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Mehdi Menai, Hélène Charreire, Pilar Galan, Chantal Simon, Julie-Anne Nazare, Camille Perchoux, Christiane Weber, Christophe Enaux, Serge Hercberg, Léopold Fezeu, Jean-Michel Oppert
BACKGROUND: Research on the associations between walking and cycling with obesity-related phenotypes is growing but relies mostly on the use of BMI. The purpose of this study was to analyze associations of walking and cycling behaviors assessed separately with various obesity markers in French adults. METHODS: In 12,776 adult participants (71.3% women) of the on-going NutriNet Santé web-cohort, we assessed by self-report past-month walking and cycling (for commuting, errands and leisure), and obesity measures were taken during a visit at a clinical center (weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat by bioimpedance)...
June 22, 2018: Obesity Facts
Pan Lu, Shan Lei, Weisong Li, Yang Lu, Juan Zheng, Ning Wang, Yongjun Xia, Haixia Lu, Xinlin Chen, Yong Liu, Peng-Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ketamine inhibits the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and disturbs normal neurogenesis. Dexmedetomidine provides neuroprotection against volatile anesthetic-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment in the developing brain. Whether it may protect NSCs from ketamine-induced injury remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of dexmedetomidine on ketamine-exposed NSCs and explored the mechanisms potentially involved. METHODS: Primary NSC cultures were characterized using immunofluorescence...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Paulina Schuller, Alejandra Castillo, Gabriele Voigt, Natalia Semioshkina
The root uptake of radiocaesium by different plant parts of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata) and the potential influence of K-fertilising on the transfer behaviour was studied in allophanic volcanic soils (umbric andosol and dystric fluvisol) in Chile under temperate climate and heavy rainfall conditions (∼2660 mm y-1 ) over several vegetation periods. The soils were spiked homogeneously to 0.20 m depth with 100 kBq 134 Cs m-2 and activity concentrations measured...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Samuel Pitcairn, Bryson Lesniak, William Anderst
BACKGROUND: The patellofemoral (PF) joint is a common site for non-specific anterior knee pain. The pathophysiology of patellofemoral pain may be related to abnormal motion of the patella relative to the femur, leading to increased stress at the patellofemoral joint. Patellofemoral motion cannot be accurately measured using conventional motion capture. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a biplane radiography system for measuring in vivo PF motion during walking and stair ascent...
June 18, 2018: Gait & Posture
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: There is just one study comparing the effectiveness of cytisine and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation. In the Russian Federation, both products are widely available as over-the-counter medications. Data on the real-world use of these medications among the general population would be informative. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from a nationally representative household survey of adults aged ≥ 15 years from the Russian Federation (part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data)...
June 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Youbing Zhu, Shuili Yu, Bing Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Dongsheng Zhao, Zhengyang Gu, Chao Gong, Guicai Liu
Alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding wastewater is highly caustic, and membrane fouling is the main obstacle during ASP ultrafiltration (UF) treatment. To maintain favorable filtration performance, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes were implemented here, and their antifouling properties and mechanisms were investigated based on the threshold flux theory. Compared with the PVDF membranes, the PTFE membranes exhibited superior antifouling properties with lower reductions in flux and smaller hydraulic resistance, and they presented a nearly identical pseudo-stable fouling rate at a later time point...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bin Fu, Pei Xu, Yukuan Wang, Kun Yan, Suresh Chaudhary
Ponds are an important ecosystem in rural landscapes. They play an important role in water retention, aquatic products supply and biodiversity conservation. By using a questionnaire-based survey of rural households in a small watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, we analyzed the distribution of ponds, their size and current status. The Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model was used to evaluate the regulation, provision and culture services of the ponds. We found that pond density was high throughout hilly areas...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ellen Jessica Kayendeke, Frank Kansiime, Helen K French, Yazidhi Bamutaze
