Read by QxMD icon Read

RNA methylation

K-X Lou, Z-H Li, P Wang, Z Liu, Y Chen, X-L Wang, H-X Cui
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the expression of human long non-coding ribonucleic acid (lncRNA), BRAF-activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) in breast cancer tissues and its effects on the in vitro proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells; also, we investigated its possible mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expressions of BANCR in 65 pairs of breast cancer tissues and para-carcinoma normal breast tissues were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Luis I Reyes-Aguirre, Heberto Quintero, Brenda Estrada-Leyva, Mónica Lamas
microRNA profiling has identified cell-specific expression patterns that could represent molecular signatures triggering the acquisition of a specific phenotype; in other words, of cellular identity and its associated function. Several groups have hypothesized that retinal cell phenotyping could be achieved through the determination of the global pattern of miRNA expression across specific cell types in the adult retina. This is especially relevant for Müller glia in the context of retinal damage, as these cells undergo dramatic changes of gene expression in response to injury, that render them susceptible to acquire a progenitor-like phenotype and be a source of new neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Reafa A Hossain, Nicholas R Dunham, Raymond A Enke, Christopher E Berndsen
Purpose: DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic repressor of mRNA transcription in many plant and vertebrate systems. However, the mechanism of this repression is not fully understood. The process of transcription is controlled by proteins that regulate recruitment and activity of RNA polymerase by binding to specific cis-regulatory sequences. Cone-rod homeobox (CRX) is a well-characterized mammalian transcription factor that controls photoreceptor cell-specific gene expression...
2018: Molecular Vision
Leena Latonen, Ebrahim Afyounian, Antti Jylhä, Janika Nättinen, Ulla Aapola, Matti Annala, Kati K Kivinummi, Teuvo T L Tammela, Roger W Beuerman, Hannu Uusitalo, Matti Nykter, Tapio Visakorpi
To understand functional consequences of genetic and transcriptional aberrations in prostate cancer, the proteomic changes during disease formation and progression need to be revealed. Here we report high-throughput mass spectrometry on clinical tissue samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), untreated primary prostate cancer (PC) and castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Each sample group shows a distinct protein profile. By integrative analysis we show that, especially in CRPC, gene copy number, DNA methylation, and RNA expression levels do not reliably predict proteomic changes...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Jason X Cheng, Li Chen, Yuan Li, Adam Cloe, Ming Yue, Jiangbo Wei, Kenneth A Watanabe, Jamile M Shammo, John Anastasi, Qingxi J Shen, Richard A Larson, Chuan He, Michelle M Le Beau, James W Vardiman
The roles of RNA 5-methylcytosine (RNA:m5 C) and RNA:m5 C methyltransferases (RCMTs) in lineage-associated chromatin organization and drug response/resistance are unclear. Here we demonstrate that the RCMTs, namely NSUN3 and DNMT2, directly bind hnRNPK, a conserved RNA-binding protein. hnRNPK interacts with the lineage-determining transcription factors (TFs), GATA1 and SPI1/PU.1, and with CDK9/P-TEFb to recruit RNA-polymerase-II at nascent RNA, leading to formation of 5-Azacitidine (5-AZA)-sensitive chromatin structure...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Magdalena Dryglewska, Bogdan Kolarz, Maria Majdan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that results in uncontrolled immune system activation and overproduction of autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and not fully understood, nevertheless, genetic and environmental factors play an important role. So far, about 30 genes have been identified to be involved in the SLE pathomechanism. However, not all genetically predisposed individuals develop the disease. This phenomenon can be associated with epigenetic changes that occur under the influence of environmental factors...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Chun-Xiao Lu, Xiao-Li Wu, Guang-Yuan Zhang, Xiao-Ting Gu, Xin Ma, Dong-Xu He
Cancer is one of the most important health problems today; therefore, many researchers are focusing on exploring the mechanisms underlying its development and treatment. The field of cancer epigenetics has flourished in recent decades, and studies have shown that different epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNA regulation, work together to influence cancer development and progression. In this short review, we summarize the interactions between methylation and noncoding RNAs that affect cancer development...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Çinel Köksal Karayildirim, Mustafa Kotmakçi, Erkan Halay, Kadir Ay, Yücel Başpinar
5-Fluorouracil is one of the first line drugs for the systemic therapy of solid tumors like breast, colorectal, oesophageal, stomach, pancreatic, head and neck. It could be shown that sugars can improve the absorption across cell membranes and can help to bypass some pharmacokinetic problems. Carbohydrates as most common organic molecules are an important issue of plant and animal metabolisms. They are non toxic and have important duties in the body like participating in DNA and RNA synthesis and being responsible for energy production...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Andrew D Kelly, Jozef Madzo, Priyanka Madireddi, Patricia Kropf, Charly R Good, Jaroslav Jelinek, Jean-Pierre J Issa
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often harbors mutations in epigenetic regulators, and also has frequent DNA hypermethylation, including the presence of CpG island methylator phenotypes (CIMPs). Although global hypomethylation is well known in cancer, the question of whether distinct demethylator phenotypes (DMPs) exist remains unanswered. Using Illumina 450k arrays for 194 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified two distinct DMPs by hierarchical clustering: DMP.1 and DMP.2. DMP.1 cases harbored mutations in NPM1 (94%), FLT3 (71%) and DNMT3A (61%)...
