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Optic cup

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430332/relationship-between-corneal-biomechanical-properties-and-optic-nerve-head-changes-after-deep-sclerectomy
#1
Laura Díez-Álvarez, Francisco J Muñoz-Negrete, Pilar Casas-Llera, Noelia Oblanca, Victoria de Juan, Gema Rebolleda
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal biomechanical properties and optic nerve head (ONH) changes following deep sclerectomy (DS) and the relation to each other. METHODS: Forty-nine eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma that underwent DS were studied. Corneal biomechanical properties were assessed using the Ocular Response Analyzer and the ONH was evaluated by Spectralis optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging technology before surgery and 3 months postoperatively...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418539/ophthalmic-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-syndrome-in-colombia-and-venezuela
#2
Juan B Yepez, Felipe A Murati, Michele Pettito, Carlos F Peñaranda, Jazmin de Yepez, Gladys Maestre, J Fernando Arevalo
Importance: The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. In addition, confirmation whether the public health problem in Brazil extends to other regions in South America is needed...
April 13, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390166/application-of-navigated-ultrasound-for-assessment-of-the-anterior-pelvic-plane-in-patients-with-degenerative-hip-diseases
#3
Andrzej Kochman, Adrian Goral, Tobias Martin, Wojciech Marek, Josef Kozak, Monika Morawska-Kochman, Marek Synder
OBJECTIVES: Correct positioning of the acetabular cup is the key for successful total-hip replacement. In common clinical practice, the target alignment of the cup is defined with respect to the anterior pelvic plane. In patients with substantial anterior pelvic plane inclination, this condition may lead to inappropriate distribution of the load on the cup, as most of the forces exerted within the hip joint act along the vertical axis. With the known pelvic inclination, it is possible to readjust the position of the cup with respect to the individual posture of the patient...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387768/a-comparison-of-cup-to-disc-ratio-estimates-by-fundus-biomicroscopy-and-stereoscopic-optic-disc-photography-in-the-tema-eye-survey
#4
J C Mwanza, D S Grover, D L Budenz, L W Herndon, W Nolan, J Whiteside-de Vos, G Hay-Smith, J R Bandi, K A Bhansali, L A Forbes, W J Feuer, K Barton
PurposeTo determine if there are systematic differences in cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) grading using fundus biomicroscopy compared to stereoscopic disc photograph reading.MethodsThe vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and horizontal cup-to-disc ratio (HCDR) of 2200 eyes (testing set) were graded by glaucoma subspecialists through fundus biomicroscopy and by a reading center using stereoscopic disc photos. For validation, the glaucoma experts also estimated VCDR and HCDR using stereoscopic disc photos in a subset of 505 eyes that they had assessed biomicroscopically...
April 7, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372636/concerted-action-of-neuroepithelial-basal-shrinkage-and-active-epithelial-migration-ensures-efficient-optic-cup-morphogenesis
#5
Jaydeep Sidhaye, Caren Norden
Organ formation is a multi-scale event that involves changes at the intracellular, cellular and tissue level. Organogenesis often starts with the formation of characteristically shaped organ precursors. However, the cellular mechanisms driving organ precursor formation are often not clear. Here, using zebrafish, we investigate the epithelial rearrangements responsible for the development of the hemispherical retinal neuroepithelium (RNE), a part of the optic cup. We show that in addition to basal shrinkage of RNE cells, active migration of connected epithelial cells into the RNE is a crucial player in its formation...