Papyrus wetlands are predominant in permanently inundated areas of tropical Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and offer both provisioning and regulatory services. Although a wealth of literature exists on wetland functions, the seasonal behaviour of the papyrus mat and function in water storage has received less attention. The objective of this study was to assess the response of the papyrus root mat to changing water levels in a tropical wetland system in Eastern Uganda. We delineated seven transects through a section of a wetland system and mapped wetland bathymetry along these transects...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kailin Liu, Ying He, Shiji Xu, Lifeng Hu, Kun Luo, Xiangying Liu, Min Liu, Xiaomao Zhou, Lianyang Bai
The existing form of an ionizable organic compound can simultaneously affect its soil adsorption and plant bioactivity. In this experiment, the adsorption and bioactivity of two weak acid herbicides (WAHs), imazethapyr and 2,4-D, were studied to explore the predominant mechanism by which the soil pH and the addition of biochar can influence the phytotoxicity of WAHs in soil. Then, the WAH concentration extracted by hollow fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction (CHF-LPME ), the in situ pore water concentration (CIPW ) and the added concentration (CAC ) were employed to estimate the phytotoxicity...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alfredo Santovito, Claudio Gendusa, Francesca Ferraro, Irene Musso, Maria Costanzo, Stefano Ruberto, Piero Cervella
Chlorothalonil is an important broad spectrum fungicide widely used in agriculture, silviculture, and urban settings. As a result of its massive use, chlorothalonil was found in all environmental matrices, with consequent risks to the health of terrestrial and aquatic organisms, as well as for humans. We analyzed the effects of chlorothalonil on human lymphocytes using in vitro chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNi) assays. Lymphocytes were exposed to five concentrations of chlorothalonil: 0.600 µg/mL, 0...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yang Song, Ling-Lei Zhang, Jia Li, Xiao-Jia He, Min Chen, Yun Deng
Water contamination by nickel (Ni) has become an increasing concern in recent decades. Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle has been recognized as a promising accumulator of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in phytoremediation, but its Ni-accumulation characteristics and its mechanisms of tolerance to Ni remain largely unknown. This research investigated the biochemical responses of leaves and stems of H. verticillata to various concentrations of Ni (5, 10, 15, 20, and 40 μM) over periods of 7, 14, or 21 days...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Youqiang Fu, Xujian Yang, Hong Shen
Iron plaque (IP) on root surface can enhance the tolerance of plants to environmental stresses. However, it remains unclear the impact of Fe2+ on cadmium (Cd) toxicity to rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings. In this study, the effects of different Fe2+ and Cd2+ concentration combinations on rice growth were examined hydroponically. Results indicated that Fe2+ concentration up to 3.2 mM did not damage rice roots while induced IP formation obviously. Cd2+ of 10 μM repressed rice growth significantly, while the addition of 0...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Noura Kka, James Rookes, David Cahill
Cell division is a fundamental biological process governed by molecular networks that are initiated in the apical meristems of plants. l-ascorbic acid (AsA) commonly known as vitamin C is a crucial molecular modulator involved in cell proliferation. In this study, we used AsA application to Arabidopsis and four AsA pathway mutants to investigate the influence of AsA on the root apical meristem (RAM) and root growth. Treatment of seeds of wild-type Col-0 with AsA prior to sowing showed a significant increase in the activity of cell division of the RAM, root growth rate and root length when compared with untreated seeds...
June 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chao Zhou, Ylenia Carotenuto, Valentina Vitiello, Changwen Wu, Jianshe Zhang, Isabella Buttino
The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa is a reference species in standardized ecotoxicology bioassay. Despite this interest, there is a lack of knowledge on molecular responses of A. tonsa to contaminants. We generated a de novo assembled transcriptome of A. tonsa exposed 4 days to 8.5 and 17 mg/L nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), which have been shown to reduce egg hatching success and larval survival but had no effects on the adults. Aims of our study were to 1) improve the knowledge on the molecular responses of A...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Francisco Sánchez-Soberón, Matthias Cuykx, Noemí Serra, Victoria Linares, Montserrat Bellés, Adrian Covaci, Marta Schuhmacher
In this pilot study three fractions of particulate matter (PM0.25 , PM2.5-0.25 , and PM10-2.5 ) were collected in three environments (classroom, home, and outdoors) in a village located nearby an industrial complex. Time-activity pattern of 20 students attending the classroom was obtained, and the dose of particles reaching the children's lungs under actual environmental conditions (i.e. real dose) was calculated via dosimetry model. The highest PM concentrations were reached in the classroom. Simulations showed that heavy intensity outdoor activities played a major role in PM deposition, especially in the upper part of the respiratory tract...
