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chromium toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436682/kinetics-biochemical-and-factorial-analysis-of-chromium-uptake-in-a-multi-ion-system-by-tradescantia-pallida-rose-d-r-hunt
#1
Vibha Sinha, Kannan Pakshirajan, N Arul Manikandan, Rakhi Chaturvedi
Effluent from electroplating and leather industries is a major concern for the environment due to the presence of chromium (Cr) and other ions, such as sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, etc., which needs to be regulated prior to its discharge into the environment. This study evaluated the potential of Tradescantia pallida, a plant species known for its Cr bioaccumulation, for the simultaneous removal of Cr(6+), SO4(2-), NO3(-) and PO4(3-). Different combination levels of Cr(6+) and the co-ions were planned as per the Plackett-Burman design of experiments performed using hydroponics system...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433929/pollution-characteristics-and-human-health-risks-of-potentially-eco-toxic-elements-ptes-in-road-dust-from-metropolitan-area-of-hefei-china
#2
Muhammad Ubaid Ali, Guijian Liu, Balal Yousaf, Qumber Abbas, Habib Ullah, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba Munir, Biao Fu
This study aims to investigate the pollution characteristics of road dust and their associated health risks of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to humans using array-based risk assessment models described by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in a metropolitan area of Hefei, China. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) was used to describe pollution characteristics of roadside dust in urban, periurban and industrial areas. Results indicate that industrial roadside dust was contaminated with Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti, V, Pb, Ba, Sb, Cr, Sn, Pb, As and Ga showing Igeo value (log2 (x)) between Igeo class 3 to 4...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432892/arsenic-chromium-molybdenum-and-selenium-geochemical-fractions-and-potential-mobilization-in-riverine-soil-profiles-originating-from-germany-and-egypt
#3
Sabry M Shaheen, Eilhann E Kwon, Jayanta K Biswas, Filip M G Tack, Yong Sik Ok, Jörg Rinklebe
The fractionation and potential mobilization of As, Cr, Mo, and Se in four floodplain soil profiles collected along the Nile (Egypt) and Wupper (Germany) Rivers were assessed using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. The concentrations of total and the geochemical fractions (acid soluble (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3), and residual (F4) fraction) of the elements were determined. The Wupper soils had the highest total concentrations (mg kg(-1)) of As (378) and Cr (2,797) while the Nile soils contained the highest total Mo (12) and Se (42)...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427089/editor-s-highlight-exposure-to-crvi-during-early-pregnancy-increases-oxidative-stress-and-disrupts-the-expression-of-antioxidant-proteins-in-placental-compartments
#4
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Robert J Taylor, Joe A Arosh, Robert C Burghardt
Epidemiologic studies document relationships between chromium VI (CrVI) exposure and increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death in pregnant women. Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the United States and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. This study was designed to understand the mechanism of CrVI toxicity on placental oxidative stress and antioxidant (AOX) machinery. Pregnant mother rats were treated with or without CrVI (50 ppm K2Cr2O7) through drinking water from gestational day (GD) 9...
February 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412307/the-9th-conference-on-metal-toxicity-and-carcinogenesis-the-conference-overview
#5
James T F Wise, Lei Wang, Zhuo Zhang, Xianglin Shi
Heavy metals, such as arsenic, chromium, cadmium, nickel, mercury, and uranium are known to cause many human diseases and health complications after occupational or environmental exposure. Consequently, metals are environmental health concerns. This manuscript is an overview of the 9th Conference on Metal Toxicity and Carcinogenesis held in October 2016 in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 2000, this biennial meeting brings together experts in the field to discuss current and prospective research in an effort to advance research pertaining to metal toxicity and carcinogenesis...
April 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409415/%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-confers-chromium-stress-tolerance-in-brassica-juncea-l-by-modulating-the-antioxidant-defense-and-glyoxalase-systems
#6
Jubayer Al Mahmud, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Kamrun Nahar, Anisur Rahman, Md Shahadat Hossain, Masayuki Fujita
Chromium (Cr) toxicity is hazardous to the seed germination, growth, and development of plants. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid and is involved in stress tolerance in plants. To investigate the effects of GABA in alleviating Cr toxicity, we treated eight-d-old mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings with Cr (0.15 and 0.3 mM K2CrO4, 5 days) alone and in combination with GABA (125 µM) in a semi-hydroponic medium. The roots and shoots of the seedlings accumulated Cr in a dose-dependent manner, which led to an increase in oxidative damage [lipid peroxidation; hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content; superoxide (O2(•-)) generation; lipoxygenase (LOX) activity], methylglyoxal (MG) content, and disrupted antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407541/sorption-mechanisms-of-chromate-with-coprecipitated-ferrihydrite-in-aqueous-solution
#7
Abdullah Al Mamun, Masao Morita, Mitsuaki Matsuoka, Chiharu Tokoro
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) attracted researchers' interest for its toxicity, natural availability and removal difficulty. Nevertheless, its sorption mechanism is not clearly understood yet. In this work, we elucidated the sorption mechanism of the co-precipitation of chromates with ferrihydrite through quantitative analysis. The influence of Cr/Fe molar ratio on sorption was investigated by zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray adsorption fine-structure analysis (XAFS). Coprecipitation at pH 5 showed almost twice the sorption density of adsorption at pH 5...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407499/alleviation-of-heavy-metal-toxicity-and-phytostimulation-of-brassica-campestris-l-by-endophytic-mucor-sp-mhr-7
#8
Mahwish Zahoor, Muhammad Irshad, Hazir Rahman, Muhammad Qasim, Sahib Gul Afridi, Muhammad Qadir, Anwar Hussain
Heavy metal (HM) pollution is of great concern in countries like Pakistan where a huge proportion of human population is exposed to it. These toxic metals are making their way from water bodies to soil where it not only interferes with plant growth and development but also initiates serious health issues in human consuming the produce of such soils. Bioremediation is one of the most viable and efficient solution for the problem. Purpose of the current study was to isolate endophytic fungi from plants grown on HM contaminated soil and screen them for their ability to tolerate multiple HM including chromium (Cr(6+)), manganese (Mn(2+)), cobalt (Co(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+))...
