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Lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305699/forward-genetics-screen-coupled-with-whole-genome-resequencing-identifies-novel-gene-targets-for-improving-heterologous-enzyme-production-in-aspergillus-niger
#1
Morgann C Reilly, Joonhoon Kim, Jed Lynn, Blake A Simmons, John M Gladden, Jon K Magnuson, Scott E Baker
Plant biomass, once reduced to its composite sugars, can be converted to fuel substitutes. One means of overcoming the recalcitrance of lignocellulose is pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. However, currently available commercial enzyme cocktails are inhibited in the presence of residual pretreatment chemicals. Recent studies have identified a number of cellulolytic enzymes from bacteria that are tolerant to pretreatment chemicals such as ionic liquids. The challenge now is generation of these enzymes in copious amounts, an arena where fungal organisms such as Aspergillus niger have proven efficient...
January 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281693/expression-of-naturally-ionic-liquid-tolerant-thermophilic-cellulases-in-aspergillus-niger
#2
Saori Amaike Campen, Jed Lynn, Stephanie J Sibert, Sneha Srikrishnan, Pallavi Phatale, Taya Feldman, Joel M Guenther, Jennifer Hiras, Yvette Thuy An Tran, Steven W Singer, Paul D Adams, Kenneth L Sale, Blake A Simmons, Scott E Baker, Jon K Magnuson, John M Gladden
Efficient deconstruction of plant biomass is a major barrier to the development of viable lignocellulosic biofuels. Pretreatment with ionic liquids reduces lignocellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis, increasing yields of sugars for conversion into biofuels. However, commercial cellulases are not compatible with many ionic liquids, necessitating extensive water washing of pretreated biomass prior to hydrolysis. To circumvent this issue, previous research has demonstrated that several thermophilic bacterial cellulases can efficiently deconstruct lignocellulose in the presence of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimadizolium acetate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259205/action-of-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenase-on-plant-tissue-is-governed-by-cellular-type
#3
Brigitte Chabbert, Anouck Habrant, Mickaël Herbaut, Laurence Foulon, Véronique Aguié-Béghin, Sona Garajova, Sacha Grisel, Chloé Bennati-Granier, Isabelle Gimbert-Herpoël, Frédéric Jamme, Matthieu Réfrégiers, Christophe Sandt, Jean-Guy Berrin, Gabriel Paës
Lignocellulosic biomass bioconversion is hampered by the structural and chemical complexity of the network created by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Biological conversion of lignocellulose involves synergistic action of a large array of enzymes including the recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) that perform oxidative cleavage of cellulose. Using in situ imaging by synchrotron UV fluorescence, we have shown that the addition of AA9 LPMO (from Podospora anserina) to cellulases cocktail improves the progression of enzymes in delignified Miscanthus x giganteus as observed at tissular levels...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250553/endophytic-fungi-as-pretreatment-to-enhance-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-olive-tree-pruning
#4
Raquel Martín-Sampedro, Juan Carlos López-Linares, Úrsula Fillat, Guillermo Gea-Izquierdo, David Ibarra, Eulogio Castro, María E Eugenio
Olive tree pruning, as one of the most abundant lignocellulosic residues in Mediterranean countries, has been evaluated as a source of sugars for fuel and chemicals production. A mild acid pretreatment has been combined with a fungal pretreatment using either two endophytes (Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp.) or a saprophyte (Trametes sp. I-62). The use of endophytes is based on the important role that some of them play during the initial stages of wood decomposition. Without acid treatment, fungal pretreatment with Ulocladium sp...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234464/production-of-isoprene-one-of-the-high-density-fuel-precursors-from-peanut-hull-using-the-high-efficient-lignin-removal-pretreatment-method
#5
Sumeng Wang, Zhaobao Wang, Yongchao Wang, Qingjuan Nie, Xiaohua Yi, Wei Ge, Jianming Yang, Mo Xian
Background: Isoprene as the feedstock can be used to produce renewable energy fuels, providing an alternative to replace the rapidly depleting fossil fuels. However, traditional method for isoprene production could not meet the demands for low-energy consumption and environment-friendliness. Moreover, most of the previous studies focused on biofuel production out of lignocellulosic materials such as wood, rice straw, corn cob, while few studies concentrated on biofuel production using peanut hull (PH)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234463/xylan-extraction-from-pretreated-sugarcane-bagasse-using-alkaline-and-enzymatic-approaches
