenic focus is critical to successful surgery. Traditionally, localization of the epileptogenic focus depends on seizure semiology, scalp video-electroencephalography (vEEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neuropsychological assessment, and, when needed, intracranial EEG (iEEG). We aimed to explore the role of positron emission tomography (PET) in the presurgical evaluation of patients with refractory epilepsy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on patients from London Health Sciences Centre (London, Ontario) with refractory epilepsy who underwent PET from September of 2011 to April of 2016...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331315/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-arctotis-arctotoides-l-f-o-hoffm-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Md Moshfekus Saleh-E-In, Johannes Van Staden
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) is part of the genus Arctotis. Arctotis is an African genus of approximately 70 species that occur widely in the African continent with diverse medicinal values. This plant is used for the treatment of indigestion and catarrh of the stomach, epilepsy, topical wounds and skin disorders among the ethnic groups in South Africa and reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to appraise the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological potential, analytical methods and safety issues of A...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331287/characterizing-the-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-with-magnetoencephalography-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Irene E Harmsen, Nathan C Rowland, Richard A Wennberg, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the literature related to the use of MEG to characterize the effects of DBS...
January 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331203/have-we-forgotten-about-forgetting-a-critical-review-of-accelerated-long-term-forgetting-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Anneli Cassel, Michael D Kopelman
Forgetting has been researched for over a century. This literature highlighted how forgetting rates can vary dependent on factors in the design and method. Recent interest in forgetting revived with evidence suggesting that seizures experienced almost immediately after matched learning could accelerate forgetting. This was followed by a growth in forgetting studies in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), including a subset of those with transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). These patients have been described as expressing concerns about memory, yet often perform within 'normal' ranges on standard neuropsychological memory assessments...
December 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329108/cracking-novel-shared-targets-between-epilepsy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-need-of-the-hour
#6
Nitika Garg, Rupa Joshi, Bikash Medhi
Epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are interconnected. It is well known that seizures are linked with cognitive impairment, and there are various shared etiologies between epilepsy and AD. The connection between hyperexcitability of neurons and cognitive dysfunction in the progression of AD or epileptogenesis plays a vital role for improving selection of treatment for both diseases. Traditionally, seizures occur less frequently and in later stages of age in patients with AD which in turn implies that neurodegeneration causes seizures...
January 12, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328514/a-systematic-review-of-population-pharmacokinetics-of-valproic-acid
#7
Janthima Methaneethorn
AIMS: Population pharmacokinetics is an essential tool that helps guiding individualized dosing regimens. The aims of this systematic review are to provide knowledge concerning population pharmacokinetics of valproic acid (VPA) and to identify factors influencing VPA pharmacokinetic variability. METHODS: Pubmed and Embase databases were systematically searched from inception to June, 2017. Relevant articles from reference lists were also included. All population pharmacokinetic studies of VPA conducted in human and employed nonlinear mixed effect modeling approach were included in this review...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327337/generalized-nonmotor-absence-seizures-what-do-absence-generalized-and-nonmotor-mean
#8
REVIEW
Iris Unterberger, Eugen Trinka, Peter W Kaplan, Gerald Walser, Gerhard Luef, Gerhard Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Clinical absences are now classified as "generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures" by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The aim of this paper is to critically review the concept of absences and to put the accompanying focal and motor symptoms into the context of the emerging pathophysiological knowledge. METHODS: For this narrative review we performed an extensive literature search on the term "absence," and analyzed the plethora of symptoms observed in clinical absences...
