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Optic cup development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738572/ciliary-margin-derived-bmp4-does-not-have-a-major-role-in-ocular-development
#1
Rebecca L Rausch, Richard T Libby, Amy E Kiernan
Heterozygous Bmp4 mutations in humans and mice cause severe ocular anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD). Abnormalities include pupil displacement, corneal opacity, iridocorneal adhesions, and variable intraocular pressure, as well as some retinal and vascular defects. It is presently not known what source of BMP4 is responsible for these defects, as BMP4 is expressed in several developing ocular and surrounding tissues. In particular, BMP4 is expressed in the ciliary margins of the optic cup which give rise to anterior segment structures such as the ciliary body and iris, making it a good candidate for the required source of BMP4 for anterior segment development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660784/relationship-between-neural-crest-cell-specification-and-rare-ocular-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Monica Akula, Jeong Won Park, Judith A West-Mays
Development of the eye is closely associated with neural crest cell migration and specification. Eye development is extremely complex, as it requires the working of a combination of local factors, receptors, inductors, and signaling interactions between tissues such as the optic cup and periocular mesenchyme (POM). The POM is comprised of neural crest-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that give rise to numerous important ocular structures including those tissues that form the optic cup and anterior segment of the eye...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625437/metalloproteinase-adamts16-is-required-for-proper-closure-of-the-optic-fissure
#3
Mingzhe Cao, Jiamin Ouyang, Jingyi Guo, Siyuan Lin, Shuyi Chen
Purpose: Coloboma is a sight-threatening congenital eye disease caused by a failure in optic fissure (OF) closure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Adamts16, a metalloproteinase, in OF closure. Methods: RNA in situ hybridization was used to examine the expression of Adamts16 in developing mouse and zebrafish eyes. Morpholino knockdowns were performed to study adamts16 function during zebrafish eye development. Additionally, immunofluorescent staining, RNA in situ hybridization, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, TUNEL assays, and high-throughput sequencing were used to examine altered cellular and molecular events in adamts16-morphant optic cups (OCs)...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604751/development-of-a-helicon-ion-source-simulations-and-preliminary-experiments
#4
M Afsharmanesh, M Habibi
In the present context, the extraction system of a helicon ion source has been simulated and constructed. Results of the ion source commissioning at up to 20 kV are presented as well as simulations of an ion beam extraction system. Argon current of more than 200 μA at up to 20 kV is extracted and is characterized with a Faraday cup and beam profile monitoring grid. By changing different ion source parameters such as RF power, extraction voltage, and working pressure, an ion beam with current distribution exhibiting a central core has been detected...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582431/retinal-histogenesis-in-an-altricial-avian-species-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-vieillot-1817
#5
Guadalupe Álvarez-Hernán, Elena Sánchez-Resino, Ismael Hernández-Núñez, Alfonso Marzal, Joaquín Rodríguez-León, Gervasio Martín-Partido, Javier Francisco-Morcillo
Comparative developmental studies have shown that the retina of altricial fish and mammals is incompletely developed at birth, and that, during the first days of life, maturation proceeds rapidly. In contrast, precocial fish and mammals are born with fully differentiated retinas. Concerning birds, knowledge about retinal development is generally restricted to a single order of precocial birds, Galliformes, due to the fact that both the chicken and the Japanese quail are considered model systems. However, comparison of embryonic pre-hatchling retinal development between altricial and precocial birds has been poorly explored...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575408/studies-with-ray-guillery-on-the-early-development-of-the-visual-pathways-eye-cup-optic-nerve-chiasm-and-optic-tract
#6
Jeremy S H Taylor
This brief article looks back on some of the work and interactions I had with Ray Guillery when I started my academic career in Oxford. I review some of the anatomical work we did using a comparative approach to study the development of the visual pathway, and particularly the optic chiasm. I think many of the questions we tried to address many years ago, are still relevant, and still poorly understood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542319/smartphone-based-mobile-detection-platform-for-rapid-molecular-diagnostics-and-spatiotemporal-disease-mapping
#7
Jinzhao Song, Vikram Pandian, Michael G Mauk, Haim H Bau, Sara Cherry, Laurence C Tisi, Changchun Liu
Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, complex instruments, and skilled personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected and quantitative molecular diagnostics...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522511/morphogenetic-defects-underlie-superior-coloboma-a-newly-identified-closure-disorder-of-the-dorsal-eye
#8
Jennifer C Hocking, Jakub K Famulski, Kevin H Yoon, Sonya A Widen, Cassidy S Bernstein, Sophie Koch, Omri Weiss, Seema Agarwala, Adi Inbal, Ordan J Lehmann, Andrew J Waskiewicz
The eye primordium arises as a lateral outgrowth of the forebrain, with a transient fissure on the inferior side of the optic cup providing an entry point for developing blood vessels. Incomplete closure of the inferior ocular fissure results in coloboma, a disease characterized by gaps in the inferior eye and recognized as a significant cause of pediatric blindness. Here, we identify eight patients with defects in tissues of the superior eye, a congenital disorder that we term superior coloboma. The embryonic origin of superior coloboma could not be explained by conventional models of eye development, leading us to reanalyze morphogenesis of the dorsal eye...