#6
Daniele Sporck, Felipe A M Reinoso, Jorge Rencoret, Ana Gutiérrez, José C Del Rio, André Ferraz, Adriane M F Milagres
Background: New biorefinery concepts are necessary to drive industrial use of lignocellulose biomass components. Xylan recovery before enzymatic hydrolysis of the glucan component is a way to add value to the hemicellulose fraction, which can be used in papermaking, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Hemicellulose removal can also facilitate subsequent cellulolytic glucan hydrolysis. Results: Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with an alkaline-sulfite chemithermomechanical process to facilitate subsequent extraction of xylan by enzymatic or alkaline procedures...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234462/a-precise-and-consistent-assay-for-major-wall-polymer-features-that-distinctively-determine-biomass-saccharification-in-transgenic-rice-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#7
Jiangfeng Huang, Ying Li, Yanting Wang, Yuanyuan Chen, Mingyong Liu, Youmei Wang, Ran Zhang, Shiguang Zhou, Jingyang Li, Yuanyuan Tu, Bo Hao, Liangcai Peng, Tao Xia
Background: The genetic modification of plant cell walls has been considered to reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance in bioenergy crops. As a result, it is important to develop a precise and rapid assay for the major wall polymer features that affect biomass saccharification in a large population of transgenic plants. In this study, we collected a total of 246 transgenic rice plants that, respectively, over-expressed and RNAi silenced 12 genes of the OsGH9 and OsGH10 family that are closely associated with cellulose and hemicellulose modification...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195155/complex-effect-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-pretreatment-with-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-chloride-ionic-liquid-on-various-aspects-of-ethanol-and-fumaric-acid-production-by-immobilized-cells-within-ssf
#8
Anna S Dotsenko, Gleb S Dotsenko, Olga V Senko, Nikolay A Stepanov, Ilya V Lyagin, Elena N Efremenko, Alexander V Gusakov, Ivan N Zorov, Ekaterina A Rubtsova
The pretreatment of softwood and hardwood samples (spruce and hornbeam wood) with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) was undertaken for further simultaneous enzymatic saccharification of renewable non-food lignocellulosic biomass and microbial fermentation of obtained sugars to ethanol and fumaric acid. A multienzyme cocktail based on cellulases and yeast or fungus cells producing ethanol and fumaric acid were the main objects of [Bmim]Cl influence studies. A complex effect of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl on various aspects of the process (both action of cellulases and microbial conversion of hydrolysates to target products) was revealed...
November 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177719/structural-features-influential-to-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-cellulose-solvent-based-pretreated-pinewood-and-elmwood-for-ethanol-production
#9
Behzad Satari, Keikhosro Karimi, Maryam Molaverdi
Dissolution of lignocelluloses in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO or NMO) at moderate conditions, e.g., 120 °C for 3 h under atmospheric pressure, and regeneration with water, is among the most effective nonderivatization pretreatment for the improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production. The effects of the pretreatment on two different types of wood, hardwood elm and softwood pine, were compared via physicochemical structural analyses, i.e., FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA, and enzyme adsorption techniques, to relate their properties to the extent of enzymatic conversion...
November 24, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170600/production-of-monosugars-from-lignocellulosic-biomass-in-molten-salt-hydrates-process-design-and-techno-economic-analysis
#10
Johan van den Bergh, Igor V Babich, Paul O'Connor, Jacob A Moulijn
ZnCl2 hydrate, the main molten salt used in biomass conversion, combined with low concentration HCl is an excellent solvent for the dissolution and hydrolysis of the carbohydrates present in lignocellulosic biomass. The most recalcitrant carbohydrate, cellulose, is dissolved in a residence time less than 1 h under mild conditions without significant degradation. This technology is referred to as BIOeCON-solvent technology. Separation of the sugars from the solution is the main challenge. The earlier conclusion regarding the potential of zeolite beta for selective adsorption has been used as the basis of a scale-up study...
