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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677702/is-the-pelvis-sexually-dimorphic-in-turtles
#1
Gerardo A Cordero
Variation in the pelvis is intrinsically linked to life history evolution. This is perhaps best exemplified by sexually dimorphic pelvic variation in bipedal primates. Yet, whether this trend is applicable to other taxa is unclear. Using turtle anatomy as a model, I tested the hypothesis that the pelvis is also sexually dimorphic in egg-laying tetrapods. I sampled a natural turtle population with female-biased sexual size dimorphism (i.e. larger females). I show that the area of the egg canal (pelvic aperture) is greater in females...
April 20, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677699/-epidemic-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-prisoners-compared-to-the-german-population-an-analysis-based-on-laboratory-results
#2
Friedrich Pürner, Merle M Böhmer, Manfred Wildner
OBJECTIVE: Effects of long-term imprisonment on the vitamin D (vitD) status of prison inmates in Germany have not been systematically assessed so far. Special circumstances in prisons - little sunlight exposure combined with restricted outdoor activities - may lead to vitD deficiency among prisoners. The aim of this study was to assess the vitD status of prisoners and the general population in order to quantify the extent of vitD deficiency in both groups. METHODS: VitD status (25(OH)D in blood serum samples) was assessed in female inmates of a prison in southern Germany between May 2012-June 2013...
April 20, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677691/iodine-status-of-pregnant-women-from-a-coastal-brazilian-state-after-the-reduction-in-recommended-iodine-concentration-in-table-salt-according-to-governmental-requirements
#3
Débora Ayres Saraiva, Nathalie Anne de Oliveira E Silva de Morais, Carolina Martins Corcino, Tatiana Martins Benvenuto Louro Berbara, Annie Schtscherbyna, Mischelle Santos, Heron Botelho, Mario Vaisman, Patrícia de Fátima Dos Santos Teixeira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate iodine status among pregnant women from a coastal state after Brazilian governmental resolution reducing iodine concentrations in table salt. Secondarily, we correlated urinary iodine concentration (UIC) with thyroid volume and hormones. METHODS: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to assess UIC from 629 samples of 244 first trimester pregnant women. Thyroid ultrasound, serum thyroglobulin, thyrotropin, free thyroxine, and antithyroid antibodies were measured as iodine concentrations on samples of table salt from patient's home...
February 14, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677687/endothelial-dysfunction-as-a-long-term-effect-of-late-onset-hypertensive-pregnancy-disorders-high-bmi-is-key
#4
L J Alma, C J M De Groot, R X De Menezes, W Hermes, P L Hordijk, I Kovačević
OBJECTIVE: Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy increase cardiovascular risk later in life by 2 to 9-fold. Endothelial activation is one of the underlying mechanisms of cardiovascular risk. Therefore, we decided to investigate endothelial activation in primiparous women, 2.5 years after a hypertensive pregnancy disorder. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma samples were taken from women 2.5 years after gestational hypertension (GH) or late onset preeclampsia (cases) and from women 2...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677646/adjuvant-strategies-to-improve-vaccination-of-the-elderly-population
#5
REVIEW
Birgit Weinberger
Immunosenescence contributes to increased incidence and severity of many infections in old age and is responsible for impaired immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Adjuvants are one strategy to enhance immunogenicity of vaccines. The oil-in-water emulsions MF59TM and AS03, as well as a virosomal vaccine have been licensed in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines and are/were used successfully in the elderly. AS01, a liposome-based adjuvant comprising two immunostimulants has recently been approved in a recombinant protein vaccine for older adults, which showed very high efficacy against herpes zoster in clinical trials...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677606/5-hz-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-comorbid-with-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Linda L Carpenter, Christine Conelea, Audrey R Tyrka, Emma S Welch, Benjamin D Greenberg, Lawrence H Price, Matthew Niedzwiecki, Agustin G Yip, Jennifer Barnes, Noah S Philip
BACKGROUND: Standard clinical protocols for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) apply 10 Hz pulses over left prefrontal cortex, yet little is known about the effects of rTMS in more diagnostically complex depressed patients. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly comorbid with MDD, and while rTMS has been shown to alleviate PTSD symptoms in preliminary studies, ideal parameters remain unclear...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677604/the-association-between-unemployment-and-depression-results-from-the-population-based-life-adult-study
#7
Andrea E Zuelke, Tobias Luck, Matthias L Schroeter, A Veronica Witte, Andreas Hinz, Christoph Engel, Cornelia Enzenbach, Silke Zachariae, Markus Loeffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
BACKGROUND: Unemployment is a risk factor for impaired mental health. Based on a large population-based sample, in this study we therefore sought to provide detailed information on the association between unemployment and depression including information on (i) differences between men and women, (ii) differences between different types of unemployment, and (iii) on the impact of material and social resources on the association. METHODS: We studied 4,842 participants (18-65 years) of the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677595/bioherbicides-current-knowledge-on-weed-control-mechanism
#8
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Weed control is a challenging event during crop cultivation. Integrated management, including the application of bioherbicides, is an emerging method for weed control in sustainable agriculture. Plant extracts, allelochemicals and some microbes are utilized as bioherbicides to control weed populations. Bioherbicides based on plants and microbes inhibit the germination and growth of weeds; however,few studies conducted in weed physiology. This review ascribes the current knowledge of the physiological changes in weeds that occur during the exposure to bioherbicides...
