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Lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis

Nasir Mehmood, Ranim Alayoubi, Eric Husson, Cédric Jacquard, Jochen Büchs, Catherine Sarazin, Isabelle Gosselin
Imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) pretreatment and allow the achievement of higher ethanolic yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanolic fermentation. However, residual ILs entrapped in pretreated biomass are often toxic for fermentative microorganisms, but interaction mechanisms between ILs and cells are still unknown. Here we studied the effects of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate [Emim][MeO(H)PO₂] on Kluyveromyces marxianus , a thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Saisi Xue, A Daniel Jones, Leonardo Sousa, Jeff Piotrowski, Mingjie Jin, Cory Sarks, Bruce E Dale, Venkatesh Balan
Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Degradation products produced during thermochemical pretreatment, however, inhibit the microbes with regard to both ethanol yield and cell growth. In this work, we used synthetic hydrolysates (SynH) to study the inhibition of yeast fermentation by water-soluble components (WSC) isolated from lignin streams obtained after extractive ammonia pretreatment (EA)...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Girma Mulat, Janka Dibdiakova, Svein Jarle Horn
Background: The emerging cellulosic bioethanol industry will generate huge amounts of lignin-rich residues that may be converted into biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) to increase the output of energy carriers from the biorefinery plants. The carbohydrates fraction of lignocellulosic biomass is degradable, whereas the lignin fraction is generally considered difficult to degrade during AD. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of biogas production by AD from hydrolysis lignin (HL), prepared by steam explosion (SE) and enzymatic saccharification of birch...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chiara Cattaneo, Patrizia Cesaro, Stefano Spertino, Sara Icardi, Maria Cavaletto
Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is a low-cost and abundant source of fermentable sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the main ways to obtain sugars from biomass, but most of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are poorly efficient on LCB and cellulases with higher performances are required. In this study, we designed a chimeric protein by adding the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) of the cellulosomal enzyme CtLic26A-Cel5E (endoglucanase H or CelH) from Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum to the C-terminus of Dtur CelA, an interesting hyperthermostable endoglucanase from Dictyoglomus turgidum...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lijuan Ma, Qing Ma, Gaojie Guo, Liping Du, Yingying Zhang, Youzhi Cui, Dongguang Xiao
Sodium percarbonate (SP), a kind of alkaline strong oxidant, was applied to corncob pretreatment. The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 4% (w/v) SP concentration with solid-to-liquid (SLR) ratio of 1:10 treating for 4 hr at 60°C. This pretreatment resulted in 91.06% of cellulose and 84.08% of hemicellulose recoveries with 34.09% of lignin removal in corncob. The reducing sugar yield from SP-pretreated corncob was 0.56 g/g after 72 hr of enzymatic hydrolysis, 1.75-folds higher than that from raw corncob...
March 12, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Marie-Françoise Devaux, Frédéric Jamme, William André, Brigitte Bouchet, Camille Alvarado, Sylvie Durand, Paul Robert, Luc Saulnier, Estelle Bonnin, Fabienne Guillon
Tracking enzyme localization and following the local biochemical modification of the substrate should help explain the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic plant cell walls to enzymatic degradation. Time-lapse studies using conventional imaging require enzyme labeling and following the biochemical modifications of biopolymers found in plant cell walls, which cannot be easily achieved. In the present work, synchrotron facilities have been used to image the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass without labeling the enzyme or the cell walls...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mickaël Herbaut, Aya Zoghlami, Anouck Habrant, Xavier Falourd, Loïc Foucat, Brigitte Chabbert, Gabriel Paës
Background: Biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis has been assigned to several structural and chemical factors. However, their relative importance remains challenging to evaluate. Three representative biomass species (wheat straw, poplar and miscanthus) were submitted to four standard pretreatments (dilute acid, hot water, ionic liquid and sodium chlorite) in order to generate a set of contrasted samples. A large array of techniques, including wet chemistry analysis, porosity measurements using NMR spectroscopy, electron and fluorescence microscopy, were used in order to determine possible generic factors of biomass recalcitrance...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Junfeng Li, Xianjun Yuan, Seare T Desta, Zhihao Dong, Wazha Mugabe, Tao Shao
Two bacteria strains with cellulolytic potential isolated from Tibetan yak (Bos grunniens) rumen were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (JF85) and Enterococcus faecium (Y83). Isolates grow well within a range of temperature 15 to 55 °C and pH 3.0-7.0, respectively. Two strains were inoculated with or without Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) to Pennisetum sinese silage for 90 days. All inoculants increased lactic acid content, decreased pH and lignocellulose contents compared with silage without additives (control)...