November 15, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162107/production-of-highly-efficient-cellulase-mixtures-by-genetically-exploiting-the-potentials-of-trichoderma-reesei-endogenous-cellulases-for-hydrolysis-of-corncob-residues
#11
Yuanchao Qian, Lixia Zhong, Jia Gao, Ningning Sun, Yifan Wang, Guoyong Sun, Yinbo Qu, Yaohua Zhong
BACKGROUND: Trichoderma reesei is one of the most important fungi utilized for cellulase production. However, its cellulase system has been proven to be present in suboptimal ratio for deconstruction of lignocellulosic substrates. Although previous enzymatic optimization studies have acquired different types of in vitro synthetic mixtures for efficient lignocellulose hydrolysis, production of in vivo optimized cellulase mixtures by industrial strains remains one of the obstacles to reduce enzyme cost in the biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161574/fast-spectroscopic-monitoring-of-inhibitors-in-the-2g-ethanol-process
#12
Ariane S S Pinto, Marcelo P A Ribeiro, Cristiane S Farinas
One of the main challenges of second generation (2G) ethanol production is the high quantities of phenolic compounds and furan derivatives generated in the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass, which inhibit the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation steps. Fast monitoring of these inhibitory compounds could provide better control of the pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation processes by enabling the implementation of strategic process control actions. We investigated the feasibility of monitoring these inhibitory compounds by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy associated with partial least squares (PLS) regression...
November 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150773/overexpression-of-a-cellobiose-glucose-halotolerant-endoglucanase-from-scytalidium-thermophilum
#13
Luana Parras Meleiro, Sibeli Carli, Raquel Fonseca-Maldonado, Marcela da Silva Torricillas, Ana Lucia Ribeiro Latorre Zimbardi, Richard John Ward, João Atílio Jorge, Rosa Prazeres Melo Furriel
Enzyme reaction products and by-products from pretreatment steps can inhibit endoglucanases and are major factors limiting the efficiency of enzymatic lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. The gene encoding the endoglucanase from Scytalidium thermophilum (egst) was cloned and expressed as a soluble protein in Pichia pastoris GS115. The recombinant enzyme (Egst) was monomeric (66 kDa) and showed an estimated carbohydrate content of 53.3% (w/w). The optimum temperature and pH of catalysis were 60-70 °C and pH of 5...
November 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150693/a-collection-of-genetically-engineered-populus-trees-reveals-wood-biomass-traits-that-predict-glucose-yield-from-enzymatic-hydrolysis
#14
Sacha Escamez, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Marta Derba-Maceluch, Sven-Olof Lundqvist, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Leif J Jönsson, Hannele Tuominen
Wood represents a promising source of sugars to produce bio-based renewables, including biofuels. However, breaking down lignocellulose requires costly pretreatments because lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic saccharification. Increasing saccharification potential would greatly contribute to make wood a competitive alternative to petroleum, but this requires improving wood properties. To identify wood biomass traits associated with saccharification, we analyzed a total of 65 traits related to wood chemistry, anatomy and structure, biomass production and saccharification in 40 genetically engineered Populus tree lines...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145125/a-closed-loop-strategy-for-endoglucanase-production-using-sugarcane-bagasse-liquefied-by-a-home-made-enzymatic-cocktail
#15
Paula Squinca, Alberto C Badino, Cristiane S Farinas
Use of the same lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock for enzymes and ethanol production has been suggested as a lower cost option in future biorefineries. Here, we propose a closed-loop strategy to produce the cellulolytic enzymes required for biomass hydrolysis using sugarcane bagasse liquefied by a home-made enzymatic cocktail as carbon source and inducer. The fed-batch liquefaction conditions were firstly evaluated using commercial enzymes. Subsequently, the effects of different liquefied materials and solids loadings on endoglucanase production by Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged fermentation were investigated...
