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nickel poisoning

Maria Cristina Monti, Davide Guido, Cristina Montomoli, Claudia Sardu, Alessandro Sanna, Salvatore Pretti, Lorena Lorefice, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Paolo Valera, Eleonora Cocco
BACKGROUND: South-Western Sardinia (SWS) is a high risk area for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with high prevalence and spatial clustering; its population is genetically representative of Sardinians and presents a peculiar environment. We evaluated the MS environmental risk of specific heavy metals (HM) and geographical factors such as solar UV exposure and urbanization by undertaking a population-based cross-sectional study in SWS. METHODS: Geochemical data on HM, UV exposure, urbanization and epidemiological MS data were available for all SWS municipalities...
2016: PloS One
Evangelia Liakoni, Fabio Walther, Christian H Nickel, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with dose-dependent sedative effects. Systematic data on the acute toxicity of GHB from emergency department (ED) presentations over a long period of time are currently missing from the literature. The present study described the clinical features of GHB toxicity. METHODS: Retrospective case series of GHB intoxications seen in an urban ED. RESULTS: From January 2002 to September 2015, 78 GHB-related intoxication cases were recorded (71 % male patients)...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Nahury Castellanos-Blanco, Alma Arévalo, Juventino J García
We report a nickel(0)-catalyzed direct transfer hydrogenation (TH) of a variety of alkyl-aryl, diaryl, and aliphatic ketones with ethanol. This protocol implies a reaction in which a primary alcohol serves as a hydrogen atom source and solvent in a one-pot reaction without any added base. The catalytic activity of the nickel complex [(dcype)Ni(COD)] (e) (dcype: 1,2-bis(dicyclohexyl-phosphine)ethane, COD: 1,5-cyclooctadiene), towards transfer hydrogenation (TH) of carbonyl compounds using ethanol as the hydrogen donor was assessed using a broad scope of ketones, giving excellent results (up to 99% yield) compared to other homogeneous phosphine-nickel catalysts...
September 14, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Olufunmilayo E Adejumo, Pius S Fasinu, Judith E Odion, Boladale O Silva, Timothy O Fajemirokun
Heavy metals are known to disrupt important physiological processes in living cells, and have been responsible for various pathological conditions with possible contributions to cancer development. Food contamination have been identified as one of the ways humans are exposed to heavy metals. In developing countries like Nigeria, the regulatory framework for enforcing compliance with globally acceptable exposure to deleterious contaminants is poor. In the current study, thirteen samples of cured meat products of diverse origin marketed in South-west Nigeria were evaluated for lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel contents using the atomic absorption spectroscopy technique...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Ole Andersen, Jan Aaseth
Most acute and chronic human metal poisonings are due to oral or inhalation exposure. Almost 80% of published animal experiments on chelation in metal poisoning used single or repeated intraperitoneal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of metal and chelator, impeding extrapolation to clinical settings. Intramuscular administration of dimercaptopropanol (BAL) has until now been used in acute arsenic, lead, and mercury poisonings, but repeated BAL administration increased the brain uptake of As, Pb and Hg in experimental animals...
April 9, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Roberto Cappelletti, Marcello Ceppi, Justina Claudatus, Valerio Gennaro
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine if the workers of an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF), which recycles scrap, had higher mortality and morbidity due to possible exposure to pollutants at work. EAFs do not run on coke ovens. In EAFs 40 % of the particulate matter (PM) is made up of PM 2.5. The foundry dust contained iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese, lead, chromium, nickel, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Hanping Ding, Zetian Tao, Shun Liu, Jiujun Zhang
Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0...
2015: Scientific Reports
Wenjing Huang, Hongtao Wang, Jigang Zhou, Jian Wang, Paul N Duchesne, David Muir, Peng Zhang, Na Han, Feipeng Zhao, Min Zeng, Jun Zhong, Chuanhong Jin, Yanguang Li, Shuit-Tong Lee, Hongjie Dai
Active and durable electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction are of critical importance to the commercial viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology. Unfortunately, current methanol oxidation electrocatalysts fall far short of expectations and suffer from rapid activity degradation. Here we report platinum-nickel hydroxide-graphene ternary hybrids as a possible solution to this long-standing issue. The incorporation of highly defective nickel hydroxide nanostructures is believed to play the decisive role in promoting the dissociative adsorption of water molecules and subsequent oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison on neighbouring platinum sites...
November 25, 2015: Nature Communications
Christine E Baer, Danielle L Ippolito, Naissan Hussainzada, John A Lewis, David A Jackson, Jonathan D Stallings
To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively). Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure...
December 2014: Genomics Data
Joseph M Falkowski, Nolan M Concannon, Bing Yan, Yogesh Surendranath
Electrodeposited thin films and nanoparticles of Ni3S2 are highly active, poison- and corrosion-resistant catalysts for oxygen reduction to water at neutral pH. In pH 7 phosphate buffer, Ni3S2 displays catalytic onset at 0.8 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, a Tafel slope of 109 mV decade(-1), and high faradaic efficiency for four-electron reduction of O2 to water. Under these conditions, the activity and stability of Ni3S2 exceeds that of polycrystalline platinum and manganese, nickel, and cobalt oxides, illustrating the catalytic potential of pairing labile first-row transition metal active sites with a more covalent sulfide host lattice...
