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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637225/characteristics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-commercial-farms-from-a-common-hatchery
#1
H Ozaki, Y Matsuoka, E Nakagawa, T Murase
To investigate the epidemiologic aspects of colibacillosis in broiler chickens, 83 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the pericarditis and perihepatitis lesions in broiler chickens from 4 commercial farms, 5 isolates recovered from 5 samples of yolk sac contents that were pooled from 25 emaciated chicks, and 4 fecal isolates obtained from a hatchery that supplied chicks to the 4 commercial farms mentioned above were genetically and bacteriologically characterized. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a total of 92 isolates were classified into 33 pulsotypes...
June 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632822/-strategies-to-reduce-infections-and-antibiotic-use-and-its-effects-in-a-neonatal-care-unit
#2
Soledad Urzúa, Marcela Ferrés, Patricia García, Amparo Sánchez, Matías Luco
INTRODUCTION: Late onset sepsis (LOS) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The empirical use of vancomycin and other broad spectrum antibiotics is very frequent and is associated with the emergence of resistant agents, infection by gram-negative bacilli (GNB), fungal infections and increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of 5 intervention protocols designed to reduce infections and promote the rational use of antibiotics (AB) in a single NICU...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631634/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-cefotaximases-temoniera-and-sulfhydryl-variable-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-pseudomonas-and-acinetobacter-isolates-in-an-indian-tertiary-health-care-center
#3
Sana Jamali, Mohammed Shahid, Farrukh Sobia, Anuradha Singh, Haris M Khan
BACKGROUND: Cefotaximases (CTX-M), temoniera (TEM), and sulfhydryl variable (SHV) constitute a rapidly growing cluster of enzymes that have disseminated geographically. They are spreading to species other than Enterobacteriaceae and might be responsible for the presence of blaCTX-M,blaTEM, and blaSHVgenes in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. The present study was designed to characterize CTX-M, TEM, and SHV phenotypically and genotypically in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 90 isolates (73 Pseudomonas and 17 Acinetobacter spp...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631121/-prudent-use-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-prevention-of-increasing-antibiotic-resistance
#4
REVIEW
C Hein, A Pilatz, F M E Wagenlehner
BACKGROUND: The use of peri-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis during urological procedures to prevent postoperative complications is very common. OBJECTIVES: What kind of recommendations for reasonable use of peri-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis during urological procedures to prevent increasing antibiotic resistance and postoperative complications exist? METHODS: Review of evidence-based recommendations from literature and current Guidelines of the EAU...
June 19, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630687/emerging-antimicrobial-resistance-in-early-and-late-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#5
Lamiaa Mohsen, Nermin Ramy, Dalia Saied, Dina Akmal, Niveen Salama, Mona M Abdel Haleim, Hany Aly
BACKGROUND: Compared to developed countries, the use of antimicrobials in Egypt is less regulated and is available over the counter without the need for prescriptions. The impact of such policy on antimicrobial resistance has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of early and late onset sepsis, and the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in a major referral neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: The study included all neonates admitted to the NICU over a 12-month period...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630197/pharmacodynamics-of-cefepime-combined-with-tazobactam-against-clinically-relevant-enterobactereaceae-in-a-neutropenic-mouse-thigh-model
#6
Maria J Melchers, Anita C van Mil, Claudia Lagarde, Jan den Hartigh, Johan W Mouton
The lack of new antibiotics prompted the investigation of the combination of two existing agents cefepime, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin and tazobactam to broaden its efficacy against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae. We determined the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the combination in a murine neutropenic thigh model in order to establishing its exposure- response relationships (ERR). The PK of cefepime was determined for five doses; that of tazobactam was determined in earlier studies (Melchers et al Antimicrob...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630190/%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-with-a-high-affinity-for-pbp2-act-synergistically-with-the-ftsz-targeting-agent-txa707-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Edgar Ferrer-González, Malvika Kaul, Ajit K Parhi, Edmond J LaVoie, Daniel S Pilch
