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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094156/removal-of-toxic-metals-during-biological-treatment-of-landfill-leachates
#1
T Robinson
Progressive implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in substantial changes in limits for discharges of heavy metals both to watercourses, and to sewer. The objective of this paper is to provide original, real, full-scale data obtained for removal of metals during aerobic biological leachate treatment, and also to report on studies carried out to look at further trace metal removal. Polishing technologies examined and investigated include; the incorporation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes into biological treatment systems, the use of ion exchange, and of activated carbon polishing processes...
January 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088571/theophylline-assisted-eco-friendly-synthesis-of-ptau-nanospheres-at-reduced-graphene-oxide-with-enhanced-catalytic-activity-towards-cr-vi-reduction
#2
Ling-Ya Hu, Li-Xian Chen, Meng-Ting Liu, Ai-Jun Wang, Lan-Ju Wu, Jiu-Ju Feng
Theophylline as a naturally alkaloid is commonly employed to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Herein, a facile theophylline-assisted green approach was firstly developed for synthesis of PtAu nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (PtAu NSs/rGO), without any surfactant, polymer, or seed involved. The obtained nanocomposites were applied for the catalytic reduction and removal of highly toxic chromium (VI) using formic acid as a model reductant at 50°C, showing the significantly enhanced catalytic activity and improved recyclability when compared with commercial Pt/C (50%) and home-made Au nanocrystals supported rGO (Au NCs/rGO)...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088020/sulphur-alters-chromium-vi-toxicity-in-solanum-melongena-seedlings-role-of-sulphur-assimilation-and-sulphur-containing-antioxidants
#3
Madhulika Singh, Bishwajit Kumar Kushwaha, Samiksha Singh, Vipin Kumar, Vijay Pratap Singh, Sheo Mohan Prasad
The present study investigates modulation in hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI) 25 μM] toxicity by sulphur (S; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM S as low (LS), medium (MS) and high sulphur (HS), respectively) in Solanum melongena (eggplant) seedlings. Biomass accumulation (fresh and dry weights), photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic oxygen evolution and S content were declined by Cr(VI) toxicity. Furthermore, fluorescence characteristics (JIP-test) were also affected by Cr(VI), but Cr(VI) toxicity on photosystem II photochemistry was ameliorated by HS treatment via reducing damaging effect on PS II reaction centre and its reduction side...
December 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087233/anti-diabetic-effects-of-inonotus-obliquus-polysaccharides-chromium-iii-complex-in-type-2-diabetic-mice-and-its-sub-acute-toxicity-evaluation-in-normal-mice
#4
Cong Wang, Zhongqin Chen, Yuxiang Pan, Xudong Gao, Haixia Chen
Polysaccharides are important bioactive ingredients from Inonotus obliquus. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel I. obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex (UIOPC) and investigate the anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and sub-acute toxicity in normal mice. The molecular weight of UIOPC was about 11.5 × 10 (4) Da with the chromium content was 13.01% and the chromium was linked with polysaccharides through coordination bond...
January 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081365/visualizing-arsenate-reactions-and-encapsulation-in-a-single-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticle
#5
Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
A nanostructure-based mechanism is presented on the enrichment, separation and immobilization of arsenic with nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI). The As-Fe reactions are studied with Spherical Aberration Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cs-STEM). Near atomic-resolution (<1 nm3) electron tomography discovers a thin continuous layer (23±3 Å) of elemental arsenic sandwiched between the iron oxide shell and the zero-valent iron core. This points to a unique mechanism of nano-encapsulation and proves that the outer layer, especially the Fe(0)/oxide interface is the edge of the As-Fe reactions...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077780/exposure-to-crvi-during-early-pregnancy-increases-oxidative-stress-and-disrupts-the-expression-of-antioxidant-proteins-in-placental-compartments
#6
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Robert J Taylor, Joe A Arosh, Robert C Burghardt
Epidemiologic studies document relationships between chromium VI (CrVI) exposure and increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death in pregnant women. Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the United States and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. This study was designed to understand the mechanism of CrVI toxicity on placental oxidative stress and antioxidant (AOX) machinery. Pregnant mother rats were treated with or without CrVI (50 ppm K2Cr2O7) through drinking water from gestational day (GD) 9...