July 1, 2015: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jonathan Matthews, Aafke M Schipper, A Jan Hendriks, T T Yen Le, Abraham Bij de Vaate, Gerard van der Velde, Rob S E W Leuven
Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall...
August 2015: Environmental Pollution
Danuta Dudek-Adamska, Teresa Lech, Paweł Kościelniak
In this article, optimization and validation of a procedure for the determination of total nickel in wet digested samples of human body tissues (internal organs) for forensic toxicological purposes are presented. Four experimental setups of the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using a Solaar MQZe (Thermo Electron Co.) were compared, using the following (i) no modifier, (ii) magnesium nitrate, (iii) palladium nitrate and (iv) magnesium nitrate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate mixture as chemical modifiers...
July 2015: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Anna Sarah Messmer, Christian Hans Nickel, Dirk Bareiss
Background. Methemoglobin (MetHb) most commonly results from exposure to an oxidizing chemical but may also arise from genetic, dietary, or even idiopathic etiologies. P-chloroaniline (PCA) was one of the first substances described in the context of acquired methemoglobinemia. Case Report. We report the case of a cyanotic chemistry worker who presented to our emergency department (ED) after working with PCA. His peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) measured by pulse oximetry was at 81% and remained on that level despite oxygen administration (100% oxygenation via nonrebreather mask)...
2015: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
Thomas Bacquart, Seth Frisbie, Erika Mitchell, Laurie Grigg, Christopher Cole, Colleen Small, Bibudhendra Sarkar
In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh...
June 1, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
Dianyun Zhao, Caixia Xu
The nanoporous (NP) PdNi alloy is easily fabricated by one-step mild dealloying of PdNiAl precursor alloy in NaOH solution. Characterized by the nanoporous network architecture with the ligament size as small as 5nm, NP-PdNi alloy exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of H2O2 and glucose compared with NP-Pd and Pd/C catalysts. The electrochemical sensor constructed based on NP-PdNi alloy shows high sensing performance towards H2O2 and glucose with a wide linear range, long-term stability, and fast amperometric response...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chunmao Chen, Ji Yu, Brandon A Yoza, Qing X Li, Gang Wang
Catalytic ozonation is a promising wastewater treatment technology. However, the high cost of the catalyst hinders its application. A novel "wastes-treat-wastes" technology was developed to reuse spent fluid catalytic cracking catalysts (sFCCc) for the ozonation of petrochemical wastewater in this study. Multivalent vanadium (V(4+) and V(5+)), iron (Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) oxides that are distributed on the surface of sFCCc and poisoned FCC catalysts are the catalytic components for ozonation...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Environmental Management
J Borau-Garcia, D V Gutsulyak, R J Burford, W E Piers
The (PCP)Ni-OH complexes (R = (i)Pr, (t)Bu, Cy) are effective catalyst precursors for the selective hydration of nitriles to the corresponding amides under relatively mild conditions (80 °C) and low catalyst loadings (0.05-0.5%). Substrate scope includes aliphatic, vinylic and aromatic nitriles, but substrates with protic groups poison the catalyst abruptly. The catalysts are effective because the electron rich nature of the PCP ligands and their steric bulk renders the hydroxo group labile.
July 21, 2015: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Xinlei Pan, Jing Yan, Aalapi Patel, Vicki H Wysocki, Charles E Bell
λ Exonuclease (λexo) is a highly processive 5'-3' exonuclease that binds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) ends and digests the 5'-strand into mononucleotides. The enzyme forms a toroidal homotrimer with a central tapered channel for tracking along the DNA. During catalysis, dsDNA enters the open end of the channel, and the 5'-strand is digested at one of the three active sites. It is currently not known if λexo uses a sequential mechanism, in which the DNA moves from one active site to the next around the trimer for each round of catalysis or a nonsequential mechanism, in which the DNA locks onto a single active site for multiple rounds...
January 27, 2015: Biochemistry
Hongjin Lv, Weiwei Guo, Kaifeng Wu, Zheyuan Chen, John Bacsa, Djamaladdin G Musaev, Yurii V Geletii, Sarah M Lauinger, Tianquan Lian, Craig L Hill
A tetra-nickel-containing polyoxotungstate, Na6K4[Ni4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2]·32H2O (Na6K4-Ni4P2), has been synthesized in high yield and systematically characterized. The X-ray crystal structure confirms that a tetra-nickel cluster core [Ni4O14] is sandwiched by two trivacant, heptadentate [PW9O34](9-) POM ligands. When coupled with (4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-dipyridyl)-bis(2-phenylpyridine(1H))-iridium(III) hexafluorophosphate [Ir(ppy)2(dtbbpy)][PF6] as photosensitizer and triethanolamine (TEOA) as sacrificial electron donor, the noble-metal-free complex Ni4P2 works as an efficient and robust molecular catalyst for H2 production upon visible light irradiation...
October 8, 2014: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yanlai Han, Weile Yan
The incorporation of catalytic metals on iron nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) generates a class of highly reactive materials for degrading chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene, TCE) in groundwater. Successful implementation of BNPs to groundwater decontamination relies critically on the stability of surface reactive sites of BNPs in groundwater matrices. This study investigated the effect of common groundwater solutes on TCE reduction with Ni-Fe (with Ni at 2 wt.%) bimetallic nanoparticles (herein denoted as Ni-Fe BNPs)...
December 1, 2014: Water Research
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