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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546339/bmp-induced-reprograming-of-the-retina-into-rpe-requires-wnt-signalling-in-the-developing-chick-optic-cup
#1
Jörg Steinfeld, Ichie Steinfeld, Alexander Bausch, Nicola Coronato, Meggi-Lee Hampel, Heike Depner, Paul G Layer, Astrid Vogel-Höpker
In vertebrates, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors of the neural retina (NR) comprise a functional unit required for vision. During vertebrate eye development, a conversion of the RPE into NR can be induced by growth factors in vivo at optic cup stages, but the reverse process, the conversion of NR tissue into RPE has not been reported. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signalling can reprogram the NR into RPE at optic cup stages in chick. Shortly after BMP application, expression of Microphthalmia associated transcription factor (Mitf) is induced in the NR and selective cell death on the basal side of the NR induces an RPE-like morphology...
May 25, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545734/cup-to-disc-ratio-asymmetry-in-u-s-adults-prevalence-and-association-with-glaucoma-in-the-2005-2008-national-health-and-nutrition-examination%C3%A2-survey
#2
Mary Qiu, Michael V Boland, Pradeep Y Ramulu
PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (vCDR) asymmetry in U.S. adults and assess the utility of vCDR asymmetry in the diagnosis of glaucoma. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5359 subjects aged ≥40 years from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: Subjects completed retinal photography and had vCDR determined in both eyes, with vCDR asymmetry calculated as the absolute value of the difference between the 2 eyes...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537348/a-cadaver-study-to-evaluate-the-accuracy-of-a-new-3d-mini-optical-navigation-tool-for-total-hip-arthroplasty
#3
Jonathan M Vigdorchik, Michael B Cross, Eric A Bogner, Theodore T Miller, Jeffrey M Muir, Ran Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of acetabular cup position (CP), changes in leg length (LL), and offset (OS) are paramount in ensuring proper sizing and implantation of components during total hip arthroplasty (THA). LL/OS inaccuracies can cause low back pain, neurological deficits, and patient dissatisfaction, while inaccurate positioning of the acetabular cup can lead to instability, dislocation, and, ultimately, revision surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a mini-navigation tool in measuring CP and LL/OS differential during THA...
May 24, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524136/-clinical-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-cholinesterase-inhibition-with-neuromidin-in-the-treatment-of-primary-glaucoma-patients
#4
I A Zakharova, R V Avdeev, V A Pristavka, S N Surnin, V Yu Makhmutov, I I Savrasova
AIM: to investigate neuromidin effectiveness in the treatment of patients with primary glaucoma and compensated intraocular pressure (IOP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients (80 eyes) were examined. Of them, 10 eyes with early glaucoma, 36 eyes with moderate-stage glaucoma, 33 eyes with advanced glaucoma, and 1 eye with end-stage glaucoma. In 19 eyes, IOP was controlled through beta-blockers, in 11 eyes - through carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, in 10 eyes - through prostaglandin analogues, and in 39 eyes - through combination drugs...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515636/optic-cup-segmentation-type-ii-fuzzy-thresholding-approach-and-blood-vessel-extraction
#5
Ahmed Almazroa, Sami Alodhayb, Kaamran Raahemifar, Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan
We introduce here a new technique for segmenting optic cup using two-dimensional fundus images. Cup segmentation is the most challenging part of image processing of the optic nerve head due to the complexity of its structure. Using the blood vessels to segment the cup is important. Here, we report on blood vessel extraction using first a top-hat transform and Otsu's segmentation function to detect the curves in the blood vessels (kinks) which indicate the cup boundary. This was followed by an interval type-II fuzzy entropy procedure...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494490/biomechanical-responses-of-lamina-cribrosa-to-intraocular-pressure-change-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-glaucoma-eyes
#6
Harry Quigley, Karun Arora, Sana Idrees, Francisco Solano, Sahar Bedrood, Christopher Lee, Joan Jefferys, Thao Nguyen
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure change in anterior lamina cribrosa depth (ALD) globally and regionally in glaucoma eyes at different intraocular pressures (IOP). Methods: Twenty-seven glaucoma patients were imaged before and after IOP-lowering procedures using optical coherence tomography. The anterior lamina was marked in approximately 25 locations in each of six radial scans to obtain global and regional estimates of ALD. ALD and its change with IOP were compared with optic disc damage, nerve fiber layer thickness, and visual field loss...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486733/klassifikation-genetik-und-epidemiologie-der-glaukome
#7
René Höhn, Norbert Pfeiffer
Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of diseases which all share retinal ganglion cell loss leading to a typical optic disc cupping and characteristic visual field defects. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness affecting 8.4 million people. In 2013, 65 million people suffered from glaucoma worldwide and the number will increase to about 112 million in 2040. This review provides an overview about the classification and genetic basics in glaucoma.
