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chromium toxicity

Qiang Wang, Liping Huang, Yuzhen Pan, Xie Quan, Gianluca Li Puma
The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO4(-)) and dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Junguo Li, Bao Liu, Yanan Zeng, Ziming Wang
AOD (argon oxygen decarburization) slag, which is the by-product of the stainless steel refining process, is a recyclable slag because of its high content of calcium and silicon. The leaching toxicity cannot be ignored in the recycling process because the slag contains a certain amount of Cr. In this study, the mineral analysis, batch leaching tests and thermodynamic and kinetic modeling by PHREEQC combined with FactSage software were performed to explore the influence of the dissolution of primary minerals and the precipitation of secondary minerals on the elution of Cr from AOD slag...
October 11, 2016: Chemosphere
Adesina O Odewabi, Martins Ekor
Recent studies have indicated an increased incidence of toxic neuropathies among waste management workers (WMW) possibly linked to increased detection of heavy metals in municipal solid wastes. The present study evaluated serum levels of some heavy and essential trace metals in relation to oxidant/antioxidant status of WMW. One hundred and twenty-six WMW and 84 non-WMW (control) were recruited. Metal/element concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and oxidant/antioxidant markers were determined using standard procedures...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Lucas B Moreira, Ítalo B Castro, Marcos A Hortellani, Silvio T Sasaki, Satie Taniguchi, Mônica A V Petti, Gilberto Fillmann, Jorge E S Sarkis, Márcia C Bícego, Leticia V Costa-Lotufo, Denis M S Abessa
Tropical marine environments are rich in biodiversity and the presence of harbor activities in these areas can harm the coastal ecosystems. In this study, we assessed sediment quality of two harbors from a tropical region in Brazil by applying multiple lines-of-evidence approach. This approach included the integration of results on: (1) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes, and tributyltin; (2) acute toxicity of whole sediments and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; and (3) benthic community descriptors...
October 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
J F Gutiérrez-Corona, P Romo-Rodríguez, F Santos-Escobar, A E Espino-Saldaña, H Hernández-Escoto
Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic metal for microorganisms as well as plants and animal cells. Due to its widespread industrial use, Cr has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species than the relatively innocuous and less mobile Cr(III) form. The study of the interactions between microorganisms and Cr has been helpful to unravel the mechanisms allowing organisms to survive in the presence of high concentrations of Cr(VI) and to detoxify and remove the oxyanion...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Raju Praveen, Ramasamy Ramaraj
Visible light active photocatalysts consisting of gold nanoparticle (Au NP) decorated chemically reduced graphene oxide-P25 nanocomposite materials (CRGO-P25-Au NCMs) were prepared through a one-pot chemical reduction method. The nanocomposite materials were characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses. The performances of CRGO-P25-Au NCM modified ITO electrodes were evaluated towards the photoelectrochemical oxidation of methanol...
October 5, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Ning Wang, Christopher D Ivey, Christopher G Ingersoll, William G Brumbaugh, David Alvarez, Edward J Hammer, Candice R Bauer, Tom Augspurger, Sandy Raimondo, M Christopher Barnhart
Freshwater mussels, one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world, are generally under-represented in toxicity databases used for the development of ambient water quality criteria (WQC) and other environmental guidance values. Acute 96-h toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of 5 species of juvenile mussels from 2 families and 4 tribes to 10 chemicals (ammonia, metals, major ions, and organic compounds), and to "screen" 10 additional chemicals (mainly organic compounds) with a commonly tested mussel species, fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea)...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Himadri Saikia, Biraj Jyoti Borah, Yusuke Yamada, Pankaj Bharali
The present work reports a surfactant-free, economically feasible chemical route to synthesize bimetallic CuPd alloy nanoparticles under hydrothermal condition. The structural and morphological characterizations of the nanoparticles are carried out by XRD, SEM/EDX, TEM, XPS and BET surface area analyses. The synthetic strategy comprises of 9:1 molar composition of Cu(2+) and Pd(2+) salt in the aqueous solution. The size of the nanoparticles isca. 3-4nmwith very notable specific surface area of 298m(2)g(-1)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Larisa I Privalova, Boris A Katsnelson, Anatoly N Varaksin, Vladimir G Panov, Sergey L Balesin
We investigated by the optical microscopy some cytological characteristics of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell population 24h after intratracheal instillation of microscale MnO2 and BaCrO4 particles (separately or together at two different doses) into the lungs of Wistar rats. Besides, the cytotoxicity of both particulates for rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test and proved significant. They were found to evoke a typical dose-dependent pulmonary phagocytosis response usually observed under inhalation or intratracheal impacts of low-soluble mineral and metal particles...