March 7, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Hiroki Hamamoto, Kentaro Maemura, Kentaro Matsuo, Kohei Taniguchi, Yoshihisa Tanaka, Sugiko Futaki, Atsushi Takeshita, Akira Asai, Michihiro Hayashi, Yoshinobu Hirose, Yoichi Kondo, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with poor prognosis. We previously showed that expression of Delta-like 3 (DLL3), a member of the family of Delta/Serrate/Lag2 ligands for the Notch receptor, is silenced by aberrant DNA methylation and that overexpression of DLL3 in an HCC cell line induces cellular apoptosis. However, how DLL3 expression is regulated during hepatocarcinogenesis is still unclear. Here, we show that silencing of DLL3 during hepatocarcinogenesis is closely related to viral infection, especially hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (p = 0...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Quentin Gouil, David C Baulcombe
BACKGROUND: Freakish and rare or the tip of the iceberg? Both phrases have been used to refer to paramutation, an epigenetic drive that contravenes Mendel's first law of segregation. Although its underlying mechanisms are beginning to unravel, its understanding relies only on a few examples that may involve transgenes or artificially generated epialleles. RESULTS: By using DNA methylation of introgression lines as an indication of past paramutation, we reveal that the paramutation-like properties of the H06 locus in hybrids of Solanum lycopersicum and a range of tomato relatives and cultivars depend on the timing of sRNA production and conform to an RNA-directed mechanism...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Fernando Francisco Borges Resende, Simoneide Souza Titze-de-Almeida, Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida
Astrocytic tumors, including astrocytomas and glioblastomas, are the most common type of primary brain tumors. Treatment for glioblastomas includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and surgical ablation. Despite certain therapeutic advances, the survival time of patients is no longer than 12-14 months. Cancer cells overexpress the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In the present study, it was examined whether the nNOS enzyme serves a role in the damage of astrocytoma (U251MG and U138MG) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells caused by TMZ...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yong-Eun Kim, Chungoo Park, Kyoon Eon Kim, Kee K Kim
Alternative splicing is an essential process in eukaryotes, as it increases the complexity of gene expression by generating multiple proteins from a single pre-mRNA. However, information on the regulatory mechanisms for alternative splicing is lacking, because splicing occurs over a short period via the transient interactions of proteins within functional complexes of the spliceosome. Here, we investigated in detail the molecular mechanisms connecting alternative splicing with epigenetic mechanisms. We identified interactions between histone proteins and splicing factors such as Rbfox2, Rbfox3, and splicing factor proline and glutamine rich protein (SFPQ) by in vivo crosslinking and immunoprecipitation...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Michael J Ziller, Juan A Ortega, Katharina A Quinlan, David P Santos, Hongcang Gu, Eric J Martin, Christina Galonska, Ramona Pop, Susanne Maidl, Alba Di Pardo, Mei Huang, Herbert Y Meltzer, Andreas Gnirke, C J Heckman, Alexander Meissner, Evangelos Kiskinis
The somatic DNA methylation (DNAme) landscape is established early in development but remains highly dynamic within focal regions that overlap with gene regulatory elements. The significance of these dynamic changes, particularly in the central nervous system, remains unresolved. Here, we utilize a powerful human embryonic stem cell differentiation model for the generation of motor neurons (MNs) in combination with genetic mutations in the de novo DNAme machinery. We quantitatively dissect the role of DNAme in directing somatic cell fate with high-resolution genome-wide bisulfite-, bulk-, and single-cell-RNA sequencing...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