November 15, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068401/advantages-of-synthetic-noise-and-machine-learning-for-analyzing-radioecological-data-sets
#7
Igor Shuryak
The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs) may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061419/simultaneous-microbial-reduction-of-vanadium-v-and-chromium-vi-by-shewanella-loihica-pv-4
#8
Guangyu Wang, Baogang Zhang, Shuang Li, Meng Yang, Changcheng Yin
Toxic vanadium (V) and chromium (VI) often co-exist in wastewater from vanadium ore smelting and their reductions by bacterial strain Shewanella loihica PV-4 is realized simultaneously. After 27-d operation, 71.3% of V(V) and 91.2% of Cr(VI) were removed respectively, with citrate as organic carbon source. Enhancement of Cr(VI) bioreduction was observed with the suppressed V(V) reduction. V(IV) and Cr(III), the main reduction products, precipitated inside the organisms and attached on cell surfaces. Both membrane components containing cytochrome c and cytoplasmic fractions containing soluble proteins as well as NADH may contribute to these microbial reductions...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050761/role-of-the-polycarboxylic-compounds-in-the-response-of-silene-vulgaris-to-chromium
#9
Ana E Pradas Del Real, Jose Manuel Silvan, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa, Ana Guerrero, Pilar García-Gonzalo, M Carmen Lobo, Araceli Pérez-Sanz
This work aims to investigate the nature and the specific mechanisms by which polycarboxylic compounds participate in the tolerance of Silene vulgaris to Cr with special attention given to the rhizosphere system. This knowledge is important to use this species in the implementation of phytoremediation technologies in Cr-polluted soils. According to the results, chromium is chelated and mobilized by the citric and malic acids in plant tissues, while oxalic acid might participate in the reduction and chelation of Cr in the rhizosphere...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042547/simvastatin-attenuates-chromium-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#10
Zahra Goodarzi, Esmaeil Karami, Massumeh Ahmadizadeh
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent Chromium (Cr (VI)) compounds are extremely toxic and have been demonstrated to induce nephrotoxicity associated with oxidative stress in humans and animals. The wide environmental distribution of these agents lead to an increase interest of preventive effects of its adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: The propose of the present study was to determine the potential protective effects of simvastatin (SIMV) on Cr (VI)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats (180-220 g BW) were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6)...
January 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032287/trace-elements-in-starter-infant-formula-dietary-intake-and-safety-assessment
#11
Annalisa Bargellini, Francesco Venturelli, Elisabetta Casali, Angela Ferrari, Isabella Marchesi, Paola Borella
The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of five essential (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Se) and four non-essential/toxic elements (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 35 different starter infant formulas (0-6 months) sold in Italy. In addition, a safety assessment of these trace elements was carried out, by comparing the estimated daily intake (EDI) with the adequate intake (AI) and the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI), with a view to provide information on the metal distribution patterns and health risk to infants arising from the consumption of these products...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024242/aneugenicity-and-clastogenicity-in-freshwater-fish-oreochromis-niloticus-exposed-to-incipient-safe-concentration-of-tannery-effluent
#12
Abel Weldetinsae, Mekibib Dawit, Abebe Getahun, H S Patil, Esayas Alemayehu, Melaku Gizaw, Moa Abate, Daniel Abera
Conventional effluent bioassays mostly rely on overt responses or endpoints such as apical and Darwinian fitness. Beyond the empirical observation, laboratory toxicity testing needs to rely on effective detection of prognostic biomarkers such as genotoxicity. Indeed, characterization of tannery effluent requires slotting in of genotoxic responses in whole effluent toxicity testing procedures. Hence, the prime objective of the present experimental investigation is to apply the technique of biological assay as a tool of toxicity testing to evaluate the induction of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes, and exfoliated cells of gill and kidney of O...
December 23, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019706/acute-sensitivity-of-the-vernal-pool-fairy-shrimp-branchinecta-lynchi-anostraca-branchinectidae-and-surrogate-species-to-ten-chemicals
#13
Chris D Ivey, John M Besser, Chris G Ingersoll, Ning Wang, D Christopher Rogers, Sandy Raimondo, Candice R Bauer, Edward J Hammer
Vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, (Branchiopoda; Anostraca) and other fairy shrimp species have been listed as 'threatened' or 'endangered' under the United States' Endangered Species Act. Little information about the sensitivity of Branchinecta spp. to toxic effects of contaminants, make it difficult to determine whether they are adequately protected by water quality criteria. A series of acute (24 hr) lethality/immobilization tests were conducted with three species of fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi, Branchinecta lindahli, and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and 10 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action: ammonia, potassium, chloride, sulfate, chromium(VI), copper, nickel, zinc, alachlor, and metolachlor...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018787/heavy-metal-accumulation-during-the-last-30%C3%A2-years-in-the-karnaphuli-river-estuary-chittagong-bangladesh
#14
Ai-Jun Wang, Ahmed Kawser, Yong-Hang Xu, Xiang Ye, Seema Rani, Ke-Liang Chen
Heavy metal contamination of aquatic environment has attracted global attention owing to its abundance, persistence, and environmental toxicity, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. Five heavy metals, namely chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were investigated in surface and core sediments of the Karnaphuli River (KR) estuary in Chittagong, Bangladesh, in order to reveal the heavy metal contamination history in estuarine sediments and its response to catastrophic events and human activities...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013456/selenium-administration-alleviates-toxicity-of-chromium-vi-in-the-chicken-brain
#15
Pan Hao, Yiran Zhu, Shenghua Wang, Huiyu Wan, Peng Chen, Yang Wang, Ziqiang Cheng, Yongxia Liu, Jianzhu Liu
Selenium (Se) can play a protective role against heavy metal toxicity. This experiment aims to evaluate the effect of Se supplementation at different doses on the chicken brains. Oxidative stress was induced in the chicken brains by chromium(VI). A total of 105 Hyland brown male chickens were randomly divided into seven groups, including the control group, poisoned group [6%LD50 K2Cr2O7 body weight (B.W.)], and detoxification groups K2Cr2O7 (6%LD50) + Se (0.31, 0.63, 1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 Na2SeO3 mg/kg B.W...