June 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Upendra K Sharma, Dinesh Mohanakrishnan, Nandini Sharma, Danish Equbal, Dinkar Sahal, Arun K Sinha
The inherent affinity of natural compounds for biological receptors has been comprehensively exploited with great success for the development of many drugs, including antimalarials. Here the natural flavoring compound vanillin has been used as an economical precursor for the synthesis of a series of novel bischalcones whose in vitro antiplasmodial activities have been evaluated against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Bischalcones 9, 11 and 13 showed promising antiplasmodial activity {Chloroquine (CQ) sensitive Pf3D7 IC50 (μM): 2...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Nilantha Bandara, Tamila J Stott Reynolds, Rebecca Schehr, Rajendra P Bandari, Philipp J Diebolder, Stephanie Krieger, Jingli Xu, Yubin Miao, Buck E Rogers, Charles J Smith
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we describe development of a true matched-pair theranostic agent that is able to target the αV β3 integrin and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). We herein describe methods to metallate and characterize the new conjugate and to validate its biological efficacy by in vitro and in vivo methods. METHODS: We have previously described the development of [RGD-Glu-6Ahx-RM2] (where RGD: Arg-Gly-Asp; Glu: glutamic acid; 6-Ahx: 6-amino hexanoic acid; RM2: (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2)) that has been conjugated to a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) bifunctional chelating agent (BFCA) to afford [RGD-Glu-[DO3A]-6-Ahx-RM2] peptide...
June 8, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Falguni Basuli, Xiang Zhang, Mark R Williams, Jurgen Seidel, Michael V Green, Peter L Choyke, Rolf E Swenson, Elaine M Jagoda
INTRODUCTION: Equilibrium single-photon radionuclide imaging methods for assessing cardiac function and the integrity of the vascular system have long been in use for both clinical and research purposes. However, positron-emitting blood pool agents that could provide PET equivalents to these (and other) clinical procedures have not yet been adopted despite technical imaging advantages offered by PET. Our goal was to develop a PET blood pool tracer that not only meets necessary in vivo biological requirements but can be produced with an uncomplicated and rapid synthesis method which would facilitate clinical translation...
May 30, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Dehua Zhao, Miao Zhang, Zhe Liu, Jing Sheng, Shuqing An
Cold-season macrophytes were configured in a system of stabilization ponds (SPs) and batch operation constructed wetlands (BCWs) to supply a carbon source for low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) effluent in spring and summer without generating secondary pollution during the decomposition process. For eutrophic water, the macrophyte configuration increased the average removal efficiency (RE) from 41.6% to 68.6% and from 70.2% to 83.7% for NO3 - -N and TN in the final BCW effluent, respectively, with the concentrations decreasing from 3...
June 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xiongying Shi, Gaoting Zhou, Shuijiao Liao, Shiping Shan, Gejiao Wang, Zhaohui Guo
This study prepared immobilized Alishewanella sp. WH16-1 using alginate and lotus seed pods as a matrix and investigated the effects of its immobilization on Cd2+ in a culture solution and in soil. Compared with the free WH16-1 strain, the immobilized WH16-1 strain possessed greater stability for long-term use and storage and higher removal ability for Cd2+ in the culture solution. A model of Cd2+ removal by the immobilized WH16-1 strain was proposed. The immobilized WH16-1 strain was incubated in the pot experiments of Cd-contaminated paddy soil for 120 days, and the pot experiments of Cd-contaminated paddy soil without the immobilized WH16-1 strain were used as a control...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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