David G Ashbrook, Benjamin Hing, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Wilfred C de Vega, Diane B Miller, Gordon Broderick, James P O'Callaghan, Patrick O McGowan
BACKGROUND: Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ali Movahedi, Jiaxin Zhang, Weibo Sun, Kourosh Mohammadi, Amir Almasi Zadeh Yaghuti, Hui Wei, Xiaolong Wu, Tongming Yin, Qiang Zhuge
Epigenetic modification by DNA methylation is necessary for all cellular processes, including genetic expression events, DNA repair, genomic imprinting and regulation of tissue development. It occurs almost exclusively at the C5 position of symmetric CpG and asymmetric CpHpG and CpHpH sites in genomic DNA. The RNA-directed DNA methylation (RDM1) gene is crucial for heterochromatin and DNA methylation. We overexpressed PtRDM1 gene from Populus trichocarpa to amplify transcripts of orthologous RDM1 in 'Nanlin895' (P...
March 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yue Guo, Renyi Wu, John M Gaspar, Davit Sargsyan, Zheng-Yuan Su, Chengyue Zhang, Linbo Gao, David Cheng, Wenji Li, Chao Wang, Ran Yin, Mingzhu Fang, Michael P Verzi, Ronald P Hart, Ah-Ng Kong
Inflammation is highly associated with colon carcinogenesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could play an important role in the initiation and progression of colon cancer. Curcumin, a dietary phytochemical, shows promising effects in suppressing colitis-associated colon cancer in AOM-DSS mice. However, the potential epigenetic mechanisms of curcumin in colon cancer remain unknown. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of curcumin in suppressing colon cancer in an 18-week AOM-DSS colon cancer mouse model was confirmed...
March 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Jing Wen, Ruitu Lv, Honghui Ma, Hongjie Shen, Chenxi He, Jiahua Wang, Fangfang Jiao, Hang Liu, Pengyuan Yang, Li Tan, Fei Lan, Yujiang Geno Shi, Chuan He, Yang Shi, Jianbo Diao
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) is an abundant modification in eukaryotic mRNA, regulating mRNA dynamics by influencing mRNA stability, splicing, export, and translation. However, the precise m6 A regulating machinery still remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that ZC3H13, a zinc-finger protein, plays an important role in modulating RNA m6 A methylation in the nucleus. We show that knockdown of Zc3h13 in mouse embryonic stem cell significantly decreases global m6 A level on mRNA. Upon Zc3h13 knockdown, a great majority of WTAP, Virilizer, and Hakai translocate to the cytoplasm, suggesting that Zc3h13 is required for nuclear localization of the Zc3h13-WTAP-Virilizer-Hakai complex, which is important for RNA m6 A methylation...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Graziela de Sá Machado Araújo, Ronaldo da Silva Francisco Junior, Cristina Dos Santos Ferreira, Pedro Thyago Mozer Rodrigues, Douglas Terra Machado, Thais Louvain de Souza, Jozimara Teixeira de Souza, Cleiton Figueiredo Osorio da Silva, Antônio Francisco Alves da Silva, Claudia Caixeta Franco Andrade, Alan Tardin da Silva, Victor Ramos, Ana Beatriz Garcia, Filipe Brum Machado, Enrique Medina-Acosta
A hallmark of imprinted genes in mammals is the occurrence of parent-of-origin-dependent asymmetry of DNA cytosine methylation (5m C) of alleles at CpG islands (CGIs) in their promoter regions. This 5m CpG asymmetry between the parental alleles creates allele-specific imprinted differentially methylated regions (iDMRs). iDMRs are often coupled to the transcriptional repression of the methylated allele and the activation of the unmethylated allele in a tissue-specific, developmental-stage-specific and/or isoform-specific fashion...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"