November 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141617/comparison-of-hso4-cl-and-meco2-as-anions-in-pretreatment-of-aspen-and-spruce-with-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquids
#16
Zhao Wang, John Gräsvik, Leif J Jönsson, Sandra Winestrand
BACKGROUND: Ionic liquids (ILs) draw attention as green solvents for pretreatment of lignocellulose before enzymatic saccharification. Imidazolium-based ILs with different anionic constituents ([HSO4](-), [Cl](-), [MeCO2](-)) were compared with regard to pretreatment of wood from aspen and spruce. The objective was to elucidate how the choice of anionic constituent affected the suitability of using the IL for pretreatment of hardwood, such as aspen, and softwood, such as spruce. The investigation covered a thorough analysis of the mass balance of the IL pretreatments, the effects of pretreatment on the cell wall structure as assessed by fluorescence microscopy, and the effects of pretreatment on the susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification...
November 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137769/ultrasound-ionic-liquid-enhanced-enzymatic-and-acid-hydrolysis-of-biomass-cellulose
#17
Xiaojie Yu, Xinjie Bao, Cunshan Zhou, Lei Zhang, Abu El-Gasim A Yagoub, Hongpeng Yang, Haile Ma
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of ultrasound-ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment on the enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw. The lignocellulosic biomass was dissociated in ILs ([Bmim]Cl and [Bmim]AOC) aided by ultrasound waves. Sonication was performed at different frequencies (20, 28, 35, 40, and 50kHz), a power of 100W, a time of 30min and a temperature of 80°C. The changes in the structure and crystallinity of the cellulose were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136939/process-simulation-and-economic-assessment-of-hydrothermal-pretreatment-and-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-multi-feedstock-lignocellulose-separate-vs-combined-processing
#18
Muhammad Tahir Ashraf, Jens Ejbye Schmidt
Biorefinery based on multi-feedstock lignocellulose can be viable where a sustainable supply of a single substrate is limited, for example in arid regions. Processing of mixed feedstocks has been studied in lab scale, however, its economics are less studied. In this study, an economic comparison was made between separate and combined (mixed) processing approaches for multi-feedstock lignocellulose for the production of monomeric sugars. This modular approach of focusing on sugar platform makes the results applicable for many applications using the sugars as feedstock...
October 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136536/on-the-bright-side-of-a-forest-pest-the-metabolic-potential-of-bark-beetles-bacterial-associates
#19
Anna Fabryová, Martin Kostovčík, Alexandra Díez-Méndez, Alejandro Jiménez-Gómez, Lorena Celador-Lera, Zaki Saati-Santamaría, Hana Sechovcová, Esther Menéndez, Miroslav Kolařik, Paula García-Fraile
Bark beetles reproduce and overwinter under the bark of trees, and are associated with bacteria that may influence the fitness of their hosts. As regard the aim of this study was to test the metabolic potential of bacterial strains, isolated from the bark beetle species Cryphalus piceae, Ips typographus and Pityophthorus pityophthorus and collected in the Czech Republic from fir, spruce and pine trees, respectively, to degrade plant cell compounds. The bacterial strains were identified as belonging to the genera Curtobacterium, Erwinia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Staphylococcus, and Yersinia...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075324/comparative-characterization-of-all-cellulosomal-cellulases-from-clostridium-thermocellum-reveals-high-diversity-in-endoglucanase-product-formation-essential-for-complex-activity
#20
Benedikt Leis, Claudia Held, Fabian Bergkemper, Katharina Dennemarck, Robert Steinbauer, Alarich Reiter, Matthias Mechelke, Matthias Moerch, Sigrid Graubner, Wolfgang Liebl, Wolfgang H Schwarz, Vladimir V Zverlov
BACKGROUND: Clostridium thermocellum is a paradigm for efficient cellulose degradation and a promising organism for the production of second generation biofuels. It owes its high degradation rate on cellulosic substrates to the presence of supra-molecular cellulase complexes, cellulosomes, which comprise over 70 different single enzymes assembled on protein-backbone molecules of the scaffold protein CipA. RESULTS: Although all 24 single-cellulosomal cellulases were described previously, we present the first comparative catalogue of all these enzymes together with a comprehensive analysis under identical experimental conditions, including enzyme activity, binding characteristics, substrate specificity, and product analysis...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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