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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054128/combination-varenicline-bupropion-treatment-benefits-highly-dependent-smokers-in-an-adaptive-smoking-cessation-paradigm
#1
Jed E Rose, Frédérique M Behm
Introduction: This study replicated and extended results of a previous trial, which found that combination varenicline/bupropion treatment increased smoking abstinence in smokers who were male, highly dependent, and who did not respond to prequit nicotine patch treatment with a >50% reduction in expired-air carbon monoxide in the first week. Methods: One hundred and twenty-two male nicotine patch nonresponders and 52 responders were identified. Smokers in each group were randomized to receive 12 weeks of varenicline plus bupropion treatment versus varenicline plus placebo...
August 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054127/reducing-the-prevalence-of-smoking-policy-measures-and-focusing-on-specific-populations
#2
Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054124/historical-demography-and-colonisation-pathways-of-the-widespread-intertidal-seaweed-hormosira-banksii-phaeophyceae-in-southeastern-australia
#3
Rebecca Mueller, Jeffrey T Wright, Christopher J S Bolch
The palaeoceanography of southern Australia has been characterized by fluctuating sea levels during glacial periods, changing temperature regimes and modified boundary currents. Previous studies on genetic structuring of species in southeastern Australia have focused mainly on the differentiation of eastern and western populations while the potential role of Bass Strait as a region of overlap for three biogeographic provinces (Peronia, Maugea, and Flindersia) has been largely ignored. This study aimed to explore the likely roles of historic and contemporary factors in determining divergence patterns in the habitat-forming intertidal seaweed Hormosira banksii in southeastern Australia with a special focus on postglacial dispersal into Bass Strait...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054117/assessing-global-range-expansion-in-a-cryptic-species-complex-insights-from-the-red-seaweed-genus-asparagopsis-florideophyceae
#4
Marianela Zanolla, María Altamirano, Raquel Carmona, Julio De la Rosa, Virginia Souza-Egipsy, Alison Sherwood, Konstantinos Tsiamis, Ana Márcia Barbosa, Antonio Román Muñoz, Nikos Andreakis
The mitochondrial genetic diversity, distribution and invasive potential of multiple cryptic operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the red invasive seaweed Asparagopsis were assessed by studying introduced Mediterranean and Hawaiian populations. Invasive behavior of each Asparagopsis OTU was inferred from phylogeographic reconstructions, past historical demographic dynamics, recent range expansion assessments and future distributional predictions obtained from demographic models. Genealogical networks resolved Asparagopsis gametophytes and tetrasporophytes into four A...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054111/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-attenuates-the-decline-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Ryotaro Bouchi, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Yujiro Nakano, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Activation of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) has been reported to be associated with impairment of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle mass, presumably leading to loss of muscle function. This study was aimed to investigate whether the use of DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4i) could attenuate the progressive loss of muscle mass in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total 105 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 62 ± 12 years; 39% female) were studied in this retrospective observational study...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054110/mortality-burden-from-seasonal-influenza-and-2009-h1n1-pandemic-influenza-in-beijing-china-2007-2013
#6
REVIEW
Shuangsheng Wu, Zaihua Wei, Carolyn M Greene, Peng Yang, Jianting Su, Ying Song, A Danielle Iuliano, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Data about influenza mortality burden in northern China are limited. This study estimated mortality burden in Beijing associated with seasonal influenza from 2007-2013 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. METHODS: We estimated influenza-associated excess mortality by fitting a negative binomial model using weekly mortality data as the outcome of interest with the percent of influenza positive samples by type/subtype as predictor variables. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2013, an average of 2,375 (CI 1,002-8,688) deaths was attributed to influenza per season, accounting for 3% of all deaths...
October 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054106/age-of-diagnosis-incidence-and-prevalence-of-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-a-south-african-perspective
#7
R Y Seedat, R Schall
OBJECTIVES: To determine the distribution of the age of onset of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) and to determine the incidence and prevalence of RRP in both adults and children in the Free State province of South Africa in order to provide data from a population in sub-Saharan African. DESIGN: Retrospective record review. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the Free State province of South Africa between 2011 and 2015...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054103/preparedness-education-in-the-baccalaureate-nursing-curriculum-an-authentic-clinical-experience
#8
Dawn M Bowker, Brandi J Tomlinson
Healthy People 2020 supports the preparation of nurse graduates to assess emergency preparedness needs of defined populations and includes preparedness as one of its objectives. Natural disaster preparedness is addressed through the lens of community-centered care that meets the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses domains of patient-centered care and teamwork and collaboration. This article discusses the development of an authentic clinical experience through collaboration between the American Red Cross and a baccalaureate nursing program...