April 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398075/disturbance-response-indicators-of-impatiens-walleriana-exposed-to-benzene-and-chromium
#9
V Campos, S S Lessa, R L Ramos, M C Shinzato, T A M Medeiros
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential and disturbance response indicators of Impatiens walleriana exposed to benzene and chromium. Numerous studies over the years have found abundant evidence of the carcinogenicity of benzene and chromium (VI) in humans. Benzene and chromium are two toxic industrial chemicals commonly found together at contaminated sites, and one of the most common management strategies employed in the recovery of sites contaminated by petroleum products and trace metals is in situ remediation...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395778/an-on-off-on-fluorescent-nanoprobe-for-recognition-of-chromium-vi-and-ascorbic-acid-based-on-phosphorus-nitrogen-dual-doped-carbon-quantum-dot
#10
Xiaojuan Gong, Yang Liu, Zhenhua Yang, Shaomin Shuang, Zeyu Zhang, Chuan Dong
Chromium (VI) [Cr(VI)] is a harsh environmental contaminates and has been proved to be highly toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic. Therefore, developing an inexpensive, good selective and highly sensitive nanoprobe for the detection of Cr(VI) is in urgent demand. Recently, the highly fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have been successfully utilized as efficient fluorescent nanoprobes for the detection of ions, pH and molecular substances. In this work, an "on-off" fluorescence phosphorus/nitrogen dual-doped CQDs (PNCQDs) probe was developed for the determination of Cr(VI) based on inner filter effect (IFE)...
May 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377753/comparative-genomics-analysis-of-a-new-exiguobacterium-strain-from-salar-de-huasco-reveals-a-repertoire-of-stress-related-genes-and-arsenic-resistance
#11
Juan Castro-Severyn, Francisco Remonsellez, Sandro L Valenzuela, Cesar Salinas, Jonathan Fortt, Pablo Aguilar, Coral Pardo-Esté, Cristina Dorador, Raquel Quatrini, Franck Molina, Daniel Aguayo, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Claudia P Saavedra
The Atacama Desert hosts diverse ecosystems including salt flats and shallow Andean lakes. Several heavy metals are found in the Atacama Desert, and microorganisms growing in this environment show varying levels of resistance/tolerance to copper, tellurium, and arsenic, among others. Herein, we report the genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of a new Exiguobacterium strain, sp. SH31, isolated from an altiplanic shallow athalassohaline lake. Exiguobacterium sp. SH31 belongs to the phylogenetic Group II and its closest relative is Exiguobacterium sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372833/chemical-toxicity-and-ecotoxicity-evaluation-of-tannery-sludge-stabilized-with-ladle-furnace-slag
#12
E Pantazopoulou, A Zouboulis
In this study, the stabilization of tannery sludge, which produced during the physico-chemical treatment of tannery wastewaters, was examined by the addition of ladle furnace slag. Moreover, the simultaneous addition of organoclay and ladle furnace slag for the stabilization of tannery sludge was also examined. Chromium and dissolved organic carbon in the leachate of raw tannery sludge, using the EN 12457-2 standard leaching test, were found to exceed the limit values for disposal in non-hazardous and even in hazardous waste landfills, according to the EU Decision 2003/33/EC...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365989/reoxidation-of-chromium-iii-products-formed-under-different-biogeochemical-regimes
#13
Charuleka Varadharajan, Harry R Beller, Markus Bill, Eoin L Brodie, Mark E Conrad, Ruyang Han, Courtney Irwin, Joern T Larsen, Hsiao-Chien Lim, Sergi Molins, Carl I Steefel, April van Hise, Li Yang, Peter S Nico
Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is a widespread and toxic groundwater contaminant. Reductive immobilization to Cr(III) is a treatment option, but its success depends on the long-term potential for reduced chromium precipitates to remain immobilized under oxidizing conditions. In this unique long-term study, aquifer sediments subjected to reductive Cr(VI) immobilization under different biogeochemical regimes were tested for their susceptibility to reoxidation. After reductive treatment for 1 year, sediments were exposed to oxygenated conditions for another 2 years in flow-through, laboratory columns...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364706/biosensor-for-detection-of-dissolved-chromium-in-potable-water-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Puja Biswas, Abhinav Kumar Karn, P Balasubramanian, Paresh G Kale
The unprecedented deterioration rate of the environmental quality due to rapid urbanization and industrialization causes a severe global health concern to both ecosystem and humanity. Heavy metals are ubiquitous in nature and being used extensively in industrial processes, the exposure to excessive levels could alter the biochemical cycles of living systems. Hence the environmental monitoring through rapid and specific detection of heavy metal contamination in potable water is of paramount importance. Various standard analytical techniques and sensors are used for the detection of heavy metals include spectroscopy and chromatographic methods along with electrochemical, optical waveguide and polymer based sensors...
