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V R Badhwar, S Ganapathy, P P Prabhudesai, N K Tulara, A Y Varaiya, D Vyas
In community and family practice, infections are a common OPD presentation. In the management of common bacterial infections seen in community especially RTI, UTI, SSTI; cefuroxime a second generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity can be used for empirical treatment. To know current place of cefuroxime in the management of infections, physicians, surgeons, microbiologist, chest physician, gynecologist and pediatrician came together to discuss and debate their experience with cefuroxime and its place in today's world...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Heloise Buys, Rudzani Muloiwa, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is a significant paediatric bloodstream pathogen in children. There is little data from Africa. In this study we describe the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (KPBSI) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of KPBSI from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2011 using conventional descriptive and inferential statistical methods...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Vishnu Kaniyarakkal, Shabana Orvankundil, Saradadevi Karunakaran Lalitha, Raji Thazhethekandi, Jahana Thottathil
Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram negative oxidase positive bacillus that causes human infections infrequently. It is a normal inhabitant of soil and stagnant water of the tropical and subtropical areas. In humans, it can cause infections ranging from life threatening sepsis with metastatic abscesses to skin infections and urinary tract infections. The organism is notoriously resistant to most cephalosporins and Ampicillin. Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides show good in vitro susceptibility. High mortality rates associated with these infections necessitate prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Nicholas S Sigona, Jeffrey M Steele, Christopher D Miller
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of a pharmacist-driven beta-lactam allergy interview on antimicrobial therapy. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center. PRACTICE SETTING: Clarification of beta-lactam allergy may expand treatment options for patients and potentially improve outcomes, reduce toxicity, and reduce costs. PRACTICE INNOVATION: At our institution, a pilot service using a pharmacy resident and infectious diseases clinical pharmacist was implemented to clarify beta-lactam allergy information and, where appropriate, recommend a change to the patient's antibiotic therapy...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Andre Arizpe, Kelly R Reveles, Shrina D Patel, Samuel L Aitken
Resistance to cephalosporins is now common among Gram-negative bacterial infections, including those caused by the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, posing a major threat to public health. As resistance to the traditional drugs of choice for these infections, carbapenems, has also become increasingly common, interest in cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam as carbapenem-sparing alternatives has increased. Additionally, the availability of the novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam has added to the antimicrobial armamentarium available to treat these multidrug-resistant infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Renata Yakubov, Machiel van den Akker, Kaba Machamad, Amit Hochberg, Erez Nadir, Adi Klein
BACKGROUND: Empiric antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children relies on surveillance data about epidemiology and resistance patterns of common uropathogens. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of bacteria isolated from urine cultures of children with febrile UTI, seen at the pediatric department of a large regional hospital (Hillel-Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel) between January 2007 and December 2014. RESULTS: In this study period, 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Karen Arane, Ran D Goldman
QUESTION: A 2-year-old patient in my practice with acute otitis media that has progressed to mastoiditis with a high fever returns with positive culture results for Fusobacterium What should I do next? ANSWER: Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin)...
October 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
David Carr, Elizabeth Helen Barnes, Adrienne Gordon, David Isaacs
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem. We describe 25 years of responsible antibiotic use in a tertiary neonatal unit. METHODS: Data on neonatal infections and antibiotic use were collected prospectively from 1990 to 2014 at a single tertiary Sydney neonatal intensive care unit attached to a maternity unit. There are approximately 5500 deliveries and 900 nursery admissions per year. RESULTS: The mean annual rate of late-onset sepsis was 1...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Tal Lorberbaum, Kevin J Sampson, Jeremy B Chang, Vivek Iyer, Raymond L Woosley, Robert S Kass, Nicholas P Tatonetti
BACKGROUND: QT interval-prolonging drug-drug interactions (QT-DDIs) may increase the risk of life-threatening arrhythmia. Despite guidelines for testing from regulatory agencies, these interactions are usually discovered after drugs are marketed and may go undiscovered for years. OBJECTIVES: Using a combination of adverse event reports, electronic health records (EHR), and laboratory experiments, the goal of this study was to develop a data-driven pipeline for discovering QT-DDIs...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Emilio Fernández-Varón, Carlos Cárceles-García, Juan Manuel Serrano-Rodríguez, Carlos M Cárceles-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonia in goats is usually caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Another important infection disease in lactating goats is intramammary infection producing mastitis, usually associated with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. However, treatment of bacterial pneumonia in goats not affected by mastitis problems should be restricted to antimicrobials with scant penetration to milk in order to avoid long withdrawal times. Ceftiofur is a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial with activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria encountered by domestic animals...