April 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361308/3d-culture-for-self-formation-of-the-cerebellum-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-through-induction-of-the-isthmic-organizer
#6
Keiko Muguruma
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) possess self-organizing abilities in 3D culture. This property has been demonstrated in recent studies, including the generation of various neuroectodermal and endodermal tissues. For example, PSCs are able to differentiate into specific type of neural tissues, such as the neocortex and the optic cup, in response to local positional information brought about by signals during embryogenesis. In contrast, the generation of cerebellar tissue from PSCs requires a secondary induction by a signaling center, called the isthmic organizer, which first appears in the cell aggregate in 3D culture...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361307/generation-of-a-three-dimensional-retinal-tissue-from-self-organizing-human-esc-culture
#7
Atsushi Kuwahara, Tokushige Nakano, Mototsugu Eiraku
A three-dimensional (3D) tissue generated in vitro is a promising source to study developmental biology and regenerative medicine. In the last decade, Yoshiki Sasai's group have developed a 3D stem cell culture technique known as SFEBq and demonstrated that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have an ability to self-organize stratified neural tissue including 3D-retina. Furthermore, we have reported that ESC-derived retinal tissue can form an optic cup and a ciliary margin, which are unique structures in the developing retina...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349910/good-bugs-vs-bad-bugs-evaluation-of-inhibitory-effect-of-selected-probiotics-against-enterococcus-faecalis
#8
Aarti A Bohora, Sharad R Kokate
INTRODUCTION: The main goal of endodontics is the prevention of apical periodontitis. This is due to the presence of persistent pathogenic microorganisms, such as Enterococcus faecalis, and its ability to directly cause acute and chronic inflammation in the periapical tissues. Lactobacillus has been shown to promote health in the intestines as well as to inhibit the growth of certain problematic oral bacteria. This study explores shifting the established paradigm of endodontic treatment, which has focused on eliminating all bacteria from the canal system and on elimination of the problematic bacteria through introducing probiotics...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348633/differentiating-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-from-normal-tension-glaucoma
#9
Fernanda Maria Silveira Souto, José Paulo Cabral de Vasconcellos, Mônica Barbosa de Melo, Edi Lúcia Sartorato, Frederico Castelo Moura
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by thinning of neuroretinal rim, enlarged cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) and visual field damage. Although raised intraocular pressure is main risk factor for development of glaucoma, it can occur with consistently normal measurements in the intraocular pressure as normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Enlargement of CDR is a classical sign of glaucoma, but it can also result from non-glaucomatous optic neuropathies such as Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We describe a case of LHON with increased CDR, discuss its differential diagnosis with NTG and highlight the reasons for misdiagnoses between these two entities...
April 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348628/risk-factors-for-non-arteritic-anterior-ischaemic-optic-neuropathy-in-a-korean-population
#10
Dae Hyun Kim, Gwang Rae Shin, Young Je Choi
To determine the risk factors for non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in Korean patients, medical records from 45 Korean patients group and 45 healthy controls group were retrospectively reviewed. 10 NAION risk factors, including age, sex, associated systemic disease, past medical/social history, and fundus findings were analyzed. Significant risk factors for NAION in Korean patients were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) = 3.613, p = 0.020), hypercholesterolaemia (OR = 5.200, p = 0.001), smoking (OR = 3...
April 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336281/-optic-disc-changes-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-optic-disc-edema-in-lom%C3%A3
#11
M A K Santos, K Vonor, D K Ayena, K R Kuaovi, K P Balo
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of optic disc edema (ODE) on the dimensions of the disc and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Lomé. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study which took place in a general ophthalmology office in the city. Twenty-six eyes were examined for ODE (cases) between January 2013 and May 2015, and 26 healthy eyes (control group) were considered in this study. The control group was recruited taking age into account with a variation not exceeding 5 years compared to the ODE cases...
April 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333890/the-association-between-clinical-features-seen-on-fundus-photographs-and-glaucomatous-damage-detected-on-visual-fields-and-optical-coherence-tomography-scans
#12
Paula A Alhadeff, Carlos G De Moraes, Monica Chen, Ali S Raza, Robert Ritch, Donald C Hood
PURPOSE: To classify the appearance of the optic disc seen on fundus photographs of healthy subjects and patients with or suspected glaucoma whose diagnosis was based upon visual fields (VFs) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (sdOCT) results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One eye of 100 patients with or suspected glaucoma and 62 healthy subjects were prospectively tested with 24-2 and 10-2 VF and macular and disc sdOCT cube scans. All eyes with or suspected glaucoma had a 24-2 mean deviation better than -6...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319525/crowdsourcing-to-evaluate-fundus-photographs-for-the-presence-of-glaucoma
#13
Xueyang Wang, Lucy I Mudie, Mani Baskaran, Ching-Yu Cheng, Wallace L Alward, David S Friedman, Christopher J Brady
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of crowdsourcing for grading optic nerve images for glaucoma using Amazon Mechanical Turk before and after training modules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images (n=60) from 2 large population studies were graded for glaucoma status and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR). In the baseline trial, users on Amazon Mechanical Turk (Turkers) graded fundus photos for glaucoma and VCDR after reviewing annotated example images. In 2 additional trials, Turkers viewed a 26-slide PowerPoint training or a 10-minute video training and passed a quiz before being permitted to grade the same 60 images...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316949/evaluation-of-the-role-of-probiotics-in-endodontic-treatment-a-preliminary-study
#14
Aarti Bohora, Sharad Kokate
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The principal goal of endodontics is the prevention of periapical infection. Acute and chronic apical periodontitis occur due to the persistence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans harboring the root canal systems of the teeth. The concept of the use of probiotics in addressing endodontic disease is new and has not been studied adequately. On the basis of the success of probiotics in periodontal treatment, this preliminary work was performed (a) to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of probiotics against common endodontic pathogens, i...