May 9, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471894/diffusion-restriction-in-the-optic-nerve-and-retina-in-patients-with-carotid-occlusion
#8
Mikel Vicente, Alba R Serrano, Neus Falgàs, Sergio Borrego, Sergio Amaro, Carlos Cardenal, Xabier Urra
OBJECTIVES: The primary role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with suspected optic neuropathy is to rule out nonischemic disorders, and many of the reported cases of ischemic optic neuropathy with positive neuroimaging are atypical forms of ischemic optic neuropathy. We studied the role of diffusion-weighted images of MRI in patients with ocular ischemia. METHODS: We describe the clinical, fundoscopic and neuroimaging characteristics of 3 patients with definite ocular ischemia related to occlusion of the carotid artery...
May 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466959/controllable-fabrication-of-au-nanocups-by-confined-space-thermal-dewetting-for-oct-imaging
#9
Aiqin Gao, Wenjing Xu, Yenisey Ponce de León, Yaocai Bai, Mingfu Gong, Kongliang Xie, Boris Hyle Park, Yadong Yin
Here, this study reports a novel confined-space thermal dewetting strategy for the fabrication of Au nanocups with tunable diameter, height, and size of cup opening. The nanocup morphology is defined by the cup-shaped void space created by a yolk-shell silica template that spontaneously takes an eccentric configuration during annealing. Thermal dewetting of Au, which is sandwiched between the yolk and shell, leads to the desired nanocup morphology. With strong scattering in near infrared, the Au nanocups exhibit superior efficiency as contrast agents for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging...
May 3, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452993/structural-and-functional-changes-to-the-retina-and-optic-nerve-following-panretinal-photocoagulation-over-a-2-year-time-period
#10
R Filek, P Hooper, T Sheidow, J Gonder, D K Varma, L Heckler, W Hodge, S Chakrabarti, C M L Hutnik
PurposeTo evaluate long-term structural and functional changes to the retina and optic nerve following panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients.MethodsParticipants were patients with DR requiring PRP and control patients with DR not requiring PRP. The Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed to analyze the optic nerve and macula. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and visual field (VF) testing were done to measure central and peripheral vision...
April 28, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449038/real-time-imaging-of-single-neuronal-cell-apoptosis-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#11
Maria F Cordeiro, Eduardo M Normando, M Jorge Cardoso, Serge Miodragovic, Seham Jeylani, Benjamin M Davis, Li Guo, Sebastien Ourselin, Roger A'Hern, Philip A Bloom
HASH(0x4b47918)
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448039/surgical-ablation-assay-for-studying-eye-regeneration-in-planarians
#12
Jacob M Morton, Marwa A Saad, Wendy S Beane
In the study of adult stem cells and regenerative mechanisms, planarian flatworms are a staple in vivo model system. This is due in large part to their abundant pluripotent stem cell population and ability to regenerate all cell and tissue types after injuries that would be catastrophic for most animals. Recently, planarians have gained popularity as a model for eye regeneration. Their ability to regenerate the entire eye (comprised of two tissue types: pigment cells and photoreceptors) allows for the dissection of the mechanisms regulating visual system regeneration...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444310/arl3-and-rp2-regulate-the-trafficking-of-ciliary-tip-kinesins
#13
Nele Schwarz, Amelia Lane, Katarina Jovanovich, David A Parfitt, Monica Aguila, Clare L Thompson, Lyndon da Cruz, Peter J Coffey, J Paul Chapple, Alison J Hardcastle, Michael E Cheetham
Ciliary trafficking defects are the underlying cause of many ciliopathies, including Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). Anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is mediated by kinesin motor proteins; however, the function of the homodimeric Kif17 motor in cilia is poorly understood, whereas Kif7 is known to play an important role in stabilising cilia tips. Here we identified the ciliary tip kinesins Kif7 and Kif17 as novel interaction partners of the small GTPase Arl3 and its regulatory GTPase activating protein (GAP) Retinitis Pigmentosa 2 (RP2)...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438336/distinct-cis-acting-regions-control-six6-expression-during-eye-field-and-optic-cup-stages-of-eye-formation
#14
Kelley L Ledford, Reyna I Martinez-De Luna, Matthew A Theisen, Karisa D Rawlins, Andrea S Viczian, Michael E Zuber
The eye field transcription factor, Six6, is essential for both the early (specification and proliferative growth) phase of eye formation, as well as for normal retinal progenitor cell differentiation. While genomic regions driving six6 optic cup expression have been described, the sequences controlling eye field and optic vesicle expression are unknown. Two evolutionary conserved regions 5' and a third 3' to the six6 coding region were identified, and together they faithfully replicate the endogenous X. laevis six6 expression pattern...