February 17, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yong-Hao Li, Xiao-Yue Zhang, Fei Zhang, Liang-Cai Peng, Da-Bing Zhang, Akihiko Kondo, Feng-Wu Bai, Xin-Qing Zhao
Background: Cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei are widely studied for biomass bioconversion, and enzymatic components vary depending on different inducers. In our previous studies, a mixture of glucose and disaccharide (MGD) was developed and used to induce cellulase production. However, the enzymatic profile induced by MGD is still not defined, and further optimization of the enzyme cocktail is also required for efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Bo Song, Bingyao Li, Xiaoyan Wang, Wei Shen, Sungjin Park, Cynthia Collings, Anran Feng, Steve J Smith, Jonathan D Walton, Shi-You Ding
Background: The high cost of enzymes is one of the key technical barriers that must be overcome to realize the economical production of biofuels and biomaterials from biomass. Supplementation of enzyme cocktails with lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) can increase the efficiency of these cellulase mixtures for biomass conversion. The previous studies have revealed that LPMOs cleave polysaccharide chains by oxidization of the C1 and/or C4 carbons of the monomeric units. However, how LPMOs enhance enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose is still poorly understood...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Alessandra Procentese, Francesca Raganati, Giuseppe Olivieri, Maria Elena Russo, Lars Rehmann, Antonio Marzocchella
Background: Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. Results: The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Kejing Zhang, Mengying Si, Dan Liu, Shengnan Zhuo, Mingren Liu, Hui Liu, Xu Yan, Yan Shi
Background: The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass offers a series of challenges for biochemical processing into biofuels and bio-products. For the first time, we address these challenges with a biomimetic system via a mild yet rapid Fenton reaction and lignocellulose-degrading bacterial strain Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 (here after B-8) to pretreat the rice straw (RS) by mimicking the natural fungal invasion process. Here, we also elaborated the mechanism through conducting a systematic study of physicochemical changes before and after pretreatment...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
L García-Calvo, R V Ullán, M Fernández-Aguado, A M García-Lino, R Balaña-Fouce, C Barreiro
Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the most abundant carbon source in the planet, which makes it a potential substrate for biorefinery. It consists of polysaccharides and other molecules with applications in pharmaceutical, food and feed, cosmetics, paper and textile industries. The exploitation of these resources requires the hydrolysis of the plant cell wall, which is a complex process. Aiming to discover novel fungal natural isolates with lignocellulolytic capacities, a screening for feruloyl esterase activity was performed in samples taken from different metal surfaces...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Martina Aulitto, Francesca Anna Fusco, Gabriella Fiorentino, Simonetta Bartolucci, Patrizia Contursi, Danila Limauro
The full utilization of hemicellulose sugars (pentose and exose) present in lignocellulosic material, is required for an efficient bio-based fuels and chemicals production. Two recombinant thermophilic enzymes, an endo-1,4-β-mannanase from Dictyoglomus turgidum (DturCelB) and an α-galactosidase from Thermus thermophilus (TtGalA), were assayed at 80 °C, to assess their heterosynergystic association on galactomannans degradation, particularly abundant in hemicellulose. The enzymes were tested under various combinations simultaneously and sequentially, in order to estimate the optimal conditions for the release of reducing sugars...
April 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Huan Zhou, Liuyang Wang, Yun Liu
Background: Efficient enzymatic conversion of recalcitrant crystalline cellulose is critical for enabling cost-effective industrial conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels and chemicals. Fully understanding enzyme digestion mechanism is paving a new way to design efficient process for biomass conversion. Accordingly, a continuing drive is inspiring to discover new routes to promote crystalline cellulose disruption. Results: Herein, a physico-chemical oxidative cleavage strategy of irradiation oxidation/post-reduction (IOPR) was employed to treat crystalline cellulose I to cleave glycosidic bonds association with some new oxidized and reduced chain ends, thus boosting downstream degradation by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Novi Syaftika, Yukihiko Matsumura
We herein investigated the effect of hemicellulose and lignin on the hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for glucose production from cellulose in terms of structural cross-linking between cellulose and the above components. A comparison was made between the hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass and a mixture containing the individual model compounds in the same composition ratio. Thus, rice straw biomass and the mixture containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin were treated in an autoclave reactor at temperatures between 150 and 250 °C for 30 min...
January 29, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jun Liu, Ann-Sofie Leppänen, Victor Kisonen, Stefan Willför, Chunlin Xu, Francisco Vilaplana
Accurate determination of the distribution of substitutions in the primary molecular structure of heteropolysaccharides and their derivatives is a prerequisite for their increasing application in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields, which is unfortunately hindered due to the lack of effective analytical techniques. Acetylated galactoglucomannan (GGM) is an abundant plant polysaccharide as the main hemicellulose in softwoods, and therefore constitutes an important renewable resource from lignocellulosic biomass for the development of bioactive and functional materials...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Noah D Weiss, Claus Felby, Lisbeth G Thygesen
OBJECTIVES: The biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals provides new challenges for industrial scale processes. One such process, which has received little attention, but is of great importance for efficient product recovery, is solid-liquid separations, which may occur both after pretreatment and after the enzymatic hydrolysis steps. Due to the changing nature of the solid biomass during processing, the solid-liquid separation properties of the biomass can also change...
February 1, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Daehwan Kim
A pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to produce biofuels, polymers, and other chemicals plays a vital role in the biochemical conversion process toward disrupting the closely associated structures of the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin molecules. Various pretreatment steps alter the chemical/physical structure of lignocellulosic materials by solubilizing hemicellulose and/or lignin, decreasing the particle sizes of substrate and the crystalline portions of cellulose, and increasing the surface area of biomass...
February 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Larissa Maehara, Sandra C Pereira, Adilson J Silva, Cristiane S Farinas
The efficient use of renewable lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain biofuels and other bioproducts is a key requirement for a sustainable biobased economy. This requires novel and effective strategies to reduce the cost contribution of the cellulolytic enzymatic cocktails needed to convert the carbohydrates into simple sugars, in order to make large-scale commercial processes economically competitive. Here, we propose the use of the whole solid-state fermentation (SSF) medium of mixed filamentous fungi as an integrated one-pot strategy for on-site enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production...
February 1, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
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