October 13, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Getahun E Agga, John W Schmidt, Terrance M Arthur
: Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TET(r)) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC(r)) E. coli We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal health, TET(r) E. coli, and 3GC(r) E. coli A "control group" of cattle (n = 150) received no CTC, while a "CTC group" (n = 150) received in-feed CTC (10 mg/lb of body weight/day) from the 5th to the 9th day after feedlot arrival...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Akinobu Ito, Toru Nishikawa, Shuhei Matsumoto, Hidenori Yoshizawa, Takafumi Sato, Rio Nakamura, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano
Cefiderocol (S-649266) is a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin conjugated with a catechol moiety at the 3(rd)-position side chain. The in vitro activity of cefiderocol against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was enhanced in the iron-depleted condition where that of ceftazidime was not affected. The monitoring of [Thiazole-(14)C]-cefiderocol revealed the increased intracellular accumulation of cefiderocol in the P. aeruginosa cells incubated under iron-depleted condition compared with those incubated under iron-sufficient condition...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Manju Bala, Vikram Singh, Aradhana Bhargava, Monika Kakran, Naveen Chandra Joshi, Ravi Bhatnagar
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 258 N. gonorrhoeae isolates by Etest determined that 60.1% were MDR while 5% strains had decreased susceptibility to currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Among these, 84.5% MDR and 76.9% strains having decreased susceptibility to ESCs were susceptible to gentamicin. No MDR isolate was resistant to gentamicin. These in vitro results suggest that gentamicin might be an effective treatment option for the MDR strains and in dual therapy for gonorrhea...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Gabriel Cabot, Carla López-Causapé, Alain A Ocampo-Sosa, Lea M Sommer, María Ángeles Domínguez, Laura Zamorano, Carlos Juan, Fe Tubau, Cristina Rodríguez, Bartolomé Moyà, Carmen Peña, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Patrick Plesiat, Antonio Oliver
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used for the characterization of the, frequently extensively-drug resistant (XDR), P. aeruginosa high-risk clone ST175. A total of eighteen ST175 isolates recovered from 8 different Spanish hospitals were analyzed; four isolates from four different French hospitals were included for comparison. The typical resistance profile of ST175 included penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. In the phylogenetic analysis, the four French isolates clustered together with the two isolates from one of the Spanish regions...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ja Hyun Lee, Hah Young Yoo, Xiaoguang Yang, Dong Sup Kim, Ju Hun Lee, Soo Kweon Lee, Sung Ok Han, Seung Wook Kim
In our previous study, glycerol was utilized as an additional carbon source for the production of cephalosporin C (CPC) by Acremonium chrysogenum M35. In this study, algal sugars extracted from the third generation biomass, were utilized in the CPC production for the first time. The CPC production improved about two-fold when using the algal sugars as the carbon source. The complex medium including algal sugars and glycerol was utilized, and 7.3 g l(-1) CPC production was achieved in a 250 mL shaking flask...
October 13, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Nandini Chatterjee, Chandan Chatterjee, Sinjan Ghosh, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Brahmachari, Kartik Patar
BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections have led to emergence of 'superbugs' worldwide. Periodical review of antibiograms is of utmost importance for optimum patient benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify the spectrum of organisms responsible for urinary tract infection and evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from all consecutive patients getting admitted in the medicine indoor irrespective of symptomatology...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Takuya Sadahira, Koichiro Wada, Motoo Araki, Ayano Ishii, Atsushi Takamoto, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Masami Watanabe, Toyohiko Watanabe, Yasutomo Nasu, Hiromi Kumon
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible Escherichia coli isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis are a matter of increasing concern. Cefditoren pivoxil is an oral, β-lactamase-stable, extended-spectrum cephalosporin that is effective against fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible bacteria. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacies of cefditoren pivoxil against acute uncomplicated cystitis and to determine the optimal duration of cefditoren pivoxil treatment...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Eva Hong, Muhamed-Kheir Taha
OBJECTIVES: Reduced susceptibility to penicillin G in Neisseria meningitidis is mainly due to alterations in PBP2 encoded by the penA gene. However, this phenotype was not associated with reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins (C3Gs). We aimed to study the emergence of meningococci with reduced susceptibility to C3Gs (MIC >0.06 mg/L) in France since 2012. METHODS: Invasive meningococcal isolates were typed by MLST and penA sequencing and their antibiotic susceptibility was tested...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Wei Chen, Bei Li, Shuai Li, Yi-Wen Ou, Qin Ou
<strong>Objective</strong> To explore the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis on activity and biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp).<strong>Methods</strong> The broth and agar dilution Methods were carried out to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Scutellaria baicalensis for TW518. VITEK-32 system was used to assay TW518 susceptibility to antibiotics. Kp biofilms were formed in vitro and stained with BacLight Live/Dead stain. The class integron geneⅠ1 mRNA expression was analyzed with RT-PCR...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Vaishali Gaikwad, Tejash Gohel, Shrijeet Panickar, Vijay Chincholkar, Santosh Mangalkar
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection, especially pneumonia, surgical site infections, blood stream infections, and continues to be a major cause of community-acquired infections. The emergence of penicillin resistance followed by the development and spread of strains resistant to the semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin, oxacillin and nafcillin, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides has made the treatment of staphylococcal infection a global challenge...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
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