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Glycoside hydrolase

Faisal Nureldin Awad, Pedro Laborda, Meng Wang, Ai Min Lu, Qian Li, Zhi Peng Cai, Li Liu, Josef Voglmeir
BACKGROUND: Mannoside phosphorylases are frequently found in bacteria and play an important role in carbohydrate processing. These enzymes catalyze the reversible conversion of β-1,2- or β-1,4-mannosides to mannose and mannose-1-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate. METHODS: The biochemical parameters of this recombinantly expressed novel mannose phosphorylase were obtained. Furthermore purified reaction products were subjected to ESI- and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and detailed NMR analysis to verify this novel type of β-1,3-mannose linkage...
September 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kridsada Unban, Apinun Kanpiengjai, Saisamorn Lumyong, Thu-Ha Nguyen, Dietmar Haltrich, Chartchai Khanongnuch
Gene encoding cyclomaltodextrinase (Cdx) from amylolytic lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecium K-1 was cloned and nucleotide sequence was analyzed. The open-reading frame consisted of 1767bp encoding 588 deduced amino acids. Consequently, four typically conserved regions of the glycoside hydrolase family 13 were revealed; however, nine exceeding amino acids (DSYQMTDVP) were found at the 282-290 position in comparison to previously reported cyclomaltodextrinases. This difference is believed to have an influence on the substrate specificity of this enzyme...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Lucia Žifčáková, Tomáš Větrovský, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Adina Howe, Petr Baldrian
BACKGROUND: Evergreen coniferous forests contain high stocks of organic matter. Significant carbon transformations occur in litter and soil of these ecosystems, making them important for the global carbon cycle. Due to seasonal allocation of photosynthates to roots, carbon availability changes seasonally in the topsoil. The aim of this paper was to describe the seasonal differences in C source utilization and the involvement of various members of soil microbiome in this process. RESULTS: Here, we show that microorganisms in topsoil encode a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and auxiliary enzymes...
September 18, 2017: Microbiome
Sindhu Mathew, Eva Nordberg Karlsson, Patrick Adlercreutz
The enzymatic, ecofriendly pretreatment of wheat bran with α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquifaciens or B. licheniformis at 90°C for 1.5h followed by Neutrase at 50°C for 4h, aqueous liquefaction at 121°C for 15h and ethanol precipitation enabled the production of soluble arabinoxylan (AX) with purity of 70.9% and 68.4% (w/w) respectively. Process alternatives tried, to simplify the process and curtail the cost resulted in AX products with different purities, yields and arabinose to xylose ratio (A/X). Among the two glycoside hydrolase (GH) family endoxylanases evaluated, GH10 family hydrolysed soluble AX more efficiently with xylanase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 (GsXyn10A) producing maximum amount of quantifiable short xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) and arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) (53% w/w) followed by the catalytic module of Rhodothermus marinus Xyn10A (RmXyn10A-CM) with 37% (w/w) conversion...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Yanxin Ye, Xuezhi Li, Jian Zhao
β-xylosidase is a pivotal enzyme for complete degradation of xylan in hemicelluloses of lignocelluloses, and the xylose- and alkali-tolerant β-xylosidase with high catalytic activity is very attractive for promoting enzymatic hydrolysis of alkaline-pretreated lignocellulose. In this study, a novel intracellular glycoside hydrolase family 43 β-xylosidase gene (xyl43) from Penicillium oxalicum 114-2 was successfully high-level overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, and the secreted enzyme was characterized. The β-xylosidase Xyl43 exhibited great pH stability and high catalytic activity in the range of pH 6...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mahmoud S M Mohamed, Ahmed M Saleh, Ibrahim B Abdel-Farid, Sabry A El-Naggar
Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of rot and wilt diseases, is one of the most detrimental phytopathogens for the productivity of many economic crops. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potentiality of some xerophytic plants as eco-friendly approach for management of F. oxysporum. Phenolic rich extracts from five plants namely: Horwoodia dicksoniae, Citrullus colocynthis, Gypsophila capillaris, Pulicaria incisa and Rhanterium epapposum were examined in vitro. The different extracts showed high variability in their phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as total antioxidant capacity...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Toshihiko Kitajima, Yuanling Jia, Akiko Komatsuzaki, Juan Cui, Fumiko Matsuzawa, Sei-Ichi Aikawa, Xiao-Dong Gao, Yasunori Chiba
Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea minuta (Endo-Om) is a glycoside hydrolase family 85 enzyme that has dual catalytic activity in the hydrolysis and transglycosylation of complex N-glycans, in common with the enzymes from the eukaryotic species. In this study, we have conducted mutagenesis of Endo-Om at Trp295, to determine the effect on hydrolytic activity. Structural modeling predicted that Trp295 forms an important interaction with the α-1,3-linked mannose residue of the trimannosyl N-glycan core, rather than being directly involved in catalytic activity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hui-Min Qin, Takuya Miyakawa, Akira Inoue, Akira Nakamura, Ryuji Nishiyama, Takao Ojima, Masaru Tanokura
Laminarinase from Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01, a new member of the glycosyl hydrolase 16 family of a marine bacterium associated with seaweeds, mainly degrades β-1,3-glucosyl linkages of β-glucan (such as laminarin) through the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds. We determined the crystal structure of ULam111 at 1.60-Å resolution to understand the structural basis for its thermostability and substrate specificity. A calcium-binding motif located on the opposite side of the β-sheet from catalytic cleft increased its degrading activity and thermostability...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Simon Heinze, Matthias Mechelke, Petra Kornberger, Wolfgang Liebl, Wolfgang H Schwarz, Vladimir V Zverlov
Enzymes that cleave polysaccharides in lignocellulose, i. e., cellulases, xylanases, and accessory enzymes, play crucial roles in the natural decomposition of plant-derived biomass and its efficient and sustainable processing into biofuels or other bulk chemicals. The analysis of open reading frame cthe_2195 from the thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum (also known as 'Ruminiclostridium thermocellum') suggested that it encoded a cellulosomal protein comprising a dockerin-I module, a carbohydrate-binding module, and a module of previously unknown function...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiangyun Zang, Meiting Liu, Han Wang, Yihong Fan, Haichang Zhang, Jiawen Liu, Enlu Xing, Xiuhong Xu, Hongtao Li
Cellulose degradation is an important part of global carbon cycle in composting process, and β-Glucosidases complete the final step of cellulose hydrolysis by converting cellobiose to glucose. This work analyzes the succession of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities that persists throughout composting, evaluates their metabolic activities and community advantage during the various phases of composting. Fungal and bacterial β-glucosidase genes belonging to glycoside hydrolase families GH1 and GH3 amplified from DNA and gene abundance levels were analyzed...
September 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Fabiano Jares Contesini, Marcelo Vizoná Liberato, Marcelo Ventura Rubio, Felipe Calzado, Mariane Paludetti Zubieta, Diego Mauricio Riaño Pachón, Fabio Marcio Squina, Fabricio Bracht, Munir S Skaf, André Ricardo Damásio
Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes are key enzymes for biomass-to-bioproducts conversion. α-L-Arabinofuranosidases that belong to the Glycoside Hydrolase family 62 (GH62) have important applications in biofuel production from plant biomass by hydrolyzing arabinoxylans, found in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants. In this work, we identified a GH62 α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AnAbf62Awt) that was highly secreted when Aspergillus nidulans was cultivated on sugarcane bagasse. The gene AN7908 was cloned and transformed in A...
September 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Georgios Tzelepis, Magnus Karlsson, Tadashi Suzuki
BACKGROUND: N-Glycosylation, one of the most prominent post-translational modifications of proteins, is found in all domains of life, i.e. eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and has been shown to play a crucial role in modulating the physicochemical/physiological properties of carrier proteins. Deglycosylating enzymes that act on N-glycans are widely used in analyzing the structures/functions of N-glycans. Fungi are known to produce various deglycosylating enzymes, some of which are fungi-specific...
September 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Renata N Florindo, Valquiria P Souza, Hemily S Mutti, Cesar Camilo, Lívia Regina Manzine, Sandro R Marana, Igor Polikarpov, Alessandro S Nascimento
β-glucosidases are glycoside hydrolases able to cleave small and soluble substrates, thus producing monosaccharides. These enzymes are distributed among families GH1, GH2, GH3, GH5, GH9, GH30 and GH116, with GH1 and GH3 being the most relevant families with characterized enzymes to date. A recent transcriptomic analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum, known for its increased β-glucosidase activity as compared to Trichoderma reesei, revealed two enzymes from family GH1 with high expression levels. Here we report the cloning, recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of these enzymes, ThBgl1 and ThBgl2...