April 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677591/lifestyle-factors-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-population-based-incident-case-control-study
#9
Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Saharnaz Nedjat, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Ingrid van der Mei
OBJECTIVE: Although low sun exposure, low vitamin D, and smoking are established risk factor of multiple sclerosis (MS), there is less evidence on the role of the other lifestyle factors. We examined the association of sun exposure, physical activity, drug abuse, and alcohol intake with MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was population-based incident case-control study in Iran with 547 incident cases and 1057 general population controls (7/8/2013-17/2/2015). Logistic regression was used to analyse the data...
March 31, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677577/dna-typing-of-birch-development-of-a-forensic-str-system-for-betula-pendula-and-betula-pubescens
#10
Monique Wesselink, Aleksandar Dragutinović, Jeroen W Noordhoek, Leonie Bergwerff, Irene Kuiper
Although botanical trace evidence is often encountered in case investigations, the utilization of such traces in forensic investigations is still limited. Development of a forensic STR system for the two species of Betula (birch) indigenous to and abundant in North West Europe is a step in enhancing the applicability of traces from these species. We describe six microsatellite markers developed for birch species in detail, including repeat structure, and we propose a nomenclature for the encountered alleles...
April 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677560/effective-discovery-of-rare-variants-by-pooled-target-capture-sequencing-a-comparative-analysis-with-individually-indexed-target-capture-sequencing
#11
Seungjin Ryu, Jeehae Han, Trina M Norden-Krichmar, Nicholas J Schork, Yousin Suh
Identification of all genetic variants associated with complex traits is one of the most important goals in modern human genetics. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successfully applied to identify common variants, which thus far explain only small portion of heritability. Interests in rare variants have been increasingly growing as an answer for this missing heritability. While next-generation sequencing allows detection of rare variants, its cost is still prohibitively high to sequence a large number of human DNA samples required for rare variant association studies...
March 30, 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677556/prenatal-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-fetal-growth-in-british-girls
#12
Jill F Patel, Terryl J Hartman, Andreas Sjodin, Kate Northstone, Ethel V Taylor
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that bioaccumulate in the food chain. PCBs were used primarily for industrial applications due to their insulating and fire retardant properties, but were banned in the 1970s in the United States and in the 1980s in the United Kingdom, as adverse health effects following exposure were identified. Previous studies of populations with high PCB exposure have reported inverse associations with birth weight and gestational length. Birth weight is a powerful predictor of infant survival, and low birth weight can predispose infants to chronic conditions in adult life such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases...
April 17, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677537/the-rescue-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-on-sodium-iodate-induced-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-death-through-deactivation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-nlrp3-inflammasome
#13
Xiying Mao, Ting Pan, Han Shen, Huiyu Xi, Songtao Yuan, Qinghuai Liu
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease resulting in the gradual loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the permanent visual damage. Various risk factors, including oxidative stress, form a complex network at the confluence of inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is a well-studied population of adult stem cell with strong neuroprotective and immunoregulatory properties. Here, we reported the protective effect of MSC on sodium iodate (NaIO3)-triggered RPE degeneration. Sodium iodate (NaIO3)-induced RPE cell death was remarkably reduced when cocultured with MSC...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677510/physiological-and-genetic-adaptations-to-diving-in-sea-nomads
#14
Melissa A Ilardo, Ida Moltke, Thorfinn S Korneliussen, Jade Cheng, Aaron J Stern, Fernando Racimo, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Martin Sikora, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Simon Rasmussen, Inge C L van den Munckhof, Rob Ter Horst, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Suhartini Salingkat, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev
Understanding the physiology and genetics of human hypoxia tolerance has important medical implications, but this phenomenon has thus far only been investigated in high-altitude human populations. Another system, yet to be explored, is humans who engage in breath-hold diving. The indigenous Bajau people ("Sea Nomads") of Southeast Asia live a subsistence lifestyle based on breath-hold diving and are renowned for their extraordinary breath-holding abilities. However, it is unknown whether this has a genetic basis...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677481/mutation-analysis-of-short-tandem-repeats-in-a-population-sample-from-upper-silesia-southern-poland
#15
Kornelia Droździok, Jadwiga Kabiesz, Marcin Tomsia, Rafał Skowronek, Krzysztof Rębała
In paternity testing, DNA polymorphism analysis not only settles explicitly disputed paternity issue but also provides information on mutation frequencies in STR loci. In this study, insertion or deletion of one repetitive unit was observed in 38 of 32,391 meiotic transfers analysed in 953 paternity testing cases. Parentage samples from Upper Silesia (southern Poland) were examined in 2008-2014 with the use of three commercially available amplification kits: AmpFlSTR Identifiler (Applied Biosystems), PowerPlex 16 HS (Promega) and PowerPlex ESX 17 (Promega)...
