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Optic cup development

Bernhard Reuss, Abdul R Asif, Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr
Prenatal maternal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) correlate with an increased lifetime probability for the offspring to develop psychosis. We could previously demonstrate that in human choroid plexus papilloma cells, anti-NG antibodies (α-NG) bind to mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATPB, and interfere with cellular energy metabolism. To assess the in vivo relevance for this, especially during prenatal neural development, we investigated here interactions of NG-specific antisera (α-NG1, α-NG2) with brain, choroid plexus and other non-neural tissues in pre- and perinatal samples of the nonhuman primate (NHP) Callithrix jacchus (CJ), a NHP model for preclinical research...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
Ashley Alldredge, Sabine Fuhrmann
Purpose: The scaffold protein Axin2 is an antagonist and universal target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Disruption of Axin2 may lead to developmental eye defects; however, this has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Axin2 during ocular and extraocular development in mouse. Methods: Animals heterozygous and homozygous for a Axin2lacZ knock-in allele were analyzed at different developmental stages for reporter expression, morphology as well as for the presence of ocular and extraocular markers using histologic and immunohistochemical techniques...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Abdel-Razzak M Al-Hinnawi, Bassam O Al-Naami, Motasem M Al-Latayfeh
PURPOSE: To investigate monitoring slope-based features of the optic nerve head (ONH) cup as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) occurs. METHOD: A dataset of 46 retrospective OCT cases was acquired from the SPECTRALIS Heidelberg Engineering OCT device. A set of five parameters, which are based on the ONH cup-incline, are measured on the OAG and normal subjects in the dataset. Then, three new ONH cup-shape indices were deduced. The ONH cup-incline parameters and ONH cup-shape indices are analyzed to estimate their clinical value...
September 28, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Holly Yu Chen, Koray Dogan Kaya, Lijin Dong, Anand Swaroop
PURPOSE: The generation of three-dimensional (3D) organoids with optic cup-like structures from pluripotent stem cells has created opportunities for investigating mammalian retinal development in vitro. However, retinal organoids in culture do not completely reflect the developmental state and in vivo architecture of the rod-dominant mouse retina. The goals of this study were to develop an efficient protocol for generating retinal organoids from stem cells and examine the morphogenesis of rods in vitro...
2016: Molecular Vision
Yuiko Hasegawa, Nozomu Takata, Satoru Okuda, Masako Kawada, Mototsugu Eiraku, Yoshiki Sasai
We previously demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived retinal epithelium self-forms an optic cup-like structure. In the developing retina, the dorsal and ventral sides differ in terms of local gene expression and morphological features. This aspect has not yet been shown in vitro Here we demonstrate that mESC-derived retinal tissue spontaneously acquires polarity reminiscent of the dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterning of the embryonic retina. Tbx5 and Vax2 were expressed in a mutually exclusive manner, as seen in vivo Three-dimensional morphometric analysis showed that the in vitro-formed optic cup often contains cleft structures resembling the embryonic optic fissure...
September 15, 2016: Development
Cheng Zhe Zu, Masato Kuroki, Ayano Hirako, Takashi Takeuchi, Satoshi Furukawa, Akihiko Sugiyama
Pregnant rats were treated intraperitoneally with a single dose of methotrexate (MTX) 90 mg/kg on gestation day (GD) 13, and fetal eyeballs were examined time-dependently from GD 13.5 to 15.5. Throughout the experimental period, the inner plate of the ocular cup in the MTX group was significantly thinner than that in the control group. In the inner plate of the ocular cup on GD 15 and 15.5, whereas a developed ganglion cell layer was observed in the control group, the ganglion cell layer in the MTX group was undeveloped and indistinguishable...
July 2016: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Naoko Takada, Kazuko Omodaka, Tsutomu Kikawa, Airi Takagi, Akiko Matsumoto, Yu Yokoyama, Yukihiro Shiga, Kazuichi Maruyama, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Masahiro Akiba, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: To objectively classify the optic discs of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients into Nicolela's four disc types, i.e., focal ischemic (FI), myopic (MY), senile sclerotic (SS), and generalized enlargement (GE), with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). METHODS: This study enrolled 113 eyes of 113 OAG patients (mean age: 62.5 ± 12.6; Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation: -9.4 ± 7.3 dB). Newly developed software was used to quantify a total of 20 optic disc parameters in SS-OCT (DRI OCT-1, TOPCON) images of the optic disc...
2016: PloS One
Thorsten Pfirrmann, Enrico Jandt, Swantje Ranft, Ashwin Lokapally, Herbert Neuhaus, Muriel Perron, Thomas Hollemann
Pax6 is a key transcription factor involved in eye, brain, and pancreas development. Although pax6 is expressed in the whole prospective retinal field, subsequently its expression becomes restricted to the optic cup by reciprocal transcriptional repression of pax6 and pax2 However, it remains unclear how Pax6 protein is removed from the eyestalk territory on time. Here, we report that Mid1, a member of the RBCC/TRIM E3 ligase family, which was first identified in patients with the X-chromosome-linked Opitz BBB/G (OS) syndrome, interacts with Pax6...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Virginia M Pereira-Gurgel, Augusto C N Faro, Roberto Salvatori, Thiago A Chagas, José F Carvalho-Junior, Carla R P Oliveira, Ursula M M Costa, Gustavo B Melo, Ann Hellström, Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: Experimental models demonstrate an important role of GH in retinal development. However, the interactions between GH and the neuro-vascularization of the human retina are still not clear. A model of untreated congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) may clarify the actions of GH on the retina. The purpose of this work was to assess the retinal neuro-vascularization in untreated congenital IGHD (cIGHD). DESIGN: In a cross sectional study, we performed an endocrine and ophthalmological assessment of 25 adult cIGHD subjects, homozygous for a null mutation (c...
