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Optic cup

Edem Tsikata, Ramon Lee, Eric Shieh, Huseyin Simavli, Christian J Que, Rong Guo, Ziad Khoueir, Johannes de Boer, Teresa C Chen
Purpose: To describe spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods for quantifying neuroretinal rim tissue in glaucoma and to compare these methods to the traditional retinal nerve fiber layer thickness diagnostic parameter. Methods: Neuroretinal rim parameters derived from three-dimensional (3D) volume scans were compared with the two-dimensional (2D) Spectralis retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness scans for diagnostic capability. This study analyzed one eye per patient of 104 glaucoma patients and 58 healthy subjects...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
K Lee, A Priezzhev, S Shin, Y Francois, I Meglinski
BACKGROUND: The novel measure of the red blood cells (RBC) aggregation (RBC-A) - the critical (minimum) shear stress (CSS) to prevent the cells from aggregation was found to be a promising clinically significant parameter. However, the absolute values of this parameter were found to change significantly depending on the shearing geometry (cup-and-bob, cone-plate or microchannel-flow) and have different temperature dependences along with it. The direct confirmation of these dependences aimed to find out the correct values is still pending...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Bernhard Reuss, Abdul R Asif, Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr
Prenatal maternal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) correlate with an increased lifetime probability for the offspring to develop psychosis. We could previously demonstrate that in human choroid plexus papilloma cells, anti-NG antibodies (α-NG) bind to mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATPB, and interfere with cellular energy metabolism. To assess the in vivo relevance for this, especially during prenatal neural development, we investigated here interactions of NG-specific antisera (α-NG1, α-NG2) with brain, choroid plexus and other non-neural tissues in pre- and perinatal samples of the nonhuman primate (NHP) Callithrix jacchus (CJ), a NHP model for preclinical research...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
Man Hu, Chenghao Zhu, Xiaoxing Li, Yongli Xu
Glaucoma is a serious disease that can cause complete, permanent blindness, and its early diagnosis is very difficult. In recent years, computer-aided screening and diagnosis of glaucoma has made considerable progress. The optic cup segmentation from fundus images is an extremely important part for the computer-aided screening and diagnosis of glaucoma. This paper presented an automatic optic cup segmentation method that used both color difference information and vessel bends information from fundus images to determine the optic cup boundary...
October 20, 2016: Bioengineered
Snezhina S Kostianeva, Marieta I Konareva-Kostianeva, Marin A Atanassov
AIM: To assess relationships between functional changes in visual field and structural changes in advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG) found using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Thirty-one eyes of 25 patients with OAG were included in this study. Besides the routine ophthalmological exam the patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) (Humphrey Field Analyzer) and SD-OCT (RTVue-100) performed within 6 months. The global perimetric indices in the study group were as follows: mean deviation (MD) 12...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Melinda Y Chang, Andrew Shin, Joseph Park, Aaron Nagiel, Robert A Lalane, Steven D Schwartz, Joseph L Demer
PURPOSE: To ascertain deformation of the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary tissues caused by horizontal duction. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. METHODS: Optical coherence tomography of the ONH region was performed in 23 eyes of twelve normal volunteers in central gaze and increasing (10, 20, and 30°) adduction and abduction. Main outcome measures were changes from central gaze in the configuration of the ONH and peripapillary tissues in eccentric gazes...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Anastasia Pilat, Rebecca J McLean, Frank A Proudlock, Gail D E Maconachie, Viral Sheth, Yusuf A Rajabally, Irene Gottlob
Purpose: To investigate optic nerve (ON) and macular morphology in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Subjects: Twenty-five participants with PD (19 males and 6 females; mean age 60.79; SD ± 9.24) and 25 sex-, age-, ethnicity-, and refraction-matched healthy controls. Methods: A high-resolution SD-OCT device was used to acquire scans in 25 participants with PD (mean age 60.79; ± SD 9...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Nazlee Zebardast, Srinivasan Kavitha, Palaniswamy Krishnamurthy, David S Friedman, Monisha E Nongpiur, Tin Aung, Harry A Quigley, Pradeep Y Ramulu, Rengaraj Venkatesh
PURPOSE: To compare anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) angle morphology before and after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in a cohort of South Indian subjects with primary angle-closure suspect (PACS) or primary angle-closure/primary angle-closure glaucoma (PAC/PACG) and to examine baseline parameters associated with angle widening. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 244 subjects aged ≥30 years with PACS or PAC/PACG in at least 1 eye...
October 7, 2016: Ophthalmology
Ashley Alldredge, Sabine Fuhrmann
Purpose: The scaffold protein Axin2 is an antagonist and universal target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Disruption of Axin2 may lead to developmental eye defects; however, this has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Axin2 during ocular and extraocular development in mouse. Methods: Animals heterozygous and homozygous for a Axin2lacZ knock-in allele were analyzed at different developmental stages for reporter expression, morphology as well as for the presence of ocular and extraocular markers using histologic and immunohistochemical techniques...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Abdel-Razzak M Al-Hinnawi, Bassam O Al-Naami, Motasem M Al-Latayfeh
PURPOSE: To investigate monitoring slope-based features of the optic nerve head (ONH) cup as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) occurs. METHOD: A dataset of 46 retrospective OCT cases was acquired from the SPECTRALIS Heidelberg Engineering OCT device. A set of five parameters, which are based on the ONH cup-incline, are measured on the OAG and normal subjects in the dataset. Then, three new ONH cup-shape indices were deduced. The ONH cup-incline parameters and ONH cup-shape indices are analyzed to estimate their clinical value...