September 6, 2017: New Biotechnology
Craig S Robb, Agata Anna Mystkowska, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann
Algal polysaccharides of diverse structures are one of the most abundant carbon resources for heterotrophic, marine bacteria with coevolved digestive enzymes. A putative sulfo-mannan polysaccharide utilization locus, which is conserved in marine Flavobacteriia, contains an unusual GH99-like protein that lacks the conserved catalytic residues of glycoside hydrolase family 99. Using X-ray crystallography, we structurally characterized this protein from the marine Flavobacterium Ochrovirga pacifica to help elucidate its molecular function...
September 8, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Simon Deusch, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jürgen Conrad, Uwe Beifuss, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The structure and function of the microbiome inhabiting the rumen are, amongst other factors, mainly shaped by the animal's feed intake. Describing the influence of different diets on the inherent community arrangement and associated metabolic activities of the most active ruminal fractions (bacteria and archaea) is of great interest for animal nutrition, biotechnology, and climatology. Samples were obtained from three fistulated Jersey cows rotationally fed with corn silage, grass silage or grass hay, each supplemented with a concentrate mixture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bernard Henrissat, Marie-Line Garron
Similarly to other biopolymers, linear polysaccharides can form double- or triple-helical structures. How enzymes recognize and manage this quaternary structure is an unresolved question. In this issue of Structure, Pluvinage et al. (2017) shed light on the structural complementarity between family GH81 glycoside hydrolase and the quaternary structure of their polysaccharide substrates.
September 5, 2017: Structure
Lucía Guadamuro, Ana Belén Flórez, Ángel Alegría, Lucía Vázquez, Baltasar Mayo
Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007 acts on isoflavone glycosides, releasing their corresponding aglycones. This strain-specific activity might be a key step in making isoflavones bioavailable and harnessing their oestrogenic activity. To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this activity, four glycosyl hydrolase-encoding genes in the IPLA 36007 genome (AW18_01575, AW18_09810, AW18_08145, and AW18_08090) were selected, synthesized with heterologous promoter and terminator signals (r-β-gluA, r-β-gluB, r-β-gluD and r-β-gluE, respectively), cloned into Escherichia coli, overexpressed as His-tagged proteins, and the enzymes purified and characterized...
October 2017: Food Research International
Yao Tong Hao, Shan Gong Wu, Fan Xiong, Ngoc T Tran, Ivan Jakovlić, Hong Zou, Wen Xiang Li, Gui Tang Wang
Dietary intake affects the structure and function of microbes in host intestine. However, the succession of gut microbiota in response to changes in macronutrient levels during a long period of time remains insufficiently studied. Here, we determined the succession and metabolic products of intestinal microbiota in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) undergoing an abrupt and extreme diet change, from fish meal to Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense). Grass carp hindgut microbiota responded rapidly to the diet shift, reaching a new equilibrium approximately within 11 days...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
R E Danczak, M D Johnston, C Kenah, M Slattery, K C Wrighton, M J Wilkins
BACKGROUND: The Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) is a recently described expansion of the tree of life that represents more than 15% of all bacterial diversity and potentially contains over 70 different phyla. Despite this broad phylogenetic variation, these microorganisms appear to feature little functional diversity, with members generally characterized as obligate fermenters. Additionally, much of the data describing CPR phyla has been generated from a limited number of environments, constraining our knowledge of their functional roles and biogeographical distribution...
September 2, 2017: Microbiome
Yuan Yu, Zhemin Liu, Min Yang, Meng Chen, Zhihan Wei, Lixia Shi, Li Li, Haijin Mou
κ-Carrageenase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 16 and cleaves the β-(1→4) linkages of κ-carrageenan. In this study, genes encoding the full-length (cgkZ), Por secretion tail-truncated (cgkZΔPst) and carbohydrate binding domain-truncated (cgkZΔCBM) κ-carrageenase proteins were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The copy numbers of gene cgkZ, cgkZΔPst and cgkZΔCBM were 7, 7 and 6, respectively. The enzymatic activities of recombinant enzymes cgkZ, cgkZΔPst and cgkZΔCBM reached 4.68, 5.70, and 3.02 U/mL, respectively, after 120 h of shake flask fermentation at 22°C and pH 6 in the presence of 1 % (v/v) methanol...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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