March 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357793/ecological-risk-assessment-of-toxic-organic-pollutant-and-heavy-metals-in-water-and-sediment-from-a-landscape-lake-in-tianjin-city-china
#15
Ying Zhang, Yuanyuan Liu, Zhiguang Niu, Shaopei Jin
To estimate the ecological risk of toxic organic pollutant (formaldehyde) and heavy metals (mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr)) in water and sediment from a landscape Lake in Tianjin City, an ecological risk assessment was performed. The risk quotient (RQ) method and the AQUATOX model were used to assess the ecological risk of formaldehyde in landscape water. Meanwhile, the RQ method and the potential ecological risk index method were used to assess the ecological risk of four heavy metals in water and sediment from the studied landscape lake, respectively...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355418/characterization-of-particulate-fume-and-oxides-emission-from-stainless-steel-plasma-cutting
#16
Jun Wang, Tien Hoang, Evan L Floyd, James L Regens
Plasma cutting is a metal fabrication process that employs an electrically conductive plasma arc to cut metals. The metal fume emitted from stainless steel plasma cutting may consist of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), which is a carcinogen, and other toxicants. Overexposure to plasma cutting fume may cause pulmonary toxicity and other health effects. This study was to evaluate the effects of operation parameters (arc current and arc time) on the fume formation rates, Cr6+ and other oxides concentrations, particle size distributions (PSD), and particle morphology...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347915/chromium-speciation-bioavailability-uptake-toxicity-and-detoxification-in-soil-plant-system-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Muhammad Shahid, Saliha Shamshad, Marina Rafiq, Sana Khalid, Irshad Bibi, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Camille Dumat, Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
Chromium (Cr) is a potentially toxic heavy metal which does not have any essential metabolic function in plants. Various past and recent studies highlight the biogeochemistry of Cr in the soil-plant system. This review traces a plausible link among Cr speciation, bioavailability, phytouptake, phytotoxicity and detoxification based on available data, especially published from 2010 to 2016. Chromium occurs in different chemical forms (primarily as chromite (Cr(III)) and chromate (Cr(VI)) in soil which vary markedly in term of their biogeochemical behavior...
March 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342047/blood-toxic-metals-and-hemoglobin-levels-in-mexican-children
#18
Guadalupe López-Rodríguez, Marcos Galván, Marco González-Unzaga, Juan Hernández Ávila, M Pérez-Labra
Metal toxicity can cause hematologic abnormalities and hemolysis. To evaluate the relationship of anemia with metal contamination in children, the following elements were quantified in dry blood: silicon, chromium, lead, titanium, vanadium, nickel, arsenic, manganese, and cadmium. A total of 88 samples of anemic children and 208 of non-anemic children aged 6-12 years were analyzed. Lead (35.1%), chromium (24.3%), vanadium (24.3%), nickel (45.6%), and silicon (48.6%) were identified in the samples, with titanium only detected in anemic children...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341153/elemental-distribution-and-trace-metal-contamination-in-the-surface-sediment-of-south-east-coast-of-india
#19
S Barath Kumar, R K Padhi, A K Mohanty, K K Satpathy
Spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of trace metals in the surface sediment of south east coast of India covering eight different ecosystems was studied. The concentration of major elements viz. Ca, Mg, K, Ti and trace metals viz. Cr, Mn, Co, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Contamination factor, geo-accumulation index, probable effect level, enrichment factor and pollution load index were calculated to evaluate the pollution status...
January 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340464/a-review-on-various-electrochemical-techniques-for-heavy-metal-ions-detection-with-different-sensing-platforms
#20
REVIEW
BabanKumar Bansod, Tejinder Kumar, Ritula Thakur, Shakshi Rana, Inderbir Singh
Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable and contaminate most of the natural resources occurring in the environment including water. Some of the heavy metals including Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) are considered to be highly toxic and hazardous to human health even at trace levels. This leads to the requirement of fast, accurate and reliable techniques for the detection of heavy metal ions. This review presents various electrochemical detection techniques for heavy metal ions those are user friendly, low cost, provides on-site and real time monitoring as compared to other spectroscopic and optical techniques...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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