November 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054086/are-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-cognitive-skills-related-cross-country-evidence
#9
Bekhzod Omanbayev, Raufhon Salahodjaev, Richard Lynn
Are greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and cognitive skills (CS) related? We attempt to answer this question by exploring this relationship, using cross-country data for 150 countries, for the period 1997-2012. After controlling for the level of economic development, quality of political regimes, population size and a number of other controls, we document that CS robustly predict GHG. In particular, when CS at a national level increase by one standard deviation, the average annual rate of air pollution changes by nearly 1...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054085/species-specific-profiles-and-risk-assessment-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-coral-reef-fishes-from-the-south-china-sea
#10
Chang-Gui Pan, Ke-Fu Yu, Ying-Hui Wang, Rui-Jie Zhang, Xue-Yong Huang, Chao-Shuai Wei, Wei-Quan Wang, Wei-Bin Zeng, Zhen-Jun Qin
The contamination profiles of sixteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were examined in coral reef fish samples collected from the South China Sea (SCS) where no information about this topic was available in the literature. The results revealed that six PFAS were found in coral reef fish samples from the SCS. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most predominant PFAS contaminant detected in most of the samples, with the highest concentration value of 27.05 ng/g wet weight (ww) observed in Cephalopholis urodelus...
October 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054075/evaluation-of-immunological-markers-of-ovine-vaginal-irritation-implications-for-preclinical-assessment-of-non-vaccine-hiv-preventive-agents
#11
Gregg N Milligan, Gracie Vargas, Kathleen L Vincent, Yong Zhu, Nigel Bourne, Massoud Motamedi
The presence of genital inflammatory responses and a compromised vaginal epithelial barrier have been linked to an increased risk of HIV acquisition. It is important to assure that application of candidate microbicides designed to limit HIV transmission will not cause these adverse events. We previously developed high resolution in vivo imaging methodologies in sheep to assess epithelial integrity following vaginal application of a model microbicide, however characterization of genital inflammation in sheep has not been previously possible...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054044/metacognitive-deficits-in-categorization-tasks-in-a-population-with-impaired-inner-speech
#12
Peter Langland-Hassan, Christopher Gauker, Michael J Richardson, Aimee Dietz, Frank R Faries
This study examines the relation of language use to a person's ability to perform categorization tasks and to assess their own abilities in those categorization tasks. A silent rhyming task was used to confirm that a group of people with post-stroke aphasia (PWA) had corresponding covert language production (or "inner speech") impairments. The performance of the PWA was then compared to that of age- and education-matched healthy controls on three kinds of categorization tasks and on metacognitive self-assessments of their performance on those tasks...
October 17, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054033/hepatitis-c-antibody-prevalence-among-mexico-city-prisoners-injecting-legal-and-illegal-substances
#13
Omar Silverman-Retana, Edson Serván-Mori, Sandra I McCoy, Sarah Larney, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among prisoners and this prevalence estimates reach 64% among prisoners who inject illicit drugs. Prisons are important sites for HCV transmission in the absence of access to sterile injecting equipment; hence, it can be transmitted between prisoners who share contaminated needles and syringes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of risk factors for anti-HCV prevalence, with particular interest on injecting behavior, and to assess correlates of anti-HCV positivity among Mexico City prisoners...
October 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053982/a-longitudinal-test-of-the-predictions-of-the-interpersonal-psychological-theory-of-suicidal-behaviour-for-passive-and-active-suicidal-ideation-in-a-large-community-based-cohort
#14
Philip J Batterham, Jennie Walker, Liana S Leach, Jennifer Ma, Alison L Calear, Helen Christensen
BACKGROUND: The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) aims to elucidate the key antecedents of suicide deaths. Limited research has tested the IPTS in a community setting, and very little longitudinal research has been conducted. The current study longitudinally tested the predictions of the IPTS for suicidal ideation in a large population-based sample. METHODS: The PATH through Life study assesses three age cohorts (20's, 40's, 60's) every four years...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053979/associations-between-use-of-mood-stabilizers-and-risk-of-cataract-a-population-based-nested-case-control-study
#15
Che-Sheng Chu, Ching-Heng Lin, Tsuo-Hung Lan, Po-Han Chou
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether use of mood stabilizers (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cataract development. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A total of 14,288 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia were included; 7651 in the cataract group and 6637 in the control group. Based on overall cumulative period of MS (lithium, carbamazepine, valproate, and lamotrigine) treatment, we categorized into following groups: no use, and duration < 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and > 2 years...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053976/longitudinal-association-between-mental-disorders-in-childhood-and-subsequent-depression-a-nationwide-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Louise Krarup Gundel, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Søren Dalsgaard
BACKGROUND: Depression ranges among the most impairing mental disorders worldwide, and early detection is a global health priority. Little is known about the association between non-affective mental disorders in childhood/adolescence and later depression. METHODS: Nationwide register-based prospective cohort study, estimating cumulative incidences and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for later depression in individuals with and without non-affective mental disorders in early life...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053975/depression-among-female-heads-of-household-in-rural-mozambique-a-cross-sectional-population-based-survey
#17
Carolyn M Audet, Milton L Wainberg, Maria A Oquendo, Qiongru Yu, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Cristiane S Duarte, Samuel Martinho, Ann F Green, Lazaro González-Calvo, Troy D Moon
BACKGROUND: An estimated 350 million people live with depression worldwide. In Mozambique, there are no national data quantifying the burden of mental illnesses. With the sixth highest suicide rate in the world, there is strong evidence of an unmet mental health need. We conducted a survey to measure the prevalence of depression among female heads of household and assess individual, social, and cultural risk factors associated with a positive depression screening. METHODS: This survey was conducted across 14 rural districts in central Mozambique in 2014...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053934/quantification-of-mold-contamination-in-multi-level-buildings-using-the-environmental-relative-moldiness-index
#18
Stephen Vesper, Jean M Cox-Ganser, Larry Wymer, Ju-Hyeong Park
The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible use of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) to quantify mold contamination in multi-level, office buildings. Settled-dust samples were collected in multi-level, office buildings and the ERMI value for each sample determined. In the first study, a comparison was made between two identical four-story buildings. There were health complaints in one building but none in the other building. In the second study, mold contamination was evaluated on levels 6 through 19 of an office building with a history of water problems and health complaints...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053912/community-based-screening-of-hepatitis-c-with-a-one-step-rna-detection-algorithm-from-dried-blood-spots-analysis-of-key-populations-in-barcelona-spain
#19
V Saludes, C Folch, A Morales-Carmona, L Ferrer, L Fernández, R Muñoz, M Jiménez, E Loureiro, P Fernández-Dávila, E Bascuñana, J Casabona, E Martró
Alternative strategies are required to enhance the diagnosis of silent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hard-to-reach key populations at risk. Among them, HCV prevalence and bio-behavioural data is scarce for HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) and men and trans-women sex workers. We sought to describe and assess the potential benefits of a community-based one-step HCV screening and confirmatory strategy for these populations in Barcelona. The screening strategy based on a real-time RT-PCR assay for HCV-RNA detection in dried-blood spots (DBS) was validated and implemented in addition to an antibody point-of-care test in a community centre...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053909/impact-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-on-the-work-productivity-of-genotype-1-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-in-asia
#20
Zobair M Younossi, Henry Lik Yuen Chan, Yock Young Dan, Mei Hsuan Lee, Young-Suk Lim, Eliza Kruger, Seng Chuen Tan
Chronic, untreated hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with a poor clinical prognosis and a detrimental impact on patients' lives, including on work productivity. To estimate the value of productivity losses due to genotype 1 (GT1) HCV infection in Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan and to estimate the potential productivity gains associated with treating patients with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) therapy,an economic model was developed with a time horizon of one year. HCV patients entered the model at 12 weeks post-treatment, having achieved or not achieved sustained virological response (SVR)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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