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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898470/lamina-cribrosa-in-glaucoma
#1
J Crawford Downs, Christopher A Girkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents, summarizes, and interprets the most recent advances in the study and understanding of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma, in the context of previous work. RECENT FINDINGS: The lamina is an active living structure that responds to strain by changing morphology at the micro-scale and macro-scale in glaucoma. Changes in lamina cribrosa morphology in glaucoma include posteriorization of the laminar insertion into the sclera, increased cupping or depth of the lamina cribrosa, and the development of focal lamina cribrosa defects...
November 25, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889058/mutations-in-reep6-cause-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa
#2
Gavin Arno, Smriti A Agrawal, Aiden Eblimit, James Bellingham, Mingchu Xu, Feng Wang, Christina Chakarova, David A Parfitt, Amelia Lane, Thomas Burgoyne, Sarah Hull, Keren J Carss, Alessia Fiorentino, Matthew J Hayes, Peter M Munro, Ralph Nicols, Nikolas Pontikos, Graham E Holder, Chinwe Asomugha, F Lucy Raymond, Anthony T Moore, Vincent Plagnol, Michel Michaelides, Alison J Hardcastle, Yumei Li, Catherine Cukras, Andrew R Webster, Michael E Cheetham, Rui Chen
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most frequent form of inherited retinal dystrophy. RP is genetically heterogeneous and the genes identified to date encode proteins involved in a wide range of functional pathways, including photoreceptor development, phototransduction, the retinoid cycle, cilia, and outer segment development. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in Receptor Expression Enhancer Protein 6 (REEP6) in seven individuals with autosomal-recessive RP from five unrelated families...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857326/developing-a-trend-prediction-model-of-subsurface-damage-for-fixed-abrasive-grinding-of-optics-by-cup-wheels
#3
Zhichao Dong, Haobo Cheng
Fixed-abrasive grinding by cup wheels plays an important role in the production of precision optics. During cup wheel grinding, we strive for a large removal rate while maintaining fine integrity on the surface and subsurface layers (academically recognized as surface roughness and subsurface damage, respectively). This study develops a theoretical model used to predict the trend of subsurface damage of optics (with respect to various grinding parameters) in fixed-abrasive grinding by cup wheels. It is derived from the maximum undeformed chip thickness model, and it successfully correlates the pivotal parameters of cup wheel grinding with the subsurface damage depth...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846047/optic-nerve-head-histopathology-in-high-axial-myopia
#4
Jost B Jonas, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas
PURPOSE: To describe particularities of the optic nerve head of axially highly myopic eyes. METHODS: Measurements were obtained from enucleated globes and from population-based studies. RESULTS: Morphologic optic disc particularities in high axial myopia included enlarged disc size (secondary macrodisc), widening and temporal translocation of the papillary Bruch's membrane (BM) opening, parapapillary gamma and delta zone, elongation and thinning of lamina cribrosa and peripapillary scleral flange, steeper translamina cribrosa pressure gradient, decreased peripapillary choroid thickness, longer distance between peripapillary arterial circle and optic disc, optic cup flattening, presumably a stretching of the lamina cribrosa pores, and peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844144/identification-and-functional-characterisation-of-genetic-variants-in-olfm2-in-children-with-developmental-eye-disorders
#5
R Holt, S A Ugur Iseri, A W Wyatt, D A Bax, D Gold Diaz, C Santos, S Broadgate, R Dunn, J Bruty, Y Wallis, D McMullan, C Ogilvie, D Gerrelli, Y Zhang, Nicola Ragge
Anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and coloboma are a genetically heterogeneous spectrum of developmental eye disorders and affect around 30 per 100,000 live births. OLFM2 encodes a secreted glycoprotein belonging to the noelin family of olfactomedin domain-containing proteins that modulate the timing of neuronal differentiation during development. OLFM2 SNPs have been associated with open angle glaucoma in a case-control study, and knockdown of Olfm2 in zebrafish results in reduced eye size. From a cohort of 258 individuals with developmental eye anomalies, we identified two with heterozygous variants in OLFM2: an individual with bilateral microphthalmia carrying a de novo 19p13...
November 14, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832941/thirteen-year-follow-up-of-optic-disc-hemorrhages-in-the-ocular-hypertension-treatment-study
#6
Donald L Budenz, Julia Beiser Huecker, Steven J Gedde, Mae Gordon, Michael Kass
PURPOSE: To determine the cumulative incidence of optic disc hemorrhage (ODH) before and after development of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG); determine the prognostic significance of ODH for the development of POAG; identify predictive factors for ODH. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: ODHs were evaluated in 3,236 eyes of 1618 Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) participants annually using stereoscopic optic disc photographs...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784063/a-novel-method-combining-vitreous-aspiration-and-intravitreal-aav2-8-injection-results-in-retina-wide-transduction-in-adult-mice
#7
Romain Da Costa, Carsten Röger, Jasmin Segelken, Maya Barben, Christian Grimm, John Neidhardt
Purpose: Gene therapies to treat eye disorders have been extensively studied in the past 20 years. Frequently, adeno-associated viruses were applied to the subretinal or intravitreal space of the eye to transduce retinal cells with nucleotide sequences of therapeutic potential. In this study we describe a novel intravitreal injection procedure that leads to a reproducible adeno-associated virus (AAV)2/8-mediated transduction of more than 70% of the retina. Methods: Prior to a single intravitreal injection of a enhanced green fluorescent protien (GFP)-expressing viral suspension, we performed an aspiration of vitreous tissue from wild-type C57Bl/6J mice...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765579/antisera-against-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-cross-react-with-specific-brain-proteins-of-the-common-marmoset-monkey-and-other-nonhuman-primate-species
#8
Bernhard Reuss, Abdul R Asif, Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr
Prenatal maternal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) correlate with an increased lifetime probability for the offspring to develop psychosis. We could previously demonstrate that in human choroid plexus papilloma cells, anti-NG antibodies (α-NG) bind to mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATPB, and interfere with cellular energy metabolism. To assess the in vivo relevance for this, especially during prenatal neural development, we investigated here interactions of NG-specific antisera (α-NG1, α-NG2) with brain, choroid plexus and other non-neural tissues in pre- and perinatal samples of the nonhuman primate (NHP) Callithrix jacchus (CJ), a NHP model for preclinical research...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701636/loss-of-axin2-causes-ocular-defects-during-mouse-eye-development
#9
Ashley Alldredge, Sabine Fuhrmann
Purpose: The scaffold protein Axin2 is an antagonist and universal target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Disruption of Axin2 may lead to developmental eye defects; however, this has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Axin2 during ocular and extraocular development in mouse. Methods: Animals heterozygous and homozygous for a Axin2lacZ knock-in allele were analyzed at different developmental stages for reporter expression, morphology as well as for the presence of ocular and extraocular markers using histologic and immunohistochemical techniques...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682504/optic-nerve-head-slope-based-quantitative-parameters-for-identifying-open-angle-glaucoma-on-spectralis-oct-images
#10
Abdel-Razzak M Al-Hinnawi, Bassam O Al-Naami, Motasem M Al-Latayfeh
PURPOSE: To investigate monitoring slope-based features of the optic nerve head (ONH) cup as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) occurs. METHOD: A dataset of 46 retrospective OCT cases was acquired from the SPECTRALIS Heidelberg Engineering OCT device. A set of five parameters, which are based on the ONH cup-incline, are measured on the OAG and normal subjects in the dataset. Then, three new ONH cup-shape indices were deduced. The ONH cup-incline parameters and ONH cup-shape indices are analyzed to estimate their clinical value...
September 28, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667917/three-dimensional-retinal-organoids-from-mouse-pluripotent-stem-cells-mimic-in-vivo-development-with-enhanced-stratification-and-rod-photoreceptor-differentiation
#11
Holly Yu Chen, Koray Dogan Kaya, Lijin Dong, Anand Swaroop
PURPOSE: The generation of three-dimensional (3D) organoids with optic cup-like structures from pluripotent stem cells has created opportunities for investigating mammalian retinal development in vitro. However, retinal organoids in culture do not completely reflect the developmental state and in vivo architecture of the rod-dominant mouse retina. The goals of this study were to develop an efficient protocol for generating retinal organoids from stem cells and examine the morphogenesis of rods in vitro...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633992/emergence-of-dorsal-ventral-polarity-in-esc-derived-retinal-tissue
#12
Yuiko Hasegawa, Nozomu Takata, Satoru Okuda, Masako Kawada, Mototsugu Eiraku, Yoshiki Sasai
We previously demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived retinal epithelium self-forms an optic cup-like structure. In the developing retina, the dorsal and ventral sides differ in terms of local gene expression and morphological features. This aspect has not yet been shown in vitro Here, we demonstrate that mESC-derived retinal tissue spontaneously acquires polarity reminiscent of the dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterning of the embryonic retina. Tbx5 and Vax2 were expressed in a mutually exclusive manner, as seen in vivo Three-dimensional morphometric analysis showed that the in vitro-formed optic cup often contains cleft structures resembling the embryonic optic fissure...
November 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559242/effect-of-methotrexate-exposure-at-middle-gestation-on-the-inner-plate-of-the-ocular-cup-and-lens-in-the-rat-fetus
#13
Cheng Zhe Zu, Masato Kuroki, Ayano Hirako, Takashi Takeuchi, Satoshi Furukawa, Akihiko Sugiyama
Pregnant rats were treated intraperitoneally with a single dose of methotrexate (MTX) 90 mg/kg on gestation day (GD) 13, and fetal eyeballs were examined time-dependently from GD 13.5 to 15.5. Throughout the experimental period, the inner plate of the ocular cup in the MTX group was significantly thinner than that in the control group. In the inner plate of the ocular cup on GD 15 and 15.5, whereas a developed ganglion cell layer was observed in the control group, the ganglion cell layer in the MTX group was undeveloped and indistinguishable...