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multi-drug resistant pathogen that poses a significant risk to global health today. We have developed a promising new FtsZ-targeting agent (TXA707) with potent activity against MRSA isolates resistant to current standard-of-care antibiotics. Here we present results that demonstrate differing extents of synergy between TXA707 and a broad range of β-lactam antibiotics (including six cephalosporins, two penicillins, and two carbapenems) against MRSA. To explore whether there is a correlation between the extent of synergy and the preferential antibacterial target of each β-lactam, we determined the binding affinities of the β-lactam antibiotics for each of the four native penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) of S...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630181/in-vitro-activity-of-the-siderophore-cephalosporin-cefiderocol-against-a-recent-collection-of-clinically-relevant-gram-negative-bacilli-from-north-america-and-europe-including-carbapenem-non-susceptible-isolates-the-sidero-wt-2014-study
#8
Meredith A Hackel, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano, Roger Echols, James A Karlowsky, Daniel F Sahm
Cefiderocol (formerly S-649266) is an investigational siderophore cephalosporin. Iron-depleted cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (ID-CAMHB) was prepared according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol and used to perform broth microdilution testing of cefiderocol against a 2014-2015 collection of clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli from North America (n=4,239) and Europe (n=4,966). The concentration of cefiderocol inhibiting 90% of isolates tested (MIC90) was: 0.5 (North America; n=3,007) and 1 μg/ml (Europe; n=3,080) for all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae; 1 (North America; n=30) and 4 μg/ml (Europe; n=139) for meropenem-non-susceptible (MIC ≥2 μg/ml) isolates of Enterobacteriaceae; 0...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630178/efficacy-of-cefiderocol-against-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-in-immunocompetent-rat-respiratory-tract-infection-models-recreating-human-plasma-pharmacokinetics
#9
Shuhei Matsumoto, Christine M Singley, Jennifer Hoover, Rio Nakamura, Roger Echols, Stephen Rittenhouse, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano
Cefiderocol (S-649266), a novel siderophore cephalosporin, shows potent activity against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of cefiderocol against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae) in immunocompetent rat respiratory tract infection models recreating plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles in healthy human subjects. A total of 6 clinical isolates (1 cephalosporin-susceptible P. aeruginosa, 1 multidrug-resistant P...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627430/kinetic-of-eosinophil-count-during-bacterial-infection-revisiting-an-old-marker-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-antimicrobial-therapy
#10
B Davido, S Makhloufi, M Matt, R Calin, O Senard, C Perronne, A Dinh, J Salomon
INTRODUCTION: Eosinopenia has been in the centre of debates for decades as a criterion of sepsis. Depending on authors, different cut-off values are proposed. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study, from February to August 2016, of hospitalized adults suffering from bacterial infection with eosinopenia defined by an eosinophil count <100/mm(3). Patients were divided into 2 groups considering the first day of effective antimicrobial therapy. They were observed during 5days (D) in order to evaluate whether recovery from eosinopenia was predictive of an appropriate antibiotic regimen...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625146/cephalosporins-associated-pseudomembranous-colitis-in-an-elderly-male-patient-a-case-report
#11
Prashant Maheshbhai Parmar, Vipul V Solanki, Manish J Barvaliya, Bhavesh Chavada, C B Tripathi
A 78 year old male patient developed pseudomembranous colitis after administration of Ceftriaxone and Cefazolin for the treatment of pleural effusion. The reaction was confirmed by Ultrasonography and CT scan. Causative agents were stopped and patient was managed by systemic therapy. Patient was expired due to respiratory complications as there was complexity in management of disease due to development of pseudomembranous colitis. Increase awareness of prescribers for high-risk drugs, close monitoring, with immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug can reduce the complexity of management which occurred due to development of such adverse drug reaction...
June 15, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625021/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-elective-hysterectomy
#12
REVIEW
Reuben Olugbenga Ayeleke, Selma Mourad, Jane Marjoribanks, Karim A Calis, Vanessa Jordan
BACKGROUND: Elective hysterectomy is commonly performed for benign gynaecological conditions. Hysterectomy can be performed abdominally, laparoscopically, or vaginally, with or without laparoscopic assistance. Antibiotic prophylaxis consists of administration of antibiotics to reduce the rate of postoperative infection, which otherwise affects 40%-50% of women after vaginal hysterectomy, and more than 20% after abdominal hysterectomy. No Cochrane review has systematically assessed evidence on this topic...
June 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624864/the-clinical-significance-of-pneumonia-in-patients-with-respiratory-specimens-harbouring-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-5-year-retrospective-study-following-5667-patients-in-four-general-icus
#13
B Borgatta, S Gattarello, C A Mazo, A T Imbiscuso, M N Larrosa, M Lujàn, J Rello
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs), with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains posing a serious threat. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical relevance of MDR Pseudomonas isolates in respiratory clinical specimens. A 5-year retrospective observational study in four medical-surgical ICUs from a referral hospital was carried out. Of 5667 adults admitted to the ICU, 69 had MDR-PA in respiratory samples: 31 were identified as having pneumonia (HAP/VAP): 21 ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and ten hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621642/spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-between-2004-and-2015-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-hungary
#14
András Magyar, Béla Köves, Károly Nagy, András Dobák, Vinodh Kumar Adithyaa Arthanareeswaran, Péter Bálint, Florian Wagenlehner, Péter Tenke
PURPOSE: Surveillance of the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic-resistance patterns of locally occurring uropathogens is essential to serve as a basis for empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), as antibiotic-resistance rates may vary geographically with significant differences between countries and regions, and with time. METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analysed all urine samples taken in the department of urology in a tertiary care hospital in Hungary from January 2004 to December 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619146/dynamics-of-cmy-2-producing-e-coli-in-a-broiler-parent-flock
#15
Anita Dame-Korevaar, Egil A J Fischer, Arjan Stegeman, Dik Mevius, Alieda van Essen-Zandbergen, Francisca Velkers, Jeanet van der Goot
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producing bacteria are resistant to Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins (ESC), and are present in all levels of the broiler production chain. We determined the prevalence, concentration, and persistence of ESBL/pAmpC-Escherichia coli in a broiler parent flock during the rearing and laying period. One-day old chickens were housed in four separate pens. Until week 33 no antibiotics or coccidiostatics were used. During rearing 57 chickens in each pen (n=228), and in the laying period two groups of 33 chickens were individually sampled (n=66)...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617526/antimicrobial-resistance-gene-expression-associated-with-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-retail-meat-in-hanoi-vietnam
#16
Minh Ngoc Nghiem, Viet Thanh Nguyen, Thu Thi Hoai Nguyen, Ton Dang Nguyen, Thuy Thi Bich Vo
The purpose of this study was to further characterize the multi-antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic resistance gene expression associated with multi-drug resistance (MDR) in Salmonella spp. isolates from retail meats in Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 14 Salmonella spp. belonging to 9 serotypes (e.g., Warragul, London, Derby, Indiana, Meleagridis, Give, Rissen, Assine, and Typhimurium) were tested for sensitivity to 8 antibiotics. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was shown in 13 strains (92.85%). The multiple antimicrobial resistances accounted for 64...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615848/therapeutic-management-of-canine-ehrlichiosis-with-aid-of-blood-transfusion-a-case-report
#17
Arjun Kasondra, Snehil Gupta, Gamit Amit Bhai Bharat Bhai, Vijesh Kumar Saini
An adult female Labrador Retriever dog was presented at referral veterinary polyclinic, IVRI in lateral recumbency with history of anorexia, high fever, severe panting, heavy tick infestation, and not responding to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones since last 1 week. Clinical examination showed pale conjunctiva, enlarged popliteal lymph node however, electrocardiogram (ECG) report found to be normal. Haematological finding showed marked anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Parasitological examination found it to be positive for Ehrlichia canis and confirmed ticks to be Rhipicephalus sanguineus...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614825/effect-of-ceftiofur-on-hyperalgesia-and-allodynia-in-a-rat-neuropathic-pain-model-the-role-of-immune-processes
#18
Aytül Önal, Deniz Coşkunsever, Fatma Gül Çelenk, Recep Selim Şentürk, Selvi Nalbant, Sibel Ülker Göksel
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory and immune mechanisms play important roles in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin, has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ceftiofur on hyperalgesia and allodynia in neuropathic rats and to define the possible contribution of immune mechanisms to this effect...
June 15, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613873/the-drug-resistant-variant-p167s-expands-the-substrate-profile-of-ctx-m-%C3%AE-lactamases-for-oxyimino-cephalosporin-antibiotics-by-enlarging-the-active-site-upon-acylation
#19
Meha P Patel, Liya Hu, Vlatko Stojanoski, Banumathi Sankaran, B V Venkataram Prasad, Timothy Palzkill
β-Lactamases are enzymes produced by bacterial cells that provide resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. The CTX-M class of β-lactamases provides resistance against the antibiotic, cefotaxime, but not a related oxyimino-cephalosporin antibiotic, ceftazidime. β-lactamases that carry the P167S substitution, however, have been reported to provide ceftazidime resistance. The mechanism by which the P167S substitution expands the substrate profile of CTX-M enzymes is not known. In this study, CTX-M-14 was used as the model enzyme to study the structural changes caused by the P167S mutation that may accelerate ceftazidime turnover...
June 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613139/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-the-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-ceftiofur-and-third-generation-cephalosporins-in-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-food-producing-animals
#20
Mototaka Hiki, Yasuhito Shimizu, Michiko Kawanishi, Manao Ozawa, Hitoshi Abo, Akemi Kojima, Ryoji Koike, Satowa Suzuki, Tetsuo Asai, Shuichi Hamamoto
To enable future comparison of the antimicrobial susceptibility data between bacteria obtained from animals and humans, it is necessary to compare the relationships between minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of veterinary and human medicine. We evaluated the relationship between the MIC of ceftiofur (CTF) and the MICs of other third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs): cefotaxime (CTX), cefpodoxime (CPDX), and ceftazidime (CAZ), determined by the broth microdilution method using 118 cefazolin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from food-producing animals...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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