January 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325791/the-therapeutic-effects-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-an-update-from-the-national-academies-of-sciences-engineering-and-medicine-report
#9
REVIEW
Donald I Abrams
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine conducted a rapid turn-around comprehensive review of recent medical literature on The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. The 16-member committee adopted the key features of a systematic review process, conducting an extensive search of relevant databases and considered 10,000 recent abstracts to determine their relevance. Primacy was given to recently published systematic reviews and primary research that studied one of the committee's 11 prioritized health endpoints- therapeutic effects; cancer incidence; cardiometabolic risk; respiratory disease; immune function; injury and death; prenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes; psychosocial outcomes; mental health; problem Cannabis use; and Cannabis use and abuse of other substances...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325619/clinical-approach-to-the-patient-with-neurogenetic-disease
#10
Thomas D Bird, Corrie O Smith
Neurogenetic diseases are surprisingly common. This chapter reviews a systematic approach to the evaluation of a patient thought to have such a disease. The emphasis is on first recognizing potential clues to the diagnosis contained in the family history and presentation of symptoms. Ataxia, neuropathy, muscle weakness, dementia, epilepsy, and cognitive delay are all "reservoirs" of neurogenetic disease. A high index of suspicion for genetic causes and a thoughtful evaluation of simplex (sporadic) cases is often necessary...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324507/determining-when-to-stop-antiepileptic-drug-treatment
#11
Steven C Schachter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of patients diagnosed with epilepsy continues to rise and the pharmacological and device-based treatment options for epilepsy increase, determining when to stop antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment continues to be an important issue for patient management and counseling. RECENT FINDINGS: This review focuses on outcomes following AED withdrawal in seizure-free adults with epilepsy. Practical considerations are also discussed because, despite the importance of this topic, relatively little progress has been made in the past year regarding the identification of patients whose risk for recurrent seizures after AED withdrawal is no higher than that of the general population...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322880/reversible-splenial-lesion-syndrome-due-to-oxcarbazepine-withdrawal-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Chaoyang Jing, Lichao Sun, Zhuo Wang, Chaojia Chu, Weihong Lin
Background Reversible splenial lesion syndrome is a distinct entity radiologically characterized by a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. According to previous reports, this condition may be associated with antiepileptic drug use or withdrawal. We herein report a case of reversible splenial lesion syndrome associated with oxcarbazepine withdrawal. Case Report A 39-year-old man presented with an 8-year history of epileptic seizures. During the previous 3 years, he had taken oxcarbazepine irregularly...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322489/measurement-in-pediatric-epilepsy-self-management-a-critical-review
#13
REVIEW
Gigi Smith, Avani C Modi, Erica K Johnson, Ross Shegog, Joan K Austin, Janelle L Wagner
Given the paucity of information available regarding self-management, the aims of this paper are to synthesize the literature on factors associated with and measures to assess self-management in pediatric epilepsy. INCLUSION CRITERIA: youth birth to 18 years with a seizure disorder or an epilepsy diagnosis and/or their caregivers, published 1985-2014 in English, and conducted in countries with a very high human development index. The review was conducted in 6 phases: (1) identification of bibliographical search criteria and databases; (2) abstract assessment; (3) full article review; (4) organization of final citations into categories; (5) identification of predictors, potential mediators/moderators, and outcomes associated with self-management factors and categorization of factors as influences, processes, or behaviors across individual, family, community, and health care domains; and (6) critique of self-management instrument studies...
January 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320603/drug-management-for-acute-tonic-clonic-convulsions-including-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Amy McTague, Timothy Martland, Richard Appleton
BACKGROUND: Tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a tonic-clonic convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and require urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. International consensus is that an anticonvulsant drug should be administered for any tonic-clonic convulsion that has been continuing for at least five minutes. Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam) are traditionally regarded as first-line drugs and phenobarbital, phenytoin and paraldehyde as second-line drugs...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319202/analysis-of-brain-spect-images-coregistered-with-mri-in-patients-with-epilepsy-comparison-of-three-methods
#15
Zaiyang Long, Dennis P Hanson, Brian P Mullan, Christopher H Hunt, David R Holmes, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Michael K O'Connor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SISCOM and STATISCOM were clinically proved to be effective for ictal/inter-ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for seizure localization. Recently, a software package also became available for this analysis. This study aimed to investigate and compare the performance of these analysis methods for seizure localization. METHODS: A total of 378 patients who underwent 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT scans were retrospectively reviewed and 28 remained after applying exclusion criteria...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318973/relevance-of-follow-up-in-patients-with-core-clinical-criteria-for-alzheimer-disease-and-normal-csf-biomarkers
#16
Olivier Vercruysse, Claire Paquet, Audrey Gabelle, Xavier Delbeuck, Frederic Blanc, David Wallon, Julien Dumurgier, Eloi Magnin, Olivier Martinaud, Barbara Jung, Olivier Bousiges, Sylvain Lehmann, Constance Delaby, Muriel Quillard-Murain, Katell Peoc'h, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Elodie Bouaziz-Amar, Didier Hannequin, Bernard Sablonniere, Luc Buee, Jacques Hugon, Susanna Schraen, Florence Pasquier, Stephanie Bombois
BACKGROUND: Few patients with a normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile fulfill the clinical criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of misdiagnoses for these patients. METHOD: Patients from the e-PLM centers fulfilling the core clinical criteria for probable AD dementia or mild cognitive impairment due to AD (AD-MCI), with normal CSF A1-42, T-tau and P-tau biomarkers and clinical follow-up, were included...
