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surge capacity

F Wachter, A M Morgan, M Godes, R Mourtada, G H Bird, L D Walensky
Hydrocarbon-stapled peptides that display key residues of the p53 transactivation domain have emerged as bona fide clinical candidates for reactivating the tumor suppression function of p53 in cancer by dual targeting of the negative regulators HDM2 and HDMX. A recent study questioned the mechanistic specificity of such stapled peptides based on interrogating their capacity to disrupt p53/HDM2 and p53/HDMX complexes in living cells using a new recombinase enhanced bimolecular luciferase complementation platform (ReBiL)...
October 10, 2016: Oncogene
Till Bärnighausen, David E Bloom, Salal Humair
Shortages of human resources for treating HIV/AIDS (HRHA) are a fundamental barrier to reaching universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in developing countries. Previous studies suggest that recruiting HRHA to attain universal ART coverage poses an insurmountable challenge as ART significantly increases survival among HIV-infected individuals. While new evidence about ART's prevention benefits suggests fewer infections may mitigate the challenge, new policies such as treatment-as-prevention (TasP) will exacerbate it...
2016: PloS One
Mary Sproull, Kevin Camphausen
With the possibility of large-scale terrorist attacks around the world, the need for modeling and development of new medical countermeasures for potential future chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) has been well established. Project Bioshield, initiated in 2004, provided a framework to develop and expedite research in the field of CBRN exposures. To respond to large-scale population exposures from a nuclear event or radiation dispersal device (RDD), new methods for determining received dose using biological modeling became necessary...
October 6, 2016: Radiation Research
Firas Saleh, Michael P Weinstein
The use of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) has attracted increasing attention in the context of protection against coastal flooding. This review is focused on NBI approaches to improve coastal resilience in the face of extreme storm events, including hurricanes. We not only consider the role of NBI as a measure to protect people and property but also in the context of other ecological goods and services provided by tidal wetlands including production of fish and shellfish. Although the results of many studies suggest that populated areas protected by coastal marshes were less likely to experience damage when exposed to the full force of storm surge, it was absolutely critical to place the role of coastal wetlands into perspective by noting that while tidal marshes can reduce wave energy from low-to-moderate-energy storms, their capacity to substantially reduce storm surge remains poorly quantified...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
C A Higgins, M Roger, R Hill, A S Ali-Khan, J Garlick, A M Christiano, C A B Jahoda
BACKGROUND: The method to generate bioengineered skin constructs was pioneered several decades ago, and nowadays these constructs are used regularly for the treatment of severe burns and non-healing wounds. Commonly, these constructs are comprised of skin fibroblasts within a collagen scaffold, forming the skin dermis, and stratified keratinocytes overlying this, forming the skin epidermis. In the past decade there has been a surge of interest in bioengineered skins, with researchers searching for alternative cell sources, or scaffolds, from which constructs can be established, and for more biomimetic equivalents with skin appendages...
September 28, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Hamidreza Shabanikiya, Hasan Abolghasem Gorgi, Hesam Seyedin, Mehdi Jafari
BACKGROUND: Hospital administrators play a key role in the effective management of surge capacity in disasters, but there is little information available about the characteristics required to manage this. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to identify characteristics of hospital administrators that are important in the effective management of surge capacity in disasters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a qualitative study. Semi-structured purposive interviews were conducted with 28 hospital administrators who had experience working in surge situations in hospitals during disasters...
May 2016: Trauma Monthly
Ferdia Bolster, Ken Linnau, Steve Mitchell, Eric Roberge, Quynh Nguyen, Jeffrey Robinson, Bruce Lehnert, Joel Gross
The aims of this article are to describe the events of a recent mass casualty incident (MCI) at our level 1 trauma center and to describe the radiology response to the event. We also describe the findings and recommendations of our radiology department after-action review. An MCI activation was triggered after an amphibious military vehicle, repurposed for tourist activities, carrying 37 passengers, collided with a charter bus carrying 45 passengers on a busy highway bridge in Seattle, WA, USA. There were 4 deaths at the scene, and 51 patients were transferred to local hospitals following prehospital scene triage...
September 13, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Chunsheng Li, Christine Bartizel, Paolo Battisti, Axel Böttger, Céline Bouvier, Antonio Capote-Cuellar, Zhanat Carr, Derek Hammond, Martina Hartmann, Tarja Heikkinen, Robert L Jones, Eunjoo Kim, Raymond Ko, Roberto Koga, Boris Kukhta, Lorna Mitchell, Ryan Morhard, Francois Paquet, Debora Quayle, Petr Rulik, Baki Sadi, Aleksanin Sergei, Inmaculada Sierra, Wanderson de Oliveira Sousa, Gyula Szabό
The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) established a laboratory network within the GHSI community to develop collective surge capacity for radionuclide bioassay in response to a radiological or nuclear emergency as a means of enhancing response capability, health outcomes and community resilience. GHSI partners conducted an exercise in collaboration with the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network and the IAEA Response and Assistance Network, to test the participating laboratories (18) for their capabilities in in vitro assay of biological samples, using a urine sample spiked with multiple high-risk radionuclides ((90)Sr, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, and (239)Pu)...
August 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Gisela Di Venanzio, Martina Lazzaro, Enrique S Morales, Darío Krapf, Eleonora García Véscovi
Several pathogens co-opt host intracellular compartments to survive and replicate and they thereafter disperse progeny to prosper in a new niche. Little is known about strategies displayed by Serratia marcescens to defeat immune responses and disseminate afterwards. Upon invasion of non-phagocytic cells, Serratia multiplies within autophagosome-like vacuoles. These Serratia-containing vacuoles (SeCV) circumvent progression into acidic/degradative compartments, avoiding elimination. In this work, we show that ShlA pore-forming toxin (PFT) commands Serratia escape from invaded cells...
August 17, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Kathie A Wong, Luke Hodgson, George Garas, George Malietzis, Sheraz Markar, Christopher Rao, Ludwig K von Segesser, Thanos Athanasiou
Surgeons, as the consumers, must engage in commercial activity regarding medical devices since it directly has impacts on surgical practice and patient outcomes. Unique features defy traditional economic convention in this specific market partly because consumers do not usually pay directly. Greater involvement with commercial activity means better post-market surveillance of medical devices which leads to improved patient safety. The medical device industry has exhibited astonishing levels of growth and profitability reaching $398 billion on a global scale with new product development focusing on unmet clinical need...
August 11, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Hyoseung Shin, Ji-Seon Yoon, Wooseok Koh, Jin Yong Kim, Chang-Hyun Kim, Kang Min Han, Eo Jin Kim, Ohsang Kwon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lasers have been successfully used for decades to remove dark hair. However, laser removal of nonpigmented hair is challenging due to the lack of chromophores. The aim of this study was to use photodynamic therapy (PDT) to remove nonpigmented hair. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared the efficacy of permanent hair reduction in white BALB/c and black C57BL/6 mice treated with PDT or an 800-nm diode laser. We collected skin biopsy specimens and investigated post-PDT histologic changes and molecular changes...
October 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Kanittha Rattanakanlaya, Achara Sukonthasarn, Suparat Wangsrikhun, Chawapornpan Chanprasit
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Thailand was affected by the one of the worst flood disasters in recent times. Hospitals in Thailand were faced with the challenge of managing the health impacts from this natural disaster. The purpose of this study was to assess flood disaster preparedness among hospitals in the central region of Thailand. METHODS: A survey questionnaire was given to twenty-seven key people responsible for hospital disaster preparedness that experienced disruptions to health services (severely, moderately and slightly) during the flood disaster in 2011 in the central region of Thailand...
August 3, 2016: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
Carolina Figueiredo Freitas, Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro, Kimberley Irene Shoaf, Raulino Sabino da Silva, Elaine Silva Miranda
Recently, Brazil has hosted mass events with recognized international relevance. The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in 12 Brazilian state capitals and health sector preparedness drew on the history of other World Cups and Brazil's own experience with the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. The current article aims to analyze the treatment capacity of hospital facilities in georeferenced areas for sports events in the 2016 Olympic Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on a model built drawing on references from the literature...