March 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518875/-the-8-year-follow-up-study-for-clinical-diagnostic-potentials-of-frequency-doubling-technology-perimetry-for-perimetrically-normal-eyes-of-open-angle-glaucoma-patients-with-unilateral-visual-field-loss
#9
X Fan, L L Wu, G G Xiao, Z Z Ma, F Liu
Objective: To analyze potentials of frequency-doubling technology perimetry (FDP) for diagnosing open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in perimetrically normal eyes of OAG patients diagnosed with standard automated perimetry (SAP) and relating factors from abnormalities on FDP to visual field loss on SAP. Methods: A prospective cohort study. Sixty-eight eyes of 68 OAG patients visiting the ophthalmic clinic of Peking University Third Hospital during November 2003 and October 2007 [32 primary open-angle glaucoma patients and 36 normal tension glaucoma patients, 32 males and 36 females, with an average age of (59±13) years] with unilateral field loss detected by SAP (Octopus101 tG2 program) were examined with the FDP N-30 threshold program (Humphrey Instruments) at baseline...
March 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515375/cell-behaviors-during-closure-of-the-choroid-fissure-in-the-developing-eye
#10
Gaia Gestri, Naiara Bazin-Lopez, Clarissa Scholes, Stephen W Wilson
Coloboma is a defect in the morphogenesis of the eye that is a consequence of failure of choroid fissure fusion. It is among the most common congenital defects in humans and can significantly impact vision. However, very little is known about the cellular mechanisms that regulate choroid fissure closure. Using high-resolution confocal imaging of the zebrafish optic cup, we find that apico-basal polarity is re-modeled in cells lining the fissure in proximal to distal and inner to outer gradients during fusion...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506863/efficacy-of-a-deep-learning-system-for-detecting-glaucomatous-optic-neuropathy-based-on-color-fundus-photographs
#11
Zhixi Li, Yifan He, Stuart Keel, Wei Meng, Robert T Chang, Mingguang He
PURPOSE: To assess the performance of a deep learning algorithm for detecting referable glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) based on color fundus photographs. DESIGN: A deep learning system for the classification of GON was developed for automated classification of GON on color fundus photographs. PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively included 48 116 fundus photographs for the development and validation of a deep learning algorithm. METHODS: This study recruited 21 trained ophthalmologists to classify the photographs...
March 2, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501371/what-we-have-learned-from-the-ocular-hypertension-treatment-study
#12
Mae O Gordon, Michael A Kass
PURPOSE: To identify results from the Ocular Hypertension Study that can aid patients and clinicians to make evidence-based decisions about the management of ocular hypertension. DESIGN: Perspective. RESULTS: At 60 months, the cumulative frequency of developing primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) was 4.4% in the medication group and 9.5% in the observation group (hazard ratio for medication, 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.59; P < ...
May 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474296/assessment-of-glaucomatous-damage-after-boston-keratoprosthesis-implantation-based-on-digital-planimetric-quantification-of-visual-fields-and-optic-nerve-head-imaging
#13
Mohsin H Ali, Mark S Dikopf, Anthony G Finder, Ahmad A Aref, Thasarat Vajaranant, Jose de la Cruz, Maria Soledad Cortina
PURPOSE: To investigate glaucomatous damage in Boston keratoprosthesis type I (KPro) patients through structural analysis of the optic nerve head and digital planimetric quantification of Goldmann visual fields, a novel method of monitoring perimetric changes in KPro patients. METHODS: Records of patients undergoing KPro implantation from 2007 to 2015 at a single institution were reviewed. Parameters related to glaucoma status and KPro outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-two eyes from 21 patients met inclusion criteria, with mean follow-up of 49...
May 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432780/how-mechanical-forces-shape-the-developing-eye
#14
REVIEW
Hadi S Hosseini, Larry A Taber
In the vertebrate embryo, the eyes develop from optic vesicles that grow laterally outward from the brain tube and contact the overlying surface ectoderm. Within the region of contact, each optic vesicle and the surface ectoderm thicken to form placodes, which then invaginate to create the optic cup and lens pit, respectively. Eventually, the optic cup becomes the retina, while the lens pit closes to form the lens vesicle. Here, we review current hypotheses for the physical mechanisms that create these structures and present novel three-dimensional computer (finite-element) models to illustrate the plausibility and limitations of these hypotheses...
February 9, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335420/lamina-cribrosa-morphology-predicts-progressive-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-loss-in-eyes-with-suspected-glaucoma
#15
Jeong-Ah Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Robert N Weinreb, Eun Ji Lee, Michaël J A Girard, Jean Martial Mari
Although early diagnosis and treatment reduce the risk of blindness from glaucoma, the decision on whether or not to begin treatment in patients with suspected glaucoma is often a dilemma because the majority of patients never develop definite glaucoma. A growing body of evidences suggests that posterior bowing of the lamina cribrosa (LC) is the earliest structural change preceding the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) loss in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Based on this notion, we conducted a prospective study enrolling 87 eyes suspected of having glaucoma to investigate whether the future rate of RNFL loss is associated with the baseline LC curve evaluated by measuring the LC curve index (LCCI) using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279773/automatic-cdr-estimation-for-early-glaucoma-diagnosis
#16
M A Fernandez-Granero, A Sarmiento, D Sanchez-Morillo, S Jiménez, P Alemany, I Fondón
Glaucoma is a degenerative disease that constitutes the second cause of blindness in developed countries. Although it cannot be cured, its progression can be prevented through early diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for automatic glaucoma diagnosis based on retinal colour images. We focus on capturing the inherent colour changes of optic disc (OD) and cup borders by computing several colour derivatives in CIE L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ colour space with CIE94 colour distance. In addition, we consider spatial information retaining these colour derivatives and the original CIE L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ values of the pixel and adding other characteristics such as its distance to the OD centre...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261773/classification-of-optic-disc-shape-in-glaucoma-using-machine-learning-based-on-quantified-ocular-parameters
#17
Kazuko Omodaka, Guangzhou An, Satoru Tsuda, Yukihiro Shiga, Naoko Takada, Tsutomu Kikawa, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Hideo Yokota, Masahiro Akiba, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a machine learning-based algorithm for objective classification of the optic disc in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG), using quantitative parameters obtained from ophthalmic examination instruments. METHODS: This study enrolled 163 eyes of 105 OAG patients (age: 62.3 ± 12.6, mean deviation of Humphrey field analyzer: -8.9 ± 7.5 dB). The eyes were classified into Nicolela's 4 optic disc types by 3 glaucoma specialists...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198497/genes-and-pathways-in-optic-fissure-closure
#18
REVIEW
Aara Patel, Jane C Sowden
Embryonic development of the vertebrate eye begins with the formation of an optic vesicle which folds inwards to form a double-layered optic cup with a fissure on the ventral surface, known as the optic fissure. Closure of the optic fissure is essential for subsequent growth and development of the eye. A defect in this process can leave a gap in the iris, retina or optic nerve, known as a coloboma, which can lead to severe visual impairment. This review brings together current information about genes and pathways regulating fissure closure from human coloboma patients and animal models...
November 29, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166577/cell-cycle-related-kinase-regulates-mammalian-eye-development-through-positive-and-negative-regulation-of-the-hedgehog-pathway
#19
Floria I Lupu, Jacob B Burnett, Jonathan T Eggenschwiler
Cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK) is a conserved regulator of ciliogenesis whose loss in mice leads to a wide range of developmental defects, including exencephaly, preaxial polydactyly, skeletal abnormalities, and microphthalmia. Here, we investigate the role of CCRK in mouse eye development. Ccrk mutants show dramatic patterning defects, with an expansion of the optic stalk domain into the optic cup, as well as an expansion of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) into neural retina (NR) territory. In addition, Ccrk mutants display a shortened optic stalk...
February 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144417/fast-low-cost-and-non-destructive-physico-chemical-analysis-of-virgin-olive-oils-using-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy
#20
Ana Garrido-Varo, María-Teresa Sánchez, María-José De la Haba, Irina Torres, Dolores Pérez-Marín
Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy was used for the non-destructive assessment of physico-chemical quality parameters in olive oil. At the same time, the influence of the sample presentation mode (spinning versus static cup) was evaluated using two spectrophotometers with similar optical characteristics. A total of 478 olive oil samples were used to develop calibration models, testing various spectral signal pre-treatments. The models obtained by applying MPLS regression to spectroscopic data yielded promising results for olive oil quality measurements, particularly for acidity, the peroxide index and alkyl and ethyl ester content...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
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