April 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430332/relationship-between-corneal-biomechanical-properties-and-optic-nerve-head-changes-after-deep-sclerectomy
#15
Laura Díez-Álvarez, Francisco J Muñoz-Negrete, Pilar Casas-Llera, Noelia Oblanca, Victoria de Juan, Gema Rebolleda
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal biomechanical properties and optic nerve head (ONH) changes following deep sclerectomy (DS) and the relation to each other. METHODS: Forty-nine eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma that underwent DS were studied. Corneal biomechanical properties were assessed using the Ocular Response Analyzer and the ONH was evaluated by Spectralis optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging technology before surgery and 3 months postoperatively...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418539/ophthalmic-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-syndrome-in-colombia-and-venezuela
#16
Juan B Yepez, Felipe A Murati, Michele Pettito, Carlos F Peñaranda, Jazmin de Yepez, Gladys Maestre, J Fernando Arevalo
Importance: The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. In addition, confirmation whether the public health problem in Brazil extends to other regions in South America is needed...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390166/application-of-navigated-ultrasound-for-assessment-of-the-anterior-pelvic-plane-in-patients-with-degenerative-hip-diseases
#17
Andrzej Kochman, Adrian Goral, Tobias Martin, Wojciech Marek, Josef Kozak, Monika Morawska-Kochman, Marek Synder
OBJECTIVES: Correct positioning of the acetabular cup is the key for successful total-hip replacement. In common clinical practice, the target alignment of the cup is defined with respect to the anterior pelvic plane. In patients with substantial anterior pelvic plane inclination, this condition may lead to inappropriate distribution of the load on the cup, as most of the forces exerted within the hip joint act along the vertical axis. With the known pelvic inclination, it is possible to readjust the position of the cup with respect to the individual posture of the patient...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387768/a-comparison-of-cup-to-disc-ratio-estimates-by-fundus-biomicroscopy-and-stereoscopic-optic-disc-photography-in-the-tema-eye-survey
#18
J C Mwanza, D S Grover, D L Budenz, L W Herndon, W Nolan, J Whiteside-de Vos, G Hay-Smith, J R Bandi, K A Bhansali, L A Forbes, W J Feuer, K Barton
PurposeTo determine if there are systematic differences in cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) grading using fundus biomicroscopy compared to stereoscopic disc photograph reading.MethodsThe vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and horizontal cup-to-disc ratio (HCDR) of 2200 eyes (testing set) were graded by glaucoma subspecialists through fundus biomicroscopy and by a reading center using stereoscopic disc photos. For validation, the glaucoma experts also estimated VCDR and HCDR using stereoscopic disc photos in a subset of 505 eyes that they had assessed biomicroscopically...
April 7, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372636/concerted-action-of-neuroepithelial-basal-shrinkage-and-active-epithelial-migration-ensures-efficient-optic-cup-morphogenesis
#19
Jaydeep Sidhaye, Caren Norden
Organ formation is a multi-scale event that involves changes at the intracellular, cellular and tissue level. Organogenesis often starts with the formation of characteristically shaped organ precursors. However, the cellular mechanisms driving organ precursor formation are often not clear. Here, using zebrafish, we investigate the epithelial rearrangements responsible for the development of the hemispherical retinal neuroepithelium (RNE), a part of the optic cup. We show that in addition to basal shrinkage of RNE cells, active migration of connected epithelial cells into the RNE is a crucial player in its formation...
April 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361308/3d-culture-for-self-formation-of-the-cerebellum-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-through-induction-of-the-isthmic-organizer
#20
Keiko Muguruma
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) possess self-organizing abilities in 3D culture. This property has been demonstrated in recent studies, including the generation of various neuroectodermal and endodermal tissues. For example, PSCs are able to differentiate into specific type of neural tissues, such as the neocortex and the optic cup, in response to local positional information brought about by signals during embryogenesis. In contrast, the generation of cerebellar tissue from PSCs requires a secondary induction by a signaling center, called the isthmic organizer, which first appears in the cell aggregate in 3D culture...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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