September 28, 2016: Toxicology
Lucas A R Leite, Natacha H O Pedro, Rodney K de Azevedo, Angela Kinoshita, Roseli F Gennari, Shigueo Watanabe, Vanessa D Abdallah
Pollution in aquatic ecosystems due to negative human activities remains a problem in both freshwater and marine environments and is an ongoing subject of research. Several studies have shown that some fish parasites can be used as a tool for biomonitoring because they demonstrate higher metal accumulation capacity compared to their host tissues. However, compared to acanthocephalans, information regarding the absorption mechanisms and accumulation rates in nematodes is relatively limited. Here, we evaluated the potential of larvae Contracaecum sp...
September 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Chinnannan Karthik, Mohammad Oves, R Thangabalu, Ranandkumar Sharma, S B Santhosh, P Indra Arulselvi
Contamination of agriculture land by heavy metals is a worldwide risk that has sped up noticeably since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, there arise the demands of heavy metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacterial strains for specific metal contaminated agricultural sites restoration. In this study, 36 bacterial isolates were screened out from the rhizospheric soil of Phaseolus vulgaris. Among these, two bacterial strains AR6 and AR8 were selected based on their higher Cr(VI) tolerance (1200 and 1100 μg/mL, respectively) and the maximum production of plant growth promoting substances...
November 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
Bin Liu, Yanfei Liu, Jie Chai, Xiangquan Hu, Duoming Wu, Binsheng Yang
As a man-made additive, chromium picolinate Cr(pic)3 has become a popular dietary supplement worldwide. In this paper Cr(pic)3 and its new derivatives Cr(6-CH3-pic)3 (1), [Cr(6-NH2-pic)2(H2O)2]NO3 (2) and Cr(3-NH2-pic)3 (3) were synthesized, and complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by X-ray crystal structure (where pic=2-carboxypyridine). The relationship between the chemical properties and biotoxicity of these complexes was fully discussed: (1) The dynamics stability of chromium picolinate complexes mainly depends on the CrN bonds length...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
S Obiri, O D Ansa-Asare, S Mohammed, H F Darko, A G Dartey
Recycling of e-waste using informal or crude techniques poses serious health risk not only to the workers but also to the environment as whole. It is against this background that this paper sought to measure health risk faced by informal e-waste workers from exposure to toxicants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc and cobalt via oral and dermal contact with bottom ash and soil. Using random sampling techniques, 3 separate sites each (where burning and manual dismantling of e-wastes are usually carried) were identified, and a total of 402 samples were collected...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Kim Linh Nguyen, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Otto Richter, Minh Thinh Pham, Van Phuoc Nguyen
Many mangrove forests have suffered from the contaminated environments near industrial areas. This study addresses the question how these environments influence the renewal of mangrove forests. To this end ecophysiological responses of the young mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata (Blume) grown under combinations of the factors heavy metals (here chromium), nutrition and soil/water environment were analyzed. We tested the hypothesis that soil/water conditions and nutrient status of the soil strongly influence the toxic effect of chromium...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mingtao Zhang, Changhui Yang, Min Zhao, Kai Yang, Rui Shen, Yujia Zheng
This study investigated the immobilization potential of alkali-activated slag (AAS) pastes for Cr(VI) by examining compressive strength, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and generalized acid neutralization capacity tests. Alkaline digestion, total acid digestion, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDS were carried out to clarify the immobilization mechanism. The AAS pastes gave high compressive strengths, which contributed to the physical encapsulation of Cr. The addition of Cr(VI) induced an increase in compressive strength compared to Cr(VI)-free pastes...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
O Tsave, M P Yavropoulou, M Kafantari, C Gabriel, J G Yovos, A Salifoglou
Insulin resistance is identified through numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as Diabetes mellitus II, obesity, hypertension and other metabolic syndromes. Enhancement of insulin action and\or its complete replacement by insulin-enhancing or insulin-mimetic agents seems to improve treatment of metabolic diseases. Over the last decades, intensive research has targeted the investigation of such agents, with chromium emerging as an important inorganic cofactor involved in the requisite metabolic chemistry...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Masashi Kato, Mohammad Daud Azimi, Said Hafizullah Fayaz, Muhammad Dawood Shah, Md Zahirul Hoque, Nobuyuki Hamajima, Shoko Ohnuma, Tomomi Ohtsuka, Masao Maeda, Masafumi Yoshinaga
Toxic elements in drinking water have great effects on human health. However, there is very limited information about toxic elements in drinking water in Afghanistan. In this study, levels of 10 elements (chromium, nickel, copper, arsenic, cadmium, antimony, barium, mercury, lead and uranium) in 227 well drinking water samples in Kabul, Afghanistan were examined for the first time. Chromium (in 0.9% of the 227 samples), arsenic (7.0%) and uranium (19.4%) exceeded the values in WHO health-based guidelines for drinking-water quality...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Jie Yang, Kai Yu, Cun Liu
The potential risk of heavy metal in soil can be reduced by stabilization techniques. Stabilizing amendments, montmorillonites modified with tetramethylammonium (TMA) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) at different loadings were prepared, characterized and assayed for remediation of hexavalent chromium contaminated soil. Characