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Dian He, Yuan Li, Yunli Yu, Gang Cai, Fu Ouyang, Yuchan Lin, Hongjuan Lu, Lan Chu
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that primarily affects the skin and the nervous system. This condition is called segmental NF1 (also called neurofibromatosis type V) when clinical features are limited to one area of the body. Segmental NF1 is generally thought to result from somatic mosaicism due to a postzygotic mutation in the NF1 gene, thus a test for NF1 gene abnormalities in peripheral blood is usually negative. Here we report a 31-year-old male presenting with epileptic seizures, who had a history of neurofibromas confirmed by biopsy, but lacked a family history of neurofibromatosis...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Zornitza Stark, Sebastian Lunke, Gemma R Brett, Natalie B Tan, Rachel Stapleton, Smitha Kumble, Alison Yeung, Dean G Phelan, Belinda Chong, Miriam Fanjul-Fernandez, Justine E Marum, Matthew Hunter, Anna Jarmolowicz, Yael Prawer, Jessica R Riseley, Matthew Regan, Justine Elliott, Melissa Martyn, Stephanie Best, Tiong Y Tan, Clara L Gaff, Susan M White
PurposeThe purpose of the study was to implement and prospectively evaluate the outcomes of a rapid genomic diagnosis program at two pediatric tertiary centers.MethodsRapid singleton whole-exome sequencing (rWES) was performed in acutely unwell pediatric patients with suspected monogenic disorders. Laboratory and clinical barriers to implementation were addressed through continuous multidisciplinary review of process parameters. Diagnostic and clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of rWES were assessed.ResultsOf 40 enrolled patients, 21 (52...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
M R Calvo, C Sabater, W Dednam, E B Lombardi, M J Caturla, C Untiedt
Our analysis of the contact formation processes undergone by Au, Ag, and Cu nanojunctions reveals that the distance at which the two closest atoms on a pair of opposing electrodes jump into contact is, on average, 2 times longer for Au than either Ag or Cu. This suggests the existence of a longer-range interaction between those two atoms in the case of Au, a result of the significant relativistic energy contributions to the electronic structure of this metal, as confirmed by ab initio calculations. Once in the contact regime, the differences between Au, Ag, and Cu are subtle, and the conductance of single-atom contacts for metals of similar chemical valence is mostly determined by geometry and coordination...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Tien D Tran, Mai T T Nguyen, Hoang V Le, Duc N Nguyen, Quang Duc Truong, Phong D Tran
An electrode made of Au nanoparticles, ca. 13 nm in diameter, displays outstanding catalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in water. At an overpotential of 200 mV it operates with a catalytic rate TOF of 0.3 s-1 , which is among the best performances ever achieved for a Pt-free H2 -evolving catalyst.
March 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Xiaodong Zhang, Xiaokai Chen, Yao-Wen Jiang, Ningning Ma, Liu-Yuan Xia, Xiaotong Cheng, Hao-Ran Jia, Peidang Liu, Ning Gu, Zhan Chen, Fu-Gen Wu
The therapeutic performance of cancer radiotherapy is often limited by the over-expression of glutathione (GSH) in tumor and low radiation sensitivity of cancerous cells. To address these issues, the facilely prepared histidine-capped gold nanoclusters (Au NCs@His) were adopted as a radiosensitizer with a high sensitization enhancement ratio of ~1.54. On one hand, Au NCs@His can inherit the local radiation enhancement property of gold-based materials (external regulation); on the other hand, Au NCs@His can decrease the intracellular GSH level, thus preventing the generated ROS from being consumed by GSH, and arrest the cells at the radiosensitive G2/M phase (internal regulation)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mengran Liu, Guoli Fan, Jiaying Yu, Lan Yang, Feng Li
Tuning the surface properties of supported metal catalysts is of vital importance for governing their catalytic performances in nanocatalysis. Here, we report highly dispersed nanometric gold nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Ni-Ti layered double hydroxides (NiTi-LDHs), which were employed in solvent-free and base-free selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. A series of characterization techniques demonstrated that defect-rich NiTi-LDHs could efficiently stabilize Au NPs and decrease surface electron density of Au NPs...
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Kaituo Liu, Xiaoming Huang, Evgeny A Pidko, Emiel J M Hensen
The catalytic hydrogenation of lactic acid to 1,2-propanediol with supported Ru catalysts in water was investigated. The influence of catalyst support (activated carbon, γ-Al2 O3 , SiO2 , TiO2 , and CeO2 ) and promoters (Pd, Au, Mo, Re, Sn) on the catalytic performance was evaluated. Catalytic tests revealed that TiO2 yields the best Ru catalysts. With a monometallic Ru/TiO2 catalyst, a 1,2-propanediol yield of 70 % at 79 % lactic acid conversion was achieved at 130 °C after 20 h reaction. Minor byproducts of the hydrogenation reaction were propionic acid, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol...
February 21, 2018: ChemCatChem
Enrico Della Gaspera, Enrico Menin, Gianluigi Maggioni, Cinzia Sada, Alessandro Martucci
Sub-monolayers of monodisperse Au colloids with different surface coverage have been embedded in between two different metal oxide thin films, combining sol-gel depositions and proper substrates functionalization processes. The synthetized films were TiO₂, ZnO, and NiO. X-ray diffraction shows the crystallinity of all the oxides and verifies the nominal surface coverage of Au colloids. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metal nanoparticles is affected by both bottom and top oxides: in fact, the SPR peak of Au that is sandwiched between two different oxides is centered between the SPR frequencies of Au sub-monolayers covered with only one oxide, suggesting that Au colloids effectively lay in between the two oxide layers...
March 14, 2018: Materials
Seth W Holwerda, Rachel E Luehrs, Allene L Gremaud, Nealy A Wooldridge, Amy K Stroud, Jess G Fiedorowicz, Francois M Abboud, Gary L Pierce
Relative burst amplitude of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is an indicator of augmented sympathetic outflow and contributes to greater vasoconstrictor responses. Evidence suggests anxiety-induced augmentation of relative MSNA burst amplitude in patients with panic disorder, thus we hypothesized that acute stress would result in augmented relative MSNA burst amplitude and vasoconstriction in individuals with chronic anxiety. Eighteen participants with chronic anxiety (ANX, 8 men/10 women, 32{plus minus}2 years) and 18 healthy controls with low/no anxiety (CON, 8 men/10 women, 39{plus minus}3 years) were studied...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Elham Karami Keshmarzi, R Niall Tait, Pierre Berini
Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are realized in the near infrared using a two-dimensional non-uniform long-range surface plasmon polariton structure. The surface plasmon mode is excited onto a 20 nm-thick, 1 μm-wide metal stripe (Ag or Au) on a silica substrate, where the stripe is stepped in width periodically, forming a 1st order Bragg grating. Optical gain is provided by optically pumping a 450 nm-thick IR-140 doped PMMA layer as the top cladding, which covers the entire length of the Bragg grating, thus creating a DFB laser...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Xiaobin Xu, Shuang Hou, Natcha Wattanatorn, Fang Wang, Qing Yang, Chuanzhen Zhao, Xiao Yu, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Steven J Jonas, Paul S Weiss
An efficient nonviral platform for high-throughput and subcellular precision targeted intracellular delivery of nucleic acids in cell culture based on magnetic nanospears is reported. These magnetic nanospears are made of Au/Ni/Si (∼5 μm in length with tip diameters <50 nm) and fabricated by nanosphere lithography and metal deposition. A magnet is used to direct the mechanical motion of a single nanospear, enabling precise control of position and three-dimensional rotation. These nanospears were further functionalized with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expression plasmids via a layer-by-layer approach before release from the underlying silicon substrate...
March 14, 2018: ACS Nano
Bao-Shan He, Xiao-Hai Yan
In this paper, we present a simple and feasible electrochemical sensor based on Au nanoparticle-functionalized graphene for the determination of sulfanilamide. Au nanoparticles were deposited on graphene, which acted as a platform to prepare excellent nanocomposites. Attributed to the graphene's large surface area and the Au nanoparticles' strong conductivity, many sulfanilamide molecules were enriched on the sensor surface and the signal response became more sensitive. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical sensors could be used for the efficient detection of sulfanilamide...
March 13, 2018: Sensors
Yang Liu, Mingming Jiang, Zhenzhong Zhang, Binghui Li, Haifeng Zhao, Chongxin Shan, Dezhen Shen
The generation of hot electrons from metal nanostructures through plasmon decay provided a direct interfacial charge transfer mechanism, which no longer suffers from the barrier height restrictions observed for metal/semiconductor interfaces. Metal plasmon-mediated energy conversion with higher efficiency has been proposed as a promising alternative to construct novel optoelectronic devices, such as photodetectors, photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices, etc. However, the realization of the electrically-driven generation of hot electrons, and the application in light-emitting devices remain big challenges...
March 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Qipeng Lu, An-Liang Wang, Yue Gong, Wei Hao, Hongfei Cheng, Junze Chen, Bing Li, Nailiang Yang, Wenxin Niu, Jie Wang, Yifu Yu, Xiao Zhang, Ye Chen, Zhanxi Fan, Xue-Jun Wu, Jinping Chen, Jun Luo, Shuzhou Li, Lin Gu, Hua Zhang
Crystal-phase engineering offers opportunities for the rational design and synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials with unusual crystal phases that normally do not exist in bulk materials. However, it remains a challenge to use these materials as seeds to construct heterometallic nanostructures with desired crystal phases and morphologies for promising applications such as catalysis. Here, we report a strategy for the synthesis of binary and ternary hybrid noble metal nanostructures. Our synthesized crystal-phase heterostructured 4H/fcc Au nanowires enable the epitaxial growth of Ru nanorods on the 4H phase and fcc-twin boundary in Au nanowires, resulting in hybrid Au-Ru nanowires...
March 12, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Samuel Y S Wong, Yu Ying Sun, Aaroy T Y Chan, Maria K W Leung, David V K Chao, Carole C K Li, King K H Chan, Wai Kwong Tang, Trevor Mazzucchelli, Alma M L Au, Benjamin H K Yip
PURPOSE: We undertook a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of group-based behavioral activation with mindfulness (BAM) for treating subthreshold depression in primary care in Hong Kong. METHODS: We recruited adult patients aged 18 years or older with subthreshold depression from public primary care clinics and randomly assigned them to a BAM intervention group or a usual care group. The BAM group was provided with eight 2-hour weekly BAM sessions by trained allied health care workers...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
Jatish Kumar, Hasier Eraña, Elena López-Martínez, Nathalie Claes, Víctor F Martín, Diego M Solís, Sara Bals, Aitziber L Cortajarena, Joaquín Castilla, Luis M Liz-Marzán
Amyloid fibrils, which are closely associated with various neurodegenerative diseases, are the final products in many protein aggregation pathways. The identification of fibrils at low concentration is, therefore, pivotal in disease diagnosis and development of therapeutic strategies. We report a methodology for the specific identification of amyloid fibrils using chiroptical effects in plasmonic nanoparticles. The formation of amyloid fibrils based on α-synuclein was probed using gold nanorods, which showed no apparent interaction with monomeric proteins but effective adsorption onto fibril structures via noncovalent interactions...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anaëlle Camarda, Émilie Salvia, Julie Vidal, Benoit Weil, Nicolas Poirel, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst, Mathieu Cassotti
Decades of problem solving and creativity research have converged to show that the ability to generate new and useful ideas can be blocked or impeded by intuitive biases leading to mental fixations. The present study aimed at investigating the neural bases of the processes involved in overcoming fixation effects during creative idea generation. Using the AU task adapted for EEG recording, we examined whether participant's ability to provide original ideas was related to alpha power changes in both the frontal and temporo-parietal regions...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Huixu Deng, Cherian J Mathai, Shubhra Gangopadhyay, Jie Gao, Xiaodong Yang
Ultra-broadband strong absorption over 92% covering the infrared wavelength range of 1~6μm is demonstrated by using the tapered hyperbolic Au-SiO2 multilayer waveguides on glass substrates. Such broadband absorption is formed by the stop-light modes at various wavelengths located at different waveguide widths. A planar hyperbolic waveguide model is built to determine the stop-light modes by considering both forward and backward guided modes. The stop-light modes located inside the Au-SiO2 multilayer waveguide are simulated at the absorption peaks by reducing the Au loss...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Suzanne Bisschop, Pieter Geiregat, Lukas Elsinger, Emile Drijvers, Dries Van Thourhout, Zeger Hens, Edouard Brainis
We demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of on-chip vertically-emitting SiNx /Au nanopatch cavities containing a monolayer of colloidal quantum dots. The fabrication process is based on electron-beam lithography and deterministically positions both the cavity and the emitters within the cavity with an accuracy of 10 nm. The Purcell enhancement of the spontaneous emission of the quantum dots is studied theoretically and experimentally. The fabrication technique makes it possible to pattern the quantum dot monolayer such that the quantum dots only occupy the center of the nanopatch cavity where a Purcell factor up to 7 can be reached...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Xianglian Song, Zizhuo Liu, Yuanjiang Xiang, Koray Aydin
Most of hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) investigated to date are based on isotropic materials resulting in uniaxial HMMs in which dielectric permittivities perpendicular to the propagation direction are the same. Using an anisotropic material constituent to form a HMM is a promising research direction providing opportunities to control the dielectric permittivity in all three directions independently. Herein, we propose and theoretically demonstrate novel biaxial HMMs composed of multilayer stacks of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) and Au thin films...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
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