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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437188/further-characterization-of-the-mitigation-of-radiation-lethality-by-protective-wounding
#1
Joseph R Dynlacht, Joy Garrett, Rebecca Joel, Katharina Lane, Marc S Mendonca, Christie M Orschell
There continues to be a major effort in the United States to develop mitigators for the treatment of mass casualties that received high-intensity acute ionizing radiation exposures from the detonation of an improvised nuclear device during a radiological terrorist attack. The ideal countermeasure should be effective when administered after exposure, and over a wide range of absorbed doses. We have previously shown that the administration of a subcutaneous incision of a defined length, if administered within minutes after irradiation, protected young adult female C57BL/6 mice against radiation-induced lethality, and increased survival after total-body exposure to an LD50/30 X-ray dose from 50% to over 90%...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412453/in-vitro-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-species-comparison-in-humans-and-common-laboratory-animals
#2
Bryant M Moeller, Daune L Crankshaw, Jacquie Briggs, Herbert Nagasawa, Steven E Patterson
Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. Its broad applications in manufacturing and history as an agent of warfare/terror highlight the limitations in approved cyanide antidotes for mass casualties. Sulfanegen, a pre-clinical antidote for cyanide poisoning, exploits an endogenous detoxification pathway and should be amenable to mass-casualty scenarios. Because human studies are unethical, determination of appropriate animal species as models in translational studies for FDA approval under the "Animal Rule" are critical...
April 12, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408102/exploring-data-sources-for-road-traffic-injury-in-cameroon-collection-and-completeness-of-police-records-newspaper-reports-and-a-hospital-trauma-registry
#3
Catherine Juillard, Marquise Kouo Ngamby, Martin Ekeke Monono, Georges Alain Etoundi Mballa, Rochelle A Dicker, Kent A Stevens, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injury surveillance systems are a cornerstone of organized efforts at injury control. Although high-income countries rely on established trauma registries and police databases, in low- and middle-income countries, the data source that provides the best collection of road traffic injury events in specific low- and middle-income country contexts without mature surveillance systems is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the information available on road traffic injuries in 3 data sources used for surveillance in the sub-Saharan African country of Cameroon, providing potential insight on data sources for road traffic injury surveillance in low- and middle-income countries...
April 10, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403866/erratum-to-pre-hospital-management-of-mass-casualty-civilian-shootings-a-systematic-literature-review
#4
Conor D A Turner, David J Lockey, Marius Rehn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386683/-quality-indicators-for-rescue-operations-in-terrorist-attacks-or-other-threats-a%C3%A2-pilot-study-after-the-w%C3%A3-rzburg-terrorist-attack-of-july-2016
#5
T Wurmb, P Justice, S Dietz, R Schua, T Jarausch, U Kinstle, J Greiner, G Möldner, J Müller, M Kraus, S Simon, U Wagenhäuser, N Roewer, M Helm
BACKGROUND: Terrorist attacks have become reality in Germany. The aim of this work was, after the Würzburg terrorist attack, to define quality indicators and application characteristics for rescue missions in life-threatening situations. The results can be used to record data from future missions using this template in order to make them comparable with each other. METHODS: After approval of the local ethic committee, the first step was to designate a group of experts in order to define the template in a consensus process...
April 6, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369364/thoracic-surgeons-in-multiple-mass-casualty-scenario-are-we-ready
#6
Tamas F Molnar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363626/validating-signs-and-symptoms-from-an-actual-mass-casualty-incident-to-characterize-an-irritant-gas-syndrome-agent-igsa-exposure-a-first-step-in-the-development-of-a-novel-igsa-triage-algorithm
#7
Joan M Culley, Jane Richter, Sara Donevant, Abbas Tavakoli, Jean Craig, Salvatore DiNardi
INTRODUCTION: Chemical exposures can pose a significant threat to life. Rapid assessment by first responders/emergency nurses is required to reduce death and disability. Currently, no informatics tools for irritant gas syndrome agents (IGSA) exposures exist to process victims efficiently, continuously monitor for latent signs/symptoms, or make triage recommendations. This study describes the first step in developing ED informatics tools for chemical incidents: validation of signs/symptoms that characterize an IGSA syndrome...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345508/use-of-a-novel-portable-led-based-capillary-refill-time-simulator-within-a-disaster-triage-context
#8
Todd P Chang, Genevieve Santillanes, Ilene Claudius, Phung K Pham, James Koved, John Cheyne, Marianne Gausche-Hill, Amy H Kaji, Saranya Srinivasan, J Joelle Donofrio, Cynthia Bir
Introduction A simple, portable capillary refill time (CRT) simulator is not commercially available. This device would be useful in mass-casualty simulations with multiple volunteers or mannequins depicting a variety of clinical findings and CRTs. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a prototype CRT simulator in a disaster simulation context. METHODS: A CRT prototype simulator was developed by embedding a pressure-sensitive piezo crystal, and a single red light-emitting diode (LED) light was embedded, within a flesh-toned resin...