April 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677460/association-of-environmental-exposure-to-heavy-metals-and-eczema-in-us-population-analysis-of-blood-cadmium-lead-and-mercury
#16
Jia Wei, Junfeng Jim Zhang, John S Ji
OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the association between blood heavy metal concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury with ever-report of eczema in the US population. METHODS: We used NHANES cross-sectional data from 2005-2006. Eczema was measured among 4509 adults and 3898 non-adults. The association between eczema and tertiles of concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury was estimated using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for different confounding variables...
April 20, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677399/outcomes-of-cryptococcosis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-in-a-less-resourced-health-care-system
#17
Vinicius Ponzio, Luis F A Camargo, José O Medina-Pestana, John R Perfect, Arnaldo L Colombo
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is the second most common cause of invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients in many countries, and data on graft outcome after treatment for this infection is lacking in less-resourced health care settings. METHODS: Data from 47 renal transplant recipients were retrospectively collected at a single institution during a period of 13 years. Graft dysfunction, graft loss and mortality rates were evaluated. Predictors of mortality and graft loss were estimated...
April 20, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677389/population-pharmacokinetics-of-intramuscular-and-intravenous-ketamine-in-children
#18
Christoph P Hornik, Daniel Gonzalez, John van den Anker, Andrew M Atz, Ram Yogev, Brenda B Poindexter, Kee Chong Ng, Paula Delmore, Barrie L Harper, Chiara Melloni, Andrew Lewandowski, Casey Gelber, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Jan Hau Lee
Ketamine is an N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonist used off-label to facilitate dissociative anesthesia in children undergoing invasive procedures. Available for both intravenous and intramuscular administration, ketamine is commonly used when vascular access is limited. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data in children are sparse, and the bioavailability of intramuscular ketamine in children is unknown. We performed 2 prospective PK studies of ketamine in children receiving either intramuscular or intravenous ketamine and combined the data to develop a pediatric population PK model using nonlinear mixed-effects methods...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677388/engulfment-of-hb-activated-platelets-differentiates-monocytes-into-pro-inflammatory-macrophages-in-pnh-patients
#19
Rashi Singhal, Sheetal Chawla, Harish Batra, Sameer Gupta, Amrita Ojha, Deepak K Rathore, Tulika Seth, Prasenjit Guchhait
The distinct response shown by different phenotypes of macrophages and monocytes under various clinical conditions have put the heterogeneity of these cells into focus of investigation for several diseases. Recently we have described that after engulfing Hb-activated platelets, classical monocytes differentiated into pro-inflammatory phenotypes, which were abundant in the circulation of PNH and SCD patients. Our current study shows that upon engulfment of Hb-activated platelets, monocytes differentiate into M1-macrophages under M1-polarization stimulus (GM-CSF, IFN-γ+LPS)...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677348/the-relationship-of-lid-wiper-epitheliopathy-to-ocular-surface-signs-and-symptoms
#20
Wing Li, Thao N Yeh, Tiana Leung, Tiffany Yuen, Mariel Lerma, Meng C Lin
Purpose: There has been interest in determining whether lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) plays a key role in causing ocular discomfort. Conflicting reports have made it difficult to discern whether LWE is more prevalent in certain populations, what characteristics are associated with its severity, and what its role is in symptomology. This cross-sectional study on a large and diverse population attempts to answer these questions. Methods: Subjects were asked to complete questionnaires related to dry eye and to ocular discomfort...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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