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chromium poisoning

Amy L Wolfe, Richard T Wilkin
We evaluated water quality characteristics in the northern Raton Basin of Colorado and documented the response of the Poison Canyon aquifer system several years after upward migration of methane gas occurred from the deeper Vermejo Formation coalbed production zone. Results show persistent secondary water quality impacts related to the biodegradation of methane. We identify four distinct characteristics of groundwater-methane attenuation in the Poison Canyon aquifer: (i) consumption of methane and sulfate and production of sulfide and bicarbonate, (ii) methane loss coupled to production of higher molecular weight (C2+) gaseous hydrocarbons, (iii) patterns of (13)C enrichment and depletion in methane and dissolved inorganic carbon, and (iv) a systematic shift in sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate, indicative of microbial sulfate reduction...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Pan Hao, Yiran Zhu, Shenghua Wang, Huiyu Wan, Peng Chen, Yang Wang, Ziqiang Cheng, Yongxia Liu, Jianzhu Liu
Selenium (Se) can play a protective role against heavy metal toxicity. This experiment aims to evaluate the effect of Se supplementation at different doses on the chicken brains. Oxidative stress was induced in the chicken brains by chromium(VI). A total of 105 Hyland brown male chickens were randomly divided into seven groups, including the control group, poisoned group [6%LD50 K2Cr2O7 body weight (B.W.)], and detoxification groups K2Cr2O7 (6%LD50) + Se (0.31, 0.63, 1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 Na2SeO3 mg/kg B.W...
December 24, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Maria Cristina Monti, Davide Guido, Cristina Montomoli, Claudia Sardu, Alessandro Sanna, Salvatore Pretti, Lorena Lorefice, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Paolo Valera, Eleonora Cocco
BACKGROUND: South-Western Sardinia (SWS) is a high risk area for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with high prevalence and spatial clustering; its population is genetically representative of Sardinians and presents a peculiar environment. We evaluated the MS environmental risk of specific heavy metals (HM) and geographical factors such as solar UV exposure and urbanization by undertaking a population-based cross-sectional study in SWS. METHODS: Geochemical data on HM, UV exposure, urbanization and epidemiological MS data were available for all SWS municipalities...
2016: PloS One
Olufunmilayo E Adejumo, Pius S Fasinu, Judith E Odion, Boladale O Silva, Timothy O Fajemirokun
Heavy metals are known to disrupt important physiological processes in living cells, and have been responsible for various pathological conditions with possible contributions to cancer development. Food contamination have been identified as one of the ways humans are exposed to heavy metals. In developing countries like Nigeria, the regulatory framework for enforcing compliance with globally acceptable exposure to deleterious contaminants is poor. In the current study, thirteen samples of cured meat products of diverse origin marketed in South-west Nigeria were evaluated for lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel contents using the atomic absorption spectroscopy technique...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Andrea Giampreti, Davide Lonati, Benedetta Ragghianti, Anna Ronchi, Valeria Margherita Petrolini, Sarah Vecchio, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli
Systemic toxicity associated with cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) containing metal hip alloy may result in neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, and hypothyroidism. However clinical management concerning chelating therapy is still debated in literature. Here are described two metal-on-metal hip-implanted patients in which N-acetyl-cysteine decreased elevated blood metal levels. A 67-year-old male who underwent Co/Cr hip implant in September 2009 referred to our Poison Control Centre for persisting elevated Co/Cr blood levels (from March 2012 to November 2014)...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Soraia Younan, Gabriel Z Sakita, Talita R Albuquerque, Rogéria Keller, Hermann Bremer-Neto
Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body...
September 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Rehab Hegazy, Abeer Salama, Dina Mansour, Azza Hassan
Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal widely used in more than 50 industries. Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of chromium poisoning. The present study investigated the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin (Lf) against potassium dichromate (PDC)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. Beside, because previous studies suggest that interlukin-18 (IL-18) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play important roles in promoting kidney damage, the present work aimed to evaluate the involvement of these two cytokines in PDC model of AKI and in the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin...
2016: PloS One
Roberto Cappelletti, Marcello Ceppi, Justina Claudatus, Valerio Gennaro
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine if the workers of an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF), which recycles scrap, had higher mortality and morbidity due to possible exposure to pollutants at work. EAFs do not run on coke ovens. In EAFs 40 % of the particulate matter (PM) is made up of PM 2.5. The foundry dust contained iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese, lead, chromium, nickel, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Yanhan Liu, Xiaona Zhao, Xiao Zhang, Xuejun Zhao, Yongxia Liu, Jianzhu Liu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of trivalent chromium on the contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in the heart, liver, and kidney. Different levels of 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 LD50 (LD50 = 5000 mg/kg body mass) CrCl3 milligrams per kilogram body mass daily were added into the water to establish the chronic poisoning model. Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were detected with the flame atomic absorption spectrometry in the organs exposed 14, 28, and 42 days to CrCl3, respectively...
June 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Kongfa Chen, Junji Hyodo, Aaron Dodd, Na Ai, Tatsumi Ishihara, Li Jian, San Ping Jiang
The effect of the presence of an Fe-Cr alloy metallic interconnect on the performance and stability of La(0.8)Sr(0.2)MnO3 (LSM) oxygen electrodes is studied for the first time under solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) operating conditions at 800 °C. The presence of the Fe-Cr interconnect accelerates the degradation and delamination processes of the LSM oxygen electrodes. The disintegration of LSM particles and the formation of nanoparticles at the electrode/electrolyte interface are much faster as compared to that in the absence of the interconnect...
2015: Faraday Discussions
Aminur Rahman, Noor Nahar, Neelu N Nawani, Jana Jass, Khaled Hossain, Zahangir Alam Saud, Ananda K Saha, Sibdas Ghosh, Björn Olsson, Abul Mandal
Chromium and chromium containing compounds are discharged into the nature as waste from anthropogenic activities, such as industries, agriculture, forest farming, mining and metallurgy. Continued disposal of these compounds to the environment leads to development of various lethal diseases in both humans and animals. In this paper, we report a soil borne bacterium, B2-DHA that can be used as a vehicle to effectively remove chromium from the contaminated sources. B2-DHA is resistant to chromium with a MIC value of 1000 µg mL(-1) potassium chromate...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Christian Breuer, Jun Oh, Daniela Nolkemper, Eike Gert Achilles, Lutz Fischer, Ieva Eglite, Corinna Guesmer, Peter Heitland, Helmut Dietrich Koester, Florian Brinkert, Dominique Singer, Martin Blohm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Transplantation
Thomas Bacquart, Seth Frisbie, Erika Mitchell, Laurie Grigg, Christopher Cole, Colleen Small, Bibudhendra Sarkar
In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh...
June 1, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
Donghui Pei, Han Xie, Haihai Song, Heng Xu, Yumeng Wu
Lentinus edodes is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in the market. However, it contains heavy metals that are poisonous to humans even at trace concentrations. The concentrations and bioconcentration factors of five heavy metals in cultivated L. edodes in Chengdu were studied, and the potential health risks to local residents associated with the cultivated L. edodes consumption were evaluated. Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), and mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies and the substrate from three agricultural areas...
February 2015: Journal of Food Protection
Kongfa Chen, Na Ai, Kane M O'Donnell, San Ping Jiang
A BaO infiltrated La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode shows remarkable tolerance and resistance towards chromium via the formation of BaCrO4 instead of SrCrO4 on the electrode surface, preventing the excess Sr deficiency at the A-site of LSCF perovskite and thus mitigating the Cr poisoning effect.
February 21, 2015: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dong Young Chung, Hyoung-il Kim, Young-Hoon Chung, Myeong Jae Lee, Sung Jong Yoo, Alok D Bokare, Wonyong Choi, Yung-Eun Sung
We propose a method to enhance the fuel cell efficiency with the simultaneous removal of toxic heavy metal ions. Carbon monoxide (CO), an intermediate of methanol oxidation that is primarily responsible for Pt catalyst deactivation, can be used as an in-situ reducing agent for hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) with reactivating the CO-poisoned Pt catalyst. Using electro-oxidation measurements, the oxidation of adsorbed CO molecules coupled with the concurrent conversion of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) was confirmed. This concept was also successfully applied to a methanol fuel cell to enhance its performance efficiency and to remove toxic Cr (VI) at the same time...
2014: Scientific Reports
Bo Wei, Kongfa Chen, Ling Zhao, Zhe Lü, San Ping Jiang
The degradation of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) is an issue of both scientific and technical importance. In this study, chromium deposition and poisoning at the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O(3-δ) (LSCF) anode or the oxygen electrode of SOECs are studied for the first time under a current density of 200 mA cm(-2) at 900 and 800 °C. After polarization in the presence of the Fe-Cr interconnect at 900 °C for 20 h, electrode polarization resistance and overpotential of the O2 evolution reaction (OER) on the LSCF electrode are 0...
January 21, 2015: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith, Vadakut Krishnan Parvathy
Hexavalent chromium compounds are most commonly used in printing, dyeing, plastics and rayon manufacturing. Poisoning in children by ammonium dichromate, an odorless and bright orange-red crystal, are rarely reported. Acute poisoning will result in death due to multi-organ failure. The target organs that are affected by this poison are the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, eyes and skin. On ingestion, initially there is a relative lack of severe symptoms and signs. Hence, the delay in seeking medical attention could lead to the increased rate of mortality...
November 2014: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Bidya Dhar Sahu, Meghana Koneru, Shriharsh R Bijargi, Anudeep Kota, Ramakrishna Sistla
Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of chromium poisoning. In the present study, we investigated the potential renoprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of carvedilol, a non-specific β-adrenergic blocker using rat model of potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity. Rats were pretreated with carvedilol (10mg/kg) for 21days. A single subcutaneous injection of potassium dichromate (15mg/kg, s.c.) resulted in a significant increase in the levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, markers related to oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, apoptosis and inflammation accompanied with histopathological changes in kidney tissues...
November 5, 2014: Chemico-biological Interactions
S M Bradberry, J M Wilkinson, R E Ferner
INTRODUCTION: One in eight of all total hip replacements requires revision within 10 years, 60% because of wear-related complications. The bearing surfaces may be made of cobalt/chromium, stainless steel, ceramic, or polyethylene. Friction between bearing surfaces and corrosion of non-moving parts can result in increased local and systemic metal concentrations. OBJECTIVES: To identify and systematically review published reports of systemic toxicity attributed to metal released from hip implants and to propose criteria for the assessment of these patients...
September 2014: Clinical Toxicology
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