March 27, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328683/surgical-support-during-the-terrorist-attacks-in-paris-13-november-2015-experience-at-b%C3%A3-gin-military-teaching-hospital
#9
Olivier Barbier, Brice Malgras, Camille Choufani, Antoine Bouchard, Didier Ollat, Gilbert Versier
BACKGROUND: Recent conflicts have allowed the French Army Health Service to improve management quality for wartime-injured people during military operations. On 13 November 2015, it was in Paris that France was directly attacked and Bégin Military Teaching Hospital, like several hospitals in Paris, had to face a large number of gunshot victims. Thanks to our operational experience, injured people hospitalized in military hospitals benefited from a management based on triage and damage control (DC) principles...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320831/interference-of-the-t-cell-and-antigen-presenting-cell-costimulatory-pathway-using-ctla4-ig-abatacept-prevents-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-pathology
#10
Sarah J C Whitfield, Chris Taylor, Jane E Risdall, Gareth D Griffiths, James T A Jones, E Diane Williamson, Sjoerd Rijpkema, Luisa Saraiva, Sandrine Vessillier, A Christopher Green, Alun J Carter
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a bacterial superantigen that binds the receptors in the APC/T cell synapse and causes increased proliferation of T cells and a cytokine storm syndrome in vivo. Exposure to the toxin can be lethal and cause significant pathology in humans. The lack of effective therapies for SEB exposure remains an area of concern, particularly in scenarios of acute mass casualties. We hypothesized that blockade of the T cell costimulatory signal by the CTLA4-Ig synthetic protein (abatacept) could prevent SEB-dependent pathology...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290940/effects-of-combat-deployment-on-anthropometrics-and-physiological-status-of-u-s-army-special-operations-forces-soldiers
#11
Emily K Farina, Jonathan C Taylor, Gary E Means, Kelly W Williams, Nancy E Murphy, Lee M Margolis, Stefan M Pasiakos, Harris R Lieberman, James P McClung
INTRODUCTION: U.S. Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) soldiers deploy frequently and conduct military operations through special warfare and surgical strike capabilities. Tasks required to execute these capabilities may induce physical and mental stress and have the potential to degrade soldier physiological status. No investigations have longitudinally characterized whether combat deployment alters anthropometrics or biochemical markers of physiological status in a SOF population of frequent deployers...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290930/medical-effects-of-a-transuranic-dirty-bomb
#12
Asaf Durakovic
The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285488/graduate-medical-education-in-tactical-medicine-and-the-impact-of-acgme-accreditation-of-ems-fellowships
#13
Nelson Tang, Matthew J Levy, Asa M Margolis, Nathan Woltman
Physician interest in tactical medicine as an area of professional practice has grown significantly over the past decade. The prevalence of physician involvement in terms of medical oversight and operational support of civilian tactical medicine has experienced tremendous growth during this timeframe. Factors contributing to this trend are multifactorial and include enhanced law enforcement agency understanding of the role of the tactical physician, support for the engagement of qualified medical oversight, increasing numbers of physicians formally trained in tactical medicine, and the ongoing escalation of intentional mass-casualty incidents worldwide...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270259/assessment-of-the-knowledge-of-blast-injuries-management-among-physicians-working-in-tripoli-hospitals-libya
#14
Abdulhakim M Oun, Elmokhtar M Hadida, Charles Stewart
Introduction No study on hospital staff preparedness for managing blast injuries has been conducted in Libya. The internal conflict in Libya since 2011 and the difficulties faced by the hospitals has highlighted the need for such studies. Hypothesis Physicians working in Tripoli (capital city Libya) hospitals are inadequately prepared for the management of blast injuries. METHODS: A survey was conducted in all 13 hospitals in Tripoli between June 2014 and May 2015 by using interviews based on a questionnaire consisting of 29 questions covering physicians' education related to blast injury, hospital management of mass casualties, and aspects of hospital preparedness for such incidents...
