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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432743/global-and-local-visual-processing-in-autism-an-objective-assessment-approach
#1
Kritika Nayar, Angela C Voyles, Lynne Kiorpes, Adriana Di Martino
We examined global and local visual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via a match-to-sample task using Kanizsa illusory contours (KIC). School-aged children with ASD (n = 28) and age-matched typically developing controls (n = 22; 7-13 years) performed a sequential match-to-sample between a solid shape (sample) and two illusory alternatives. We tracked eye gaze and behavioral performance in two task conditions: one with and one without local interference from background noise elements. While analyses revealed lower accuracy and longer reaction time in ASD in the condition with local interference only, eye tracking robustly captured ASD-related global atypicalities across both conditions...
April 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432451/investigating-the-use-of-world-knowledge-during-on-line-comprehension-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Philippa L Howard, Simon P Liversedge, Valerie Benson
The on-line use of world knowledge during reading was examined in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both ASD and typically developed adults read sentences that included plausible, implausible and anomalous thematic relations, as their eye movements were monitored. No group differences in the speed of detection of the anomalous violations were found, but the ASD group showed a delay in detection of implausible thematic relations. These findings suggest that there are subtle differences in the speed of world knowledge processing during reading in ASD...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430874/developmental-sall2-transcription-factor-a-new-player-in-cancer
#3
Viviana E Hermosilla, Matias I Hepp, David Escobar, Carlos Farlas, Elizabeth N Riffo, Ariel F Castro, Roxana Pincheira
SALL2, also known as Spalt-like transcription factor 2, is a member of the SALL family of transcription factors involved in development and conserved through evolution. Since its identification in 1996, findings indicate that SALL2 plays a role in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and eye development. Consistently, SALL2 deficiency associates with neural tube defects and coloboma, a congenital eye disease. Relevant to cancer, clinical studies indicate that SALL2 is deregulated in various cancers, and is a specific biomarker for Synovial Sarcoma...
April 18, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430220/compound-eye-and-retina-like-combination-sensor-with-a-large-field-of-view-based-on-a-space-variant-curved-micro-lens-array
#4
Yang Cheng, Jie Cao, Qun Hao, Fanghua Zhang, Shaopu Wang, Wenze Xia, Lingtong Meng, Yangkun Zhang, Haoyong Yu
A compound eye and retina-like combination sensor based on a space-variant curved micro lens array (CMLA) is proposed to simultaneously offer the large FOV characteristic of a compound eye and retina-like feature of a single aperture eye. The mathematical models of the sensor are developed and the structure parameters of the space-variant CMLA are deduced. Modeling verification is carried out and the results show that the whole field of view (FOV) of the sensor is 105° and the optical information loss rate is 0...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430181/supervised-learning-and-dimension-reduction-techniques-for-quantification-of-retinal-fluid-in-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#5
A Breger, M Ehler, H Bogunovic, S M Waldstein, A-M Philip, U Schmidt-Erfurth, B S Gerendas
PurposeThe purpose of the present study is to develop fast automated quantification of retinal fluid in optical coherence tomography (OCT) image sets.MethodsWe developed an image analysis pipeline tailored towards OCT images that consists of five steps for binary retinal fluid segmentation. The method is based on feature extraction, pre-segmention, dimension reduction procedures, and supervised learning tools.ResultsFluid identification using our pipeline was tested on two separate patient groups: one associated to neovascular age-related macular degeneration, the other showing diabetic macular edema...
April 21, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428970/changes-in-anterior-segment-parameters-following-pars-plana-vitrectomy-measured-by-ultrasound-biomicroscopy-ubm
#6
Zahra Ghomi, Fariba Ghassemi
Despite being a posterior segment ocular surgery, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) may also affect anterior segment parameters. We aimed to investigate anterior segment alterations following PPV using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) to visualize the structural anatomy of the eye. In this study, we enrolled phakic patients undergoing PPV (as the sole procedure). The anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens anterior-posterior (AP) diameter, anterior chamber angle, ciliary body dimensions, and integrity of the ciliary zonules and posterior capsule were assessed using UBM before and at least 3 months after PPV...
2017: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428837/large-is-required-for-normal-astrocyte-migration-and-retinal-vasculature-development
#7
Min Zhou, Herui Wang, Hui Ren, Rui Jiang, Chi Zhang, Xiaohui Wu, Gezhi Xu
BACKGROUND: Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that accounts for about 5% of childhood blindness. The molecular mechanism of PFV remains unclear. As a glycosyltransferase of α-dystroglycan, LARGE mutations have been found in congenital muscular dystrophy patients with brain abnormalities. Spontaneous Large mutant mice displayed similar symptoms of human muscle-eye-brain disorders. However, the detailed roles of Large in ocular vasculature development still need to be uncovered...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428679/mini-asymmetric-radial-keratotomy-and-corneal-cross-linking-for-the-treatment-of-a-bilateral-stage-iv-keratoconus-in-a-14-year-old-child
#8
Marco Abbondanza, Gabriele Abbondanza, Valentina De Felice
AIM: To present the case of a 14-year-old boy with bilateral stage IV keratoconus, treated with a combined MARK + CXL intervention, without the need for a corneal transplantation. RESULTS: The left eye displays considerable improvements, with a follow-up of 13.5 years: Kmax is decreased by 5.53 D, Kmed is decreased by 1.95 D and thinnest pachymetry is increased by 106 µm. The right eye shows equally remarkable parameters, with a follow-up of 9.5 years: Kmax is decreased by 8...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428109/why-does-acute-primary-angle-closure-happen-potential-risk-factors-for-acute-primary-angle-closure
#9
REVIEW
Xiulan Zhang, Yaoming Liu, Wei Wang, Shida Chen, Fei Li, Wenbin Huang, Tin Aung, Ningli Wang
Acute primary angle closure (APAC) is an ocular emergency and requires immediate management to avoid blindness. Narrow anterior chamber angle, advanced age, female gender, and Asian ethnic background are considered risk factors for APAC. The predictable power of these factors is, however, relatively poor, and many questions remain unanswered because only a relatively small proportion of anatomically predisposed eyes eventually develop APAC. We summarize the potential roles of various factors in the pathogenesis of APAC...
April 17, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428095/sjogren-s-syndrome-clinical-aspects
#10
Frederick B Vivino
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is the 2nd most common chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease and associated with a high burden of illness. Morbidity arises not only from untreated xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca but also from extra-glandular manifestations and the development of non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphomas. Proper diagnosis of SS requires objective evidence of dry eyes and/or objective evidence of dry mouth and proof of autoimmunity. The recent development of new international classification criteria and clinical practice guidelines for SS should not only enhance the existing standards of care but also facilitate further studies to improve future diagnosis and management...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428052/opening-eyes-to-nanomedicine-where-we-are-challenges-and-expectations-on-nanotherapy-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#11
REVIEW
Elisa J Campos, António Campos, João Martins, António Francisco Ambrósio
People affected with ocular diseases will significantly increase over the next decades, and, consequently, a substantial increase in health costs is expected. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. The treatment of eye diseases affecting the posterior segment, such as diabetic retinopathy, is quite challenging due to the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye. Therefore, the development of new therapeutics for posterior eye diseases has been a major focus of pharmaceutical research in the area of vision sciences...
April 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427890/attentive-pointing-in-natural-scenes-correlates-with-other-measures-of-attention
#12
Daniel M Jeck, Michael Qin, Howard Egeth, Ernst Niebur
Finger pointing is a natural human behavior frequently used to draw attention to specific parts of sensory input. Since this pointing behavior is likely preceded and/or accompanied by the deployment of attention by the pointing person, we hypothesize that pointing can be used as a natural means of providing self-reports of attention and, in the case of visual input, visual salience. We here introduce a new method for assessing attentional choice by asking subjects to point to and tap the first place they look at on an image appearing on an electronic tablet screen...
April 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427856/frizzled-3-acts-upstream-of-alcam-during-embryonic-eye-development
#13
Franziska A Seigfried, Wiebke Cizelsky, Astrid S Pfister, Petra Dietmann, Paul Walther, Michael Kühl, Susanne J Kühl
Formation of a functional eye during vertebrate embryogenesis requires different processes such as cell migration, cell-cell interactions as well as intracellular signalling processes. It was previously shown that the non-canonical Wnt receptor Frizzled 3 (Fzd3) is required for proper eye formation, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that loss of Fzd3 induces severe malformations of the developing eye and that this defect is phenocopied by loss of the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam)...
April 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427732/endogenous-bacterial-endophthalmitis-a-report-of-2cases
#14
M Cubillas, A Sampedro, B Domínguez, I Carrio, V Bango, J J Barbón
CLINICAL CASES: The cases are presented on 2patients with bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis. The first one was caused by Streptococcus bovis, developed after colonoscopy, which had a poor outcome and resulted in evisceration. The second case was caused by a methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from an arthrodesis complicated with a para-spinal abscess. It had an excellent visual outcome. DISCUSSION: Bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare, but serious ocular disease that occurs when bacteria reach the eye via the bloodstream...
April 17, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427356/postural-effects-on-intraocular-pressure-and-ocular-perfusion-pressure-in-patients-with-non-arteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#15
Jee Myung Yang, Sang Woo Park, Yong Sok Ji, Jaeryung Kim, Chungkwon Yoo, Hwan Heo
BACKGROUND: To investigate postural effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in patients with non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). METHODS: IOP and blood pressure (BP) were measured in 20 patients with unilateral NAION 10 min after changing to each of the following positions sequentially: sitting, supine, right lateral decubitus position (LDP), supine, left LDP, and supine. IOP was measured using a rebound tonometer and OPP was calculated using formulas based on mean BP...
April 20, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427072/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-injections-the-new-standard-of-care-in-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#16
Xintong Li, Marco A Zarbin, Neelakshi Bhagat
For decades, panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) has been the standard of care for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The relatively recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) formulations for intravitreal injection has provided a fresh perspective on PDR treatment, especially in eyes with concurrent diabetic macular edema (DME). The anti-VEGF agent ranibizumab has demonstrated a potentially protective effect on eyes with DME in terms of progression to PDR in the RIDE/RISE trials, as has aflibercept in the VIVID/VISTA trials...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427065/emerging-simplified-retinal-imaging
#17
Ashish Sharma
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major microvascular complication of diabetes, has a significant impact on the world's health systems. Globally, the number of people with DR will grow from 126.6 million in 2010 to 191.0 million by 2030, and it is estimated that the number with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy will increase from 37.3 million to 56.3 million if prompt action is not taken. Lack of early diagnosis and management is the leading cause of blindness in working-age populations The gap between demand and annual eye examinations has been a big challenge...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426626/parapapillary-gamma-and-delta-zones-in-high-myopia
#18
Jost B Jonas, Yuxin Fang, Pascal Weber, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To examine parapapillary zones gamma and delta in highly myopic eyes. METHODS: The retrospective observational study included patients attending the Tokyo high myopia clinics. Fundus photographs were morphometrically examined. RESULTS: The study population included 600 eyes (304 individuals) with a mean age of 62.7 ± 14.3 years (range: 13-90 years) and mean axial length of 29.6 ± 2.2 mm (range: 23.2-35.4 mm). In multivariate analysis (regression coefficient r:0...
April 19, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426113/health-problems-among-thai-tourists-returning-from-india
#19
Jutarmas Olanwijitwong, Watcharapong Piyaphanee, Kittiyod Poovorawan, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Pornthep Chanthavanich, Pongdej Wichainprasast, Terapong Tantawichien
Background: The number of Thai tourists visiting India is increasing each year. Most studies investigating health problems among international travellers to India have focused on travellers from Europe or North America, and the applicability of these studies to Asian travellers is unknown. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data collected from Thai tourists who had recently completed a trip to India. A questionnaire on demographic data, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparation, and health problems during the trip to India was administered...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425095/psychomotor-tremor-and-proprioceptive-control-problems-in-current-and-former-stimulant-drug-users-an-accelerometer-study-of-heavy-users-of-amphetamine-mdma-and-other-recreational-stimulants
#20
Luke A Downey, Brenda Tysse, Talitha C Ford, Angela C Samuels, Rory P Wilson, Andrew C Parrott
The recreational use of various stimulant drugs has been implicated in the development of movement disorders through dysregulation of the dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitter systems. The present study investigated psychomotor differences in current and former recreational stimulant drug users compared with nonusing controls. Sixty participants comprised 3 groups: 20 current stimulant drug users (CSUs; 11 men, aged 31.4 ± 9.1 years), 20 former stimulant drug users (FSUs; 5 men, aged 39.1 ± 8.5 years), and 20 nonuser controls (NUCs; 5 men, aged 35...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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