January 9, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318927/cost-effectiveness-of-evaluation-of-children-with-epilepsy-in-the-emergency-department-need-for-investment-in-patient-education
#17
Karen S Carvalho, Anthony L Fine, Christopher J Haines, Ignacio Valencia, Divya S Khurana, Agustin Legido
We aimed to study cost-effectiveness of seizure evaluation of children with epilepsy in the emergency department (ED). We reviewed epilepsy patients seen at our ED for 1 year. Age, laboratory and neuroimaging results, treatment, disposition, and usefulness of the visit (need for hospitalization, clinical improvement) were analyzed. We identified 330 patients, aged 23 days-21 years, 190 (57.5%) had blood tests, 45 (13.6%) urinalysis, 2 (0.6%) cerebrospinal fluid testing, and 44 neuroimaging studies (13.3%)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315734/molecular-characteristics-of-long-term-epilepsy-associated-tumours-leats-and-mechanisms-for-tumour-related-epilepsy-tre
#18
Thomas J Stone, Rachel Rowell, Bodiabaduge Ashan Prasanna Jayasekera, Mark O Cunningham, Thomas S Jacques
Brain tumours are the second most common cause of seizures identified in epilepsy surgical series. While any tumour involving the brain has the potential to cause seizures, specific subtypes are more frequently associated with epilepsy. Tumour-related epilepsy has a profound impact on patients with brain tumours and these seizures are often refractory to anti-epileptic treatments, resulting in long-term disability and patient morbidity. Despite the drastic impact epilepsy-associated tumours have on patients, they have not traditionally enjoyed as much attention as more malignant neoplasms...
January 6, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315614/defining-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-slc6a1-mutations
#19
Katrine M Johannesen, Elena Gardella, Tarja Linnankivi, Carolina Courage, Anne de Saint Martin, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki, Cyril Mignot, Alexandra Afenjar, Gaetan Lesca, Marie-Thérèse Abi-Warde, Jamel Chelly, Amélie Piton, J Lawrence Merritt, Lance H Rodan, Wen-Hann Tan, Lynne M Bird, Mark Nespeca, Joseph G Gleeson, Yongjin Yoo, Murim Choi, Jong-Hee Chae, Desiree Czapansky-Beilman, Sara Chadwick Reichert, Manuela Pendziwiat, Judith S Verhoeven, Helenius J Schelhaas, Orrin Devinsky, Jakob Christensen, Nicola Specchio, Marina Trivisano, Yvonne G Weber, Caroline Nava, Boris Keren, Diane Doummar, Elise Schaefer, Sarah Hopkins, Holly Dubbs, Jessica E Shaw, Laura Pisani, Candace T Myers, Sha Tang, Shan Tang, Deb K Pal, John J Millichap, Gemma L Carvill, Kathrine L Helbig, Oriano Mecarelli, Pasquale Striano, Ingo Helbig, Guido Rubboli, Heather C Mefford, Rikke S Møller
OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature...
January 8, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315516/strong-coupling-between-slow-oscillations-and-wide-fast-ripples-in-children-with-epileptic-spasms-investigation-of-modulation-index-and-occurrence-rate
#20
Yasushi Iimura, Kevin Jones, Lynne Takada, Itsuki Shimizu, Misaki Koyama, Kyoko Hattori, Yushi Okazawa, Yutaka Nonoda, Eishi Asano, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Cristina Go, Ayako Ochi, O Carter Snead, Elizabeth J Donner, James T Rutka, James M Drake, Hiroshi Otsubo
OBJECTIVE: Epileptic spasms (ES) often become drug-resistant. To reveal the electrophysiological difference between children with ES (ES+) and without ES (ES-), we compared the occurrence rate (OR) of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) and the modulation index (MI) of coupling between slow and fast oscillations. In ES+, we hypothesized that (1) pathological HFOs are more widely distributed and (2) slow oscillations show stronger coupling with pathological HFOs than in ES-. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 24 children with drug-resistant multilobar onset epilepsy, who underwent intracranial video electroencephalography prior to multilobar resections...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsia
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