September 28, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Ravi Bypareddy, Brijesh Takkar, Shorya Vardhan Azad, Rohan Chawla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Zeynep Kayaarası Öztürker, Kadir Eltutar, Belma Karini, Sezin Özdogan Erkul, Özen Ayrancı Osmanbaşoğlu, Pınar Sultan
PURPOSE: To compare optic nerve head parameters, the thicknesses of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), the ganglion cell complex (GCC), and the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) in macrodisks and normal-sized healthy disks using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 88 healthy eyes (42 macrodisks and 46 normal-sized disks) were prospectively enrolled in the study...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Holly Yu Chen, Koray Dogan Kaya, Lijin Dong, Anand Swaroop
PURPOSE: The generation of three-dimensional (3D) organoids with optic cup-like structures from pluripotent stem cells has created opportunities for investigating mammalian retinal development in vitro. However, retinal organoids in culture do not completely reflect the developmental state and in vivo architecture of the rod-dominant mouse retina. The goals of this study were to develop an efficient protocol for generating retinal organoids from stem cells and examine the morphogenesis of rods in vitro...
2016: Molecular Vision
Anani P Toshev, Julia Lamparter, Norbert Pfeiffer, Esther M Hoffmann
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance and evaluate diagnostic agreement for early glaucoma detection between a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (CSLO) and a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-five eyes of 55 open-angle glaucoma patients and 42 eyes of 42 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this observational, cross-sectional study. All participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination, visual field testing, and optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer imaging by CSLO (HRT3) and SD-OCT (Spectralis OCT)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
Yuiko Hasegawa, Nozomu Takata, Satoru Okuda, Masako Kawada, Mototsugu Eiraku, Yoshiki Sasai
We previously demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived retinal epithelium self-forms an optic cup-like structure. In the developing retina, the dorsal and ventral sides differ in terms of local gene expression and morphological features. This aspect has not yet been shown in vitro Here we demonstrate that mESC-derived retinal tissue spontaneously acquires polarity reminiscent of the dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterning of the embryonic retina. Tbx5 and Vax2 were expressed in a mutually exclusive manner, as seen in vivo Three-dimensional morphometric analysis showed that the in vitro-formed optic cup often contains cleft structures resembling the embryonic optic fissure...
September 15, 2016: Development
Alper Mete, Sabit Kimyon, Oğuzhan Saygılı, Alper Evişen, Can Pamukcu, Seda Çeri, Kıvanç Güngör
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the Valsalva maneuver (VM) on optic disc morphology, choroidal thickness, and anterior chamber parameters. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 60 eyes of 60 healthy subjects. The anterior chamber parameters, including central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), pupil diameter (PD), axial length (AL), subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc parameters, and intraocular pressure (IOP), were measured at rest and during VM...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Jie-Lei Huang, Jing-Jing Huang, Yi-Min Zhong, Xin-Xing Guo, Xiang-Xi Chen, Xiao-Yu Xu, Xing Liu
BACKGROUND: Early surgical intervention is required for the primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). There are currently few reports on the surgical outcomes in infants with PCG. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of trabeculotomy and the postoperative visual outcomes in Chinese newborns with PCG within 4 weeks of birth. METHODS: A total of 21 eyes of 12 patients with PCG who underwent primary trabeculotomy within 4 weeks of birth were retrospectively studied...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Duygu Kunak Mart, Emre Ayintap, Leyla Hazar, Irfan Botan Gunes, Seda Karaca Adiyeke, Beysim Dogan
PURPOSE: To investigate whether there is a difference between primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and control group with regard to choroidal thickness (CT) and the factors influencing CT. METHODS: Ninety eyes of 90 patients who were being followed up with POAG and 72 eyes of 72 healthy subjects matched for age and gender were included. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), peripapillary CT, lamina cribrosa thickness (LCT), and prelaminar tissue thickness (PTT) were measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) enhanced depth imaging (EDI) in all patients...
September 12, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Michael M Altaweel, Sapna S Gangaputra, Jennifer E Thorne, James P Dunn, Susan G Elner, Glenn J Jaffe, Rosa Y Kim, P Kumar Rao, Susan B Reed, John H Kempen
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to describe a system for color photograph evaluation in uveitis and report baseline morphologic findings for the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial. Four-hundred seventy-nine eyes of 255 subjects with intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis had stereoscopic color fundus photographs obtained by certified photographers and evaluated by certified graders using standardized procedures to evaluate morphologic characteristics of uveitis...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Z A Dzhumataeva
AIM: to evaluate the effectiveness of prolatan (latanoprost 0.005%) in the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 35 POAG patients (41 eyes) aged 55-72 years, of them 20 men and 15 women. The patients were randomized into two groups followed up for 3 months. Group 1 consisted of 17 patients (19 eyes) who received prolatan once daily in the evening. Group 2 consisted of 18 patients (22 eyes) under Xalatan 0.005% once daily in the evening...
July 2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
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