July 2016: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557112/oct-based-quantification-and-classification-of-optic-disc-structure-in-glaucoma-patients
#14
Naoko Takada, Kazuko Omodaka, Tsutomu Kikawa, Airi Takagi, Akiko Matsumoto, Yu Yokoyama, Yukihiro Shiga, Kazuichi Maruyama, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Masahiro Akiba, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: To objectively classify the optic discs of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients into Nicolela's four disc types, i.e., focal ischemic (FI), myopic (MY), senile sclerotic (SS), and generalized enlargement (GE), with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). METHODS: This study enrolled 113 eyes of 113 OAG patients (mean age: 62.5 ± 12.6; Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation: -9.4 ± 7.3 dB). Newly developed software was used to quantify a total of 20 optic disc parameters in SS-OCT (DRI OCT-1, TOPCON) images of the optic disc...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555585/hedgehog-dependent-e3-ligase-midline1-regulates-ubiquitin-mediated-proteasomal-degradation-of-pax6-during-visual-system-development
#15
Thorsten Pfirrmann, Enrico Jandt, Swantje Ranft, Ashwin Lokapally, Herbert Neuhaus, Muriel Perron, Thomas Hollemann
Pax6 is a key transcription factor involved in eye, brain, and pancreas development. Although pax6 is expressed in the whole prospective retinal field, subsequently its expression becomes restricted to the optic cup by reciprocal transcriptional repression of pax6 and pax2 However, it remains unclear how Pax6 protein is removed from the eyestalk territory on time. Here, we report that Mid1, a member of the RBCC/TRIM E3 ligase family, which was first identified in patients with the X-chromosome-linked Opitz BBB/G (OS) syndrome, interacts with Pax6...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552668/abnormal-vascular-and-neural-retinal-morphology-in-congenital-lifetime-isolated-growth-hormone-deficiency
#16
Virginia M Pereira-Gurgel, Augusto C N Faro, Roberto Salvatori, Thiago A Chagas, José F Carvalho-Junior, Carla R P Oliveira, Ursula M M Costa, Gustavo B Melo, Ann Hellström, Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: Experimental models demonstrate an important role of GH in retinal development. However, the interactions between GH and the neuro-vascularization of the human retina are still not clear. A model of untreated congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) may clarify the actions of GH on the retina. The purpose of this work was to assess the retinal neuro-vascularization in untreated congenital IGHD (cIGHD). DESIGN: In a cross sectional study, we performed an endocrine and ophthalmological assessment of 25 adult cIGHD subjects, homozygous for a null mutation (c...
July 27, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538596/optic-nerve-morphology-as-marker-for-disease-severity-in-cerebral-palsy-of-perinatal-origin
#17
Deepta Ghate, Vettaikorumakankav Vedanarayanan, Abdulbaset Kamour, James J Corbett, Sachin Kedar
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to predict the neurologic outcome and ambulatory status in children with perinatal neurologic insult until 2-5years age. This study aims to correlate clinical optic nerve head (ONH) findings-cupping, pallor and hypoplasia, with gestational period and neurologic (motor) outcomes in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) from perinatal insults. METHODS: 54 consecutive patients with CP from perinatal insults were enrolled. Patients with intraocular disease, retinopathy of prematurity and hydrocephalus were excluded...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521172/optic-nerve-head-development-in-healthy-infants-and-children-using-handheld-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#18
Aarti Patel, Ravi Purohit, Helena Lee, Viral Sheth, Gail Maconachie, Eleni Papageorgiou, Rebecca J McLean, Irene Gottlob, Frank A Proudlock
PURPOSE: To determine feasibility of optic nerve head (ONH) imaging and to characterize ONH development in full-term infants without sedation using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred fifty-two children aged between 1 day and 13 years. METHODS: All participants were imaged using handheld SD OCT without sedation during a single scan session...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445077/retinal-nerve-fiber-and-optic-disc-morphology-using-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-in-scleroderma-patients
#19
Sevinc Sahin-Atik, Feray Koc, Sirin Akin-Sari, Mustafa Ozmen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the optic nerve head parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort and age-matched controls to determine whether SSc patients have an increased risk of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS: We examined 30 patients (3 male, 27 female) with SSc and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. Retinal nerve fiber and optic disc morphology were evaluated using Cirrus SD-OCT...
July 16, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409500/optic-nerve-head-measurements-with-optical-coherence-tomography-a-phantom-based-study-reveals-differences-among-clinical-devices
#20
Anant Agrawal, Jigesh Baxi, William Calhoun, Chieh-Li Chen, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Joel S Schuman, Gadi Wollstein, Daniel X Hammer
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can monitor for glaucoma by measuring dimensions of the optic nerve head (ONH) cup and disc. Multiple clinical studies have shown that different OCT devices yield different estimates of retinal dimensions. We developed phantoms mimicking ONH morphology as a new way to compare ONH measurements from different clinical OCT devices. METHODS: Three phantoms were fabricated to model the ONH: One normal and two with glaucomatous anatomies...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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