January 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300644/the-connective-tissue-phenotype-of-glaucomatous-cupping-in-the-monkey-eye-clinical-and-research-implications
#15
REVIEW
Hongli Yang, Juan Reynaud, Howard Lockwood, Galen Williams, Christy Hardin, Luke Reyes, Cheri Stowell, Stuart K Gardiner, Claude F Burgoyne
In a series of previous publications we have proposed a framework for conceptualizing the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. That framework proposes important roles for intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-related stress and strain, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), systemic and ocular determinants of blood flow, inflammation, auto-immunity, genetics, and other non-IOP related risk factors in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage to the ONH. The present report summarizes 20 years of technique development and study results pertinent to the characterization of ONH connective tissue deformation and remodeling in the unilateral monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) model...
March 12, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299007/correlation-between-visual-field-index-and-other-functional-and-structural-measures-in-glaucoma-patients-and-suspects
#16
Natalia A Iutaka, Rubens A Grochowski, Niro Kasahara
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between visual field index (VFI) and both structural and functional measures of the optic disc in primary open angle glaucoma patients and suspects. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 162 glaucoma patients and suspects underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP), retinography, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurement. The optic disc was stratified according to the vertical cup/disc ratio (C/D) and sorted by the disc damage likelihood scale (DDLS)...
January 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269003/segmentation-of-optic-disc-and-optic-cup-in-retinal-fundus-images-using-shape-regression
#17
Suman Sedai, Pallab K Roy, Dwarikanath Mahapatra, Rahil Garnavi
Glaucoma is one of the leading cause of blindness. The manual examination of optic cup and disc is a standard procedure used for detecting glaucoma. This paper presents a fully automatic regression based method which accurately segments optic cup and disc in retinal colour fundus image. First, we roughly segment optic disc using circular hough transform. The approximated optic disc is then used to compute the initial optic disc and cup shapes. We propose a robust and efficient cascaded shape regression method which iteratively learns the final shape of the optic cup and disc from a given initial shape...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266026/optimizing-cell-free-protein-expression-in-cho-assessing-small-molecule-mass-transfer-effects-in-various-reactor-configurations
#18
Chariz Peñalber-Johnstone, Xudong Ge, Kevin Tran, Nicholas Selock, Neha Sardesai, Chandrasekhar Gurramkonda, Manohar Pilli, Michael Tolosa, Leah Tolosa, Yordan Kostov, Douglas D Frey, Govind Rao
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is an ideal platform for rapid and convenient protein production. However, bioreactor design remains a critical consideration in optimizing protein expression. Using turbo green fluorescent protein (tGFP) as a model, we tracked small molecule components in a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) CFPS system to optimize protein production. Here, three bioreactors in continuous-exchange cell-free (CECF) format were characterized. A GFP optical sensor was built to monitor the product in real-time...
March 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250050/a-novel-mouse-model-of-anterior-segment-dysgenesis-asd-conditional-deletion-of-tsc1-disrupts-ciliary-body-and-iris-development
#19
Anna-Carin Hägglund, Iwan Jones, Leif Carlsson
Development of the cornea, lens, ciliary body and iris within the anterior segment of the eye involves coordinated interaction between cells originating from the ciliary margin of the optic cup, the overlying periocular mesenchyme and the lens epithelium. Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) encompasses a spectrum of developmental syndromes that affect these anterior segment tissues. ASD conditions arise as a result of dominantly inherited genetic mutations and result in both ocular-specific and systemic forms of dysgenesis that are best exemplified by aniridia and Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227213/segmentation-of-optic-disc-and-optic-cup-in-retinal-fundus-images-using-shape-regression
#20
Suman Sedai, Pallab K Roy, Dwarikanath Mahapatra, Rahil Garnavi, Suman Sedai, Pallab K Roy, Dwarikanath Mahapatra, Rahil Garnavi, Suman Sedai, Pallab K Roy, Rahil Garnavi, Dwarikanath Mahapatra
Glaucoma is one of the leading cause of blindness. The manual examination of optic cup and disc is a standard procedure used for detecting glaucoma. This paper presents a fully automatic regression based method which accurately segments optic cup and disc in retinal colour fundus image. First, we roughly segment optic disc using circular hough transform. The approximated optic disc is then used to compute the initial optic disc and cup shapes. We propose a robust and efficient cascaded shape regression method which iteratively learns the final shape of the optic cup and disc from a given initial shape...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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