August 1, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Shobha S Subhash, Gio Baracco, Shelly L Miller, Aaron Eagan, Lewis J Radonovich
We estimated the number of isolation beds needed to care for a surge in patients during an airborne-transmissible influenza pandemic. Based on US health system data, the amount of available airborne isolation beds needed for ill patients will be exceeded early in the course of a moderate or severe influenza pandemic, requiring medical facilities to find ways to further expand isolation bed capacity. Rather than building large numbers of permanent airborne infection isolation rooms to increase surge capacity, an investment that would come at great financial cost, it may be more prudent to prepare for wide-scale creation of just-in-time temporary negative-pressure wards...
July 2016: Health Security
J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell
There has been a surge of interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) strategies for advanced COPD. Valve implants, coil implants, biological LVR (BioLVR), bronchial thermal vapour ablation, and airway stents are used to induce lung deflation with the ultimate goal of improving respiratory mechanics and chronic dyspnea. Patients presenting with severe air trapping (e.g., inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity (TLC) < 25%, residual volume > 225% predicted) and thoracic hyperinflation (TLC > 150% predicted) have the greatest potential to derive benefit from ELVR procedures...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
R B Gilchrist, A M Luciano, D Richani, H T Zeng, X Wang, M De Vos, S Sugimura, J Smitz, F J Richard, J G Thompson
The cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP, are the key molecules controlling mammalian oocyte meiosis. Their roles in oocyte biology have been at the forefront of oocyte research for decades, and many of the long-standing controversies in relation to the regulation of oocyte meiotic maturation are now resolved. It is now clear that the follicle prevents meiotic resumption through the actions of natriuretic peptides and cGMP - inhibiting the hydrolysis of intra-oocyte cAMP - and that the pre-ovulatory gonadotrophin surge reverses these processes...
November 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Fernanda G Basso, Diana G Soares, Taisa N Pansani, Lais M Cardoso, Débora L Scheffel, Carlos Alberto de Souza Costa, Josimeri Hebling
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines in the oral cavity has been related to the etiopathogenesis of oral mucositis and to delayed oral mucosal repair. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) stimulates proliferation and migration of gingival fibroblasts, but the effects of specific inflammatory cytokines on oral mucosal cells and the modulation of these effects by LLLT have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of LLLT on oral fibroblasts after being challenged by oral-mucositis-related inflammatory cytokines...
July 15, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Horst Romm, Christina Beinke, Omar Garcia, Marina Di Giorgio, Eric Gregoire, Gordon Livingston, David Lloyd, Wilner Martinez-Lopez, Jayne E Moquet, Stephen L Sugarman, Ruth C Wilkins, Elizabeth A Ainsbury
The BioDoseNet was founded by the World Health Organization as a global network of biodosimetry laboratories for building biodosimetry laboratory capacities in countries. The newly established BioDoseNet image repository is a databank of ~25 000 electronically captured images of metaphases from the dicentric assay, which have been previously analysed by international experts. The detailed scoring results and dose estimations have, in most cases, already been published. The compilation of these images into one image repository provides a valuable tool for training and research purposes in biological dosimetry...
July 13, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Ian W Folkert, Robert E Roses
Emergency operations are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost compared to elective operations. Palliative and emergent surgery for patients with advanced malignancies is associated with additional risk and remains controversial. Emergent or palliative interventions can be broadly categorized according to indication. Tumor related complications (bleeding, obstruction, or perforation) merit specific consideration, as do specific presentations such as pneumoperitoneum, pneumatosis intestinalis, or peritonitis from other causes that may arise during active therapy for malignancies...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Beth P Bell, Inger K Damon, Daniel B Jernigan, Thomas A Kenyon, Stuart T Nichol, John P O'Connor, Jordan W Tappero
During 2014-2016, CDC, working with U.S. and international partners, mounted a concerted response to end the unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. CDC's response, which was the largest in the agency's history, was directed simultaneously at controlling the epidemic in West Africa and strengthening preparedness for Ebola in the United States. Although experience in responding to approximately 20 Ebola outbreaks since 1976 had provided CDC and other international responders an understanding of the disease and how to stop its spread, the epidemic in West Africa presented new and formidable challenges...
2016: MMWR Supplements
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