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Optic cup

Jianchun Yu, Xing Chen, Danying Zhou, Jian Shen, Yanbing Wu, Qingzhu Sun
BACKGROUND Currently, safe and effective surgical treatment of malignant glaucoma is still under investigation. This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of ciliary ring incision combined with modified partial pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of malignant glaucoma. The technique is particularly useful in the treatment of "phakic" patients with malignant glaucoma, especially those who wish to preserve the natural lens. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 13 cases (16 eyes) of malignant glaucoma in which patients underwent ciliary ring incision combined with modified partial pars plana vitrectomy based on follow-up data collected from May 2004 to March 2017...
June 10, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Rossada Adiarti, Retno Ekantini, Angela Nurini Agni, Tien Yin Wong, Muhammad Bayu Sasongko
PURPOSE: Glaucomatous optic disc (GOD) might represent various sub-clinical processes. However, whether the presence of GOD is related to vascular processes is less clear. This study aimed to assess the retinal vessel diameter, as surrogate markers of vascular regulation, in healthy young adults with GOD compared to normal. METHODS: This was a clinic-based case-control study of 54 participants, aged between 18 to 30 years in this study. We included patients with GOD (confirmed with slit-lamp and optical coherence tomography [OCT] examination having cup-to-disc ratio [CDR] ≥0...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Poemen Pui Man Chan, Vivian S M Chiu, Mandy O I Wong
AIM: To compare the vertical cup to disc ratio (VCDR) measurements obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT), Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) and stereophotography of the optic nerve head (ONH) in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT), and their corresponding estimated 5-year risk for development of glaucoma. METHODS: ONH images of patients with OHT were taken by fundus camera (stereoscopic images), OCT and HRT. Optic disc stereophotographs were evaluated with a stereo-viewer by two glaucoma specialists (SP1 and SP2) and the VCDR was measured with the ImageJ software...
June 1, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Mário Pincelli Netto, Pedro Vanalle Ferrari, Bruno Torres Herrerias, Flávio Eduardo Hirai, Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli
Differentiating glaucomatous from nonglaucomatous optic disc cupping remains challenging. We present a case of a 48-year-old woman with an internal carotid aneurysm of approximately 3.5 mm × 6.5 mm that mimicked normal-tension glaucoma. The patient had a 2-year history of low vision acuity in her left eye and frontal oppressive headache. Owing to the carotid aneurysm, she developed an asymmetric vertical cup-to-disc ratio above 0.2, and marked inferotemporal neuronal rim loss and pallor of the residual rim were noted in the left disc...
April 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Cassidy S Bernstein, Mitchell T Anderson, Chintan Gohel, Kayleigh Slater, Jeffrey M Gross, Seema Agarwala
Defects in choroid fissure (CF) formation and closure lead to coloboma, a major cause of childhood blindness. Despite genetic advances, the cellular defects underlying coloboma remain poorly elucidated due to our limited understanding of normal CF morphogenesis. We address this deficit by conducting high-resolution spatio-temporal analyses of CF formation and closure in the chick, mouse and fish. We show that a small ventral midline invagination initiates CF formation in the medial-proximal optic cup, subsequently extending it dorsally toward the lens, and proximally into the optic stalk...
May 24, 2018: Developmental Biology
Masoud Aghsaei Fard, Sasan Moghimi, Alireza Sahraian, Robert Ritch
BACKGROUND: Enlargement of optic disc cupping is seen both in glaucoma and in neurological disorders. We used enhanced depth imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to differentiate glaucoma from non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy. METHODS: The optic discs were scanned in this prospective comparative study, and the lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness and anterior laminar depth (ALD) in the central, superior and inferior optic nerve head, and peripapillary choroidal thicknesses, were measured...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
René Höhn, Stefan Nickels, Alexander K Schuster, Philipp S Wild, Thomas Münzel, Karl J Lackner, Irene Schmidtmann, Manfred Beutel, Norbert Pfeiffer
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of glaucoma according to the International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO) classification in an adult German cohort. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, prospective cohort study in the Rhine-Main Region in mid-western Germany with a total of 15,010 participants. In this study, the first 5000 subjects with an age range between 35 and 74 years were included. Optic disk pictures were obtained by a non-mydriatic fundus camera (Visucam™) and analyzed using the Visupac™ software...
May 17, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Seung Woo Hong, Helen Koenigsman, Ruojin Ren, Hongli Yang, Stuart K Gardiner, Juan Reynaud, Robert M Kinast, Steven L Mansberger, Brad Fortune, Shaban Demirel, Claude F Burgoyne
PURPOSE: To quantify the variability of 5 glaucoma specialists' optic disc margin (DM), rim margin (RM) and rim width (RW) estimates. DESIGN: Inter-Observer Reliability analysis. METHODS: Clinicians viewed stereo-photos from 214 subjects with glaucoma or ocular hypertension and digitally marked the DM and RM. For each photo, the centroid of each clinician's DM was calculated, and an averaged DMcentroid was determined. The axis between the DMcentroid and the fovea was used to establish twelve 30° sectors...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Yasushi Kitaoka, Masaki Tanito, Yu Yokoyama, Koji Nitta, Maki Katai, Kazuko Omodaka, Toru Nakazawa
Purpose: The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study, a cross-sectional multicenter collaborative study, used a stereo fundus camera (nonmyd WX) to assess various morphological parameters of the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucoma patients. We compared the associations of each parameter between the visual field loss progression group and no-progression group. Methods: The study included 187 eyes of 187 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or normal-tension glaucoma. We divided the mean deviation (MD) slope values of all patients into the progression group (<-0...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
R Duman, G F Yavas, I Veliyev, M Dogan, R Duman
PURPOSE: The aim was to assess the ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic disk features in the affected eyes (AE) and unaffected fellow eyes (FE) of subjects with unilateral nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and to compare with healthy control eyes (CE) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: This study included 28 patients and age, sex and refraction-matched 28 control subjects...
May 10, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Rebecca L Rausch, Richard T Libby, Amy E Kiernan
Heterozygous Bmp4 mutations in humans and mice cause severe ocular anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD). Abnormalities include pupil displacement, corneal opacity, iridocorneal adhesions, and variable intraocular pressure, as well as some retinal and vascular defects. It is presently not known what source of BMP4 is responsible for these defects, as BMP4 is expressed in several developing ocular and surrounding tissues. In particular, BMP4 is expressed in the ciliary margins of the optic cup which give rise to anterior segment structures such as the ciliary body and iris, making it a good candidate for the required source of BMP4 for anterior segment development...
2018: PloS One
J Lenk, L E Pillunat, E Matthé
A twelve-year old girl presented herself for a routine ophthalmologic examination in our clinic. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.0 on both eyes. On funduscopic examination we saw a yellow round structure inferior to the optic nerve head. In optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination the structure showed cupping and opening of the Bruch membrane and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Visual field testing revealed an absolute scotoma right in the area were the abnormal coloboma was localized. We diagnosed a pseudo-doubling of the optic disk, which is a rare condition with just a few reports about it in the literature...
April 17, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Monica Akula, Jeong Won Park, Judith A West-Mays
Development of the eye is closely associated with neural crest cell migration and specification. Eye development is extremely complex, as it requires the working of a combination of local factors, receptors, inductors, and signaling interactions between tissues such as the optic cup and periocular mesenchyme (POM). The POM is comprised of neural crest-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that give rise to numerous important ocular structures including those tissues that form the optic cup and anterior segment of the eye...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Laura Morales-Fernandez, Maria Jimenez-Santos, Jose M Martinez-de-la-Casa, Ruben Sanchez-Jean, Maria Nieves, Federico Saenz-Frances, Sofia Garcia-Saenz, Lucia Perucho, Rosario Gomez-de-Liaño, Julian Garcia-Feijoo
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) analysis versus segmented ganglion cell complex analysis both by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in children with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). METHODS: Participants were 40 children diagnosed with PCG and 60 healthy children. Ophthalmological data collected (for one eye per child) were cup-disc ratio (C/D) and axial length (AL). SD-OCT with automated segmentation was used to measure the thicknesses and volumes of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL)...