July 27, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Deepta Ghate, Vettaikorumakankav Vedanarayanan, Abdulbaset Kamour, James J Corbett, Sachin Kedar
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to predict the neurologic outcome and ambulatory status in children with perinatal neurologic insult until 2-5years age. This study aims to correlate clinical optic nerve head (ONH) findings-cupping, pallor and hypoplasia, with gestational period and neurologic (motor) outcomes in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) from perinatal insults. METHODS: 54 consecutive patients with CP from perinatal insults were enrolled. Patients with intraocular disease, retinopathy of prematurity and hydrocephalus were excluded...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Aarti Patel, Ravi Purohit, Helena Lee, Viral Sheth, Gail Maconachie, Eleni Papageorgiou, Rebecca J McLean, Irene Gottlob, Frank A Proudlock
PURPOSE: To determine feasibility of optic nerve head (ONH) imaging and to characterize ONH development in full-term infants without sedation using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred fifty-two children aged between 1 day and 13 years. METHODS: All participants were imaged using handheld SD OCT without sedation during a single scan session...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Sevinc Sahin-Atik, Feray Koc, Sirin Akin-Sari, Mustafa Ozmen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the optic nerve head parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort and age-matched controls to determine whether SSc patients have an increased risk of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS: We examined 30 patients (3 male, 27 female) with SSc and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. Retinal nerve fiber and optic disc morphology were evaluated using Cirrus SD-OCT...
July 16, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Anant Agrawal, Jigesh Baxi, William Calhoun, Chieh-Li Chen, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Joel S Schuman, Gadi Wollstein, Daniel X Hammer
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can monitor for glaucoma by measuring dimensions of the optic nerve head (ONH) cup and disc. Multiple clinical studies have shown that different OCT devices yield different estimates of retinal dimensions. We developed phantoms mimicking ONH morphology as a new way to compare ONH measurements from different clinical OCT devices. METHODS: Three phantoms were fabricated to model the ONH: One normal and two with glaucomatous anatomies...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Chase D Bryan, Chi-Bin Chien, Kristen M Kwan
The vertebrate eye forms via a complex set of morphogenetic events. The optic vesicle evaginates and undergoes transformative shape changes to form the optic cup, in which neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium enwrap the lens. It has long been known that a complex, glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix layer surrounds the developing optic cup throughout the process, yet the functions of the matrix and its specific molecular components have remained unclear. Previous work established a role for laminin extracellular matrix in particular steps of eye development, including optic vesicle evagination, lens differentiation, and retinal ganglion cell polarization, yet it is unknown what role laminin might play in the early process of optic cup formation subsequent to the initial step of optic vesicle evagination...
August 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
M L Salvetat, M Zeppieri, C Tosoni, P Brusini
PurposeTo evaluate the ability of baseline clinical, morphological, and functional factors to predict the conversion to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in ocular hypertensive (OHT) patients.MethodsThis single-center prospective longitudinal observational study included 116 eyes of 116 OHT patients followed for a 10-year period. All patients had intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥24 mm Hg in one eye and >21 mm Hg in the other eye, normal visual fields (VFs) and normal optic disc (OD) appearance in both eyes at baseline...
June 2016: Eye
Albert Lowe, Raven Harris, Punita Bhansali, Ales Cvekl, Wei Liu
In this study we dissected retinal organoid morphogenesis in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cultures and established a convenient method for isolating large quantities of retinal organoids for modeling human retinal development and disease. Epithelialized cysts were generated via floating culture of clumps of Matrigel/hESCs. Upon spontaneous attachment and spreading of the cysts, patterned retinal monolayers with tight junctions formed. Dispase-mediated detachment of the monolayers and subsequent floating culture led to self-formation of retinal organoids comprising patterned neuroretina, ciliary margin, and retinal pigment epithelium...
May 10, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Agustín Luz-Madrigal, Erika Grajales-Esquivel, Katia Del Rio-Tsonis
The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8-9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea)...
June 20, 2015: Bio-protocol
M Jamshidi, H Rabbani, Z Amini, R Kafieh, A Ommani, V Lakshminarayanan
Localizing the optic disc (OD) in retinal fundus images is of critical importance and many techniques have been developed for OD detection. In this paper, we present the results obtained from two fast methods, correlation and least square, to approximate the location of optic cup. These methods are simple and are not complex, while most of the OD detection algorithms are. The methods were tested on two groups of data (a total of 100 color fundus images) and were 98% successful in the detection of the optic cup...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Andrew C A Wan
Cells are spatially patterned in 3D space to allow an intricately orchestrated exchange of signals that regulate their migration, proliferation, differentiation, and death. In recent years cellular self-assembly has emerged as an attractive method to achieve the complexity of organ structures, where the essential cell types co-cultured under carefully defined conditions in vitro have been shown to give rise to organoids such as the optic cup, brain, intestine, liver, and kidney. In view of these developments, what would the revised role of biomaterial-based technologies be, or do they retain any role at all? This Opinion article maintains that biomaterials will not only retain their value but will also synergize with organoid technologies in recapitulating cell-cell interactions...
September 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
Ujwala S Saboo, Francisco Amparo, Hasanain Shikari, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 218 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. Ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 24 mmHg in either eye without any glaucomatous optic disc changes. Glaucoma suspect was defined as optic disc changes with a cup-to-disc ratio ≥ 0...
May 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
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