December 24, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999610/selected-toxic-and-essential-heavy-metals-in-impacted-teeth-and-the-surrounding-mandibular-bones-of-people-exposed-to-heavy-metals-in-the-environment
#16
Piotr Malara, Agnieszka Fischer, Beata Malara
BACKGROUND: The elemental composition of bones and teeth can allow exposure to heavy metals in the environment to be estimated. The aim of this study was to determine whether impacted mandibular teeth and the surrounding bones can be used as biomonitoring media to assess exposure to heavy metals. METHODS: The research materials were 67 impacted lower third molars and samples of the cortical bone removed when the wisdom teeth were surgically extracted. The samples were from people living in two areas with different environmental concentrations of heavy metals...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997619/intranasal-chromium-induces-acute-brain-and-lung-injuries-in-rats-assessment-of-different-potential-hazardous-effects-of-environmental-and-occupational-exposure-to-chromium-and-introduction-of-a-novel-pharmacological-and-toxicological-animal-model
#17
Abeer Salama, Rehab Hegazy, Azza Hassan
Chromium (Cr) is used in many industries and it is widely distributed in the environment. Exposure to Cr dust has been reported among workers at these industries. Beside its hazardous effects on the lungs, brain injury could be induced, as the absorption of substances through the nasal membrane has been found to provide them a direct delivery to the brain. We investigated the distribution and the effects of Cr in both brain and lung following the intranasal instillation of potassium dichromate (inPDC) in rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984795/phenolic-sensor-development-based-on-chromium-oxide-decorated-carbon-nanotubes-for-environmental-safety
#18
Mohammed M Rahman, Hasan B Balkhoyor, Abdullah M Asiri
A nanocomposite (NC) composed of chromium(III)oxide nanomaterials decorated carbon nanotubes (Cr2O3-CNT NC) was prepared via a simple solution method with reducing agents in an alkaline medium. The Cr2O3-CNT NC was characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vs.) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XEDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The Cr2O3-CNT composite was deposited on a flat glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with conducting nafion (5%) binders to produce a sensor that exhibited fast response and high selectivity toward 4-methoxyphenol (4MP) in phosphate buffer phase at pH 7...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931767/blood-and-urinary-levels-of-metals-and-metalloids-in-the-general-adult-population-of-northern-france-the-imepoge-study-2008-2010
#19
Catherine Nisse, Romuald Tagne-Fotso, Mike Howsam, Camille Richeval, Laurence Labat, Ariane Leroyer
BACKGROUND: The assessment of human chemical risks related to occupational or environmental exposure to pollutants requires the use of both accurate exposure indicators and reference values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the blood and urinary levels of various metals and metalloids in a sample of adults aged 20-59 years of the general population of Northern France, a formerly heavily industrialised area that retains some industrial activity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2008 and 2010, enrolling 2000 residents of Northern France...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922088/analysis-of-four-toxic-metals-in-a-single-rice-seed-by-matrix-solid-phase-dispersion-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#20
Xiufen He, Lixia Chen, Xin Chen, Huamei Yu, Lixu Peng, Bingjun Han
Toxic metals in rice pose great risks to human health. Metal bioaccumulation in rice grains is a criterion of breeding. Rice breeding requires a sensitive method to determine metal content in single rice grains to assist the variety selection. In the present study, four toxic metals of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a single rice grain were determined by a simple and rapid method. The developed method is based on matrix solid phase dispersion using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as dispersing agent and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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