April 12, 2018: Eye
Jean-Claude Mwanza, Gary Lee, Donald L Budenz, Joshua L Warren, Michael Wall, Paul H Artes, Thomas M Callan, John G Flanagan
Purpose: To independently validate the performance of the University of North Carolina Optical Coherence Tomography (UNC OCT) Index in diagnosing and predicting early glaucoma. Methods: Data of 118 normal subjects (118 eyes) and 96 subjects (96 eyes) with early glaucoma defined as visual field mean deviation (MD) greater than -4 decibels (dB), aged 40 to 80 years, and who were enrolled in the Full-Threshold Testing Size III, V, VI comparison study were used in this study...
April 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Mingzhe Cao, Jiamin Ouyang, Jingyi Guo, Siyuan Lin, Shuyi Chen
Purpose: Coloboma is a sight-threatening congenital eye disease caused by a failure in optic fissure (OF) closure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Adamts16, a metalloproteinase, in OF closure. Methods: RNA in situ hybridization was used to examine the expression of Adamts16 in developing mouse and zebrafish eyes. Morpholino knockdowns were performed to study adamts16 function during zebrafish eye development. Additionally, immunofluorescent staining, RNA in situ hybridization, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, TUNEL assays, and high-throughput sequencing were used to examine altered cellular and molecular events in adamts16-morphant optic cups (OCs)...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Rodrigo Abreu-Gonzalez, Marta Gonzalez-Hernandez, Cristina Pena-Betancor, Paloma Rodriguez-Esteve, Manuel Gonzalez De La Rosa
PURPOSE: To evaluate the specificity of new perimetric indices based on harmony, alone and in combination with structural data, for glaucoma detection. METHODS: In this prospective observational cross-sectional study, one eye of 105 healthy subjects and 97 early and suspect glaucomas were sequentially included and examined with Cirrus optical coherence tomography, twice with OCULUS Smartfield perimeter (SPARK strategy) and twice with Humphrey Analyzer (24-2 SITA-Fast) at the Ophthalmology Department from the University Hospital La Candelaria...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Ichiro Nakahara, Takayuki Kyo, Yasuo Kuroda, Hidenobu Miki
A computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system is one of the support tools to place implant with appropriate alignment and position in total hip arthroplasty (THA). To determine whether the higher performance of the navigation would further improve the accuracy of implant placement in the clinical setting, we retrospectively compared the navigation accuracy of two different versions of a navigation system. The newer version of the navigation system had an upgraded optical sensor with superior positional accuracy...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Ming Chen, Laura Kueny, Arthur L Schwartz
Purpose: There are multiple reports of the role of corneal hysteresis (CH) as an independent risk factor for the diagnosis and risk of progression of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Our study measured CH with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) in patients with intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mmHg to investigate if a low CH would identify NTG in this Asian-based practice. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study of patients who underwent routine eye examination during 2016 in a private practice in Honolulu, Hawaii, where most patients are Asian...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
M Afsharmanesh, M Habibi
In the present context, the extraction system of a helicon ion source has been simulated and constructed. Results of the ion source commissioning at up to 20 kV are presented as well as simulations of an ion beam extraction system. Argon current of more than 200 μA at up to 20 kV is extracted and is characterized with a Faraday cup and beam profile monitoring grid. By changing different ion source parameters such as RF power, extraction voltage, and working pressure, an ion beam with current distribution exhibiting a central core has been detected...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
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