March 8, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268865/diorama-enhances-efficiency-of-a-mass-casualty-incident-system-and-experimentation
#15
Aura Ganz, James M Schafer, Zhuorui Yang, Jun Yi, Gregory Ciottone
In this paper we show DIORAMA efficiency in a simulated Mass Casualty Incident drill. As shown by our results DIORAMA system has achieved orderly transport of patients from site of injury to collection point, all red before the yellow were transported (no order was obeyed in the paper drills). We also show that DIORAMA system was used by responders with very short training time and by responders that are not familiar with each other. The qualitative results show that DIORAMA system was found to be user friendly and useful in tracking patients and responders in real time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268824/spatial-temporal-forensic-analysis-of-mass-casualty-incidents-using-video-sequences
#16
Hao Dong, Juechen Yin, James Schafer, Aura Ganz
In this paper we introduce DIORAMA based forensic analysis of mass casualty incidents (MCI) using video sequences. The video sequences captured on site are automatically annotated by metadata, which includes the capture time and the camera location and viewing direction. Using a visual interface the MCI investigators can easily understand the availability of video clips in specific areas of interest, and efficiently review them. The video-based forensic analysis system will enable the MCI investigators to better understand the rescue operations and subsequently improve training procedures...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265471/public-medical-preparedness-at-the-swiss-wrestling-and-alpine-games-2013-descriptive-analysis-of-1-533-patients-treated-at-the-largest-3-day-sporting-event-in-switzerland
#17
Simone Hostettler-Blunier, Nora Müller, Tobias Haltmeier, Andreas Hosner, Heinz Bähler, Frank Neff, Daniel Baumberger, Aristomenis Exadaktylos, Beat Schnüriger
Introduction. Medical preparedness at mass gatherings is challenging, as little is known about the optimal planning. Most studies and case reports are based on mass casualty incidents, so the results cannot be extrapolated to mass gatherings. Aim of this study was to evaluate the preclinical medical structure and the frequency of specific injuries and medical emergencies during the event. Methods. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. Three on-site medical assistance points were set up, completed by mobile teams, and coordinated by an on-site operational management team...
2017: Emergency Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260558/medical-response-to-a-vinyl-chloride-release-from-a-train-derailment-new-jersey-2012
#18
Alice M Shumate, Jamille Taylor, Elizabeth McFarland, Christina Tan, Mary Anne Duncan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to examine the health impact of and medical response to a mass casualty chemical incident caused by a vinyl chloride release. METHODS: Key staff at area hospitals were interviewed about communication during the response, the number of patients treated and care required, and lessons learned. Clinical information related to the incident and medical history were abstracted from hospital charts. RESULTS: Hospital interviews identified a desire for more thorough and timely incident-specific information and an under-utilization of regionally available resources...
March 6, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251227/evaluation-of-disaster-preparedness-for-mass-casualty-incidents-in-private-hospitals-in-central-saudi-arabia
#19
Abdullah A Bin Shalhoub, Anas A Khan, Yaser A Alaska
To identify and describe the hospital disaster preparedness (HDP) in major private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional survey study performed in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Thirteen major private hospitals in Riyadh with more than 100 beds capacity were included in this investigation. Results: The 13 hospitals had HDP plan and reported to have an HDP committee. In 12 (92.3%) hospitals, the HDP covered both internal and external disasters and HDP was available in every department of the hospital...
March 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250913/biomarkers-of-ionizing-radiation-exposure-a-multiparametric-approach
#20
Dimphy Zeegers, Shriram Venkatesan, Shu Wen Koh, Grace Kah Mun Low, Pallavee Srivastava, Neisha Sundaram, Swaminathan Sethu, Birendranath Banerjee, Manikandan Jayapal, Oleg Belyakov, Rajamanickam Baskar, Adayabalam S Balajee, M Prakash Hande
Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation not only through background radiation but also through the ubiquitous presence of devices and sources that generate radiation. With the expanded use of radiation in day-to-day life, the chances of accidents or misuse only increase. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the dynamic effects of radiation exposure on biological entities is necessary. The biological effects of radiation exposure on human cells depend on much variability such as level of exposure, dose rate, and the physiological state of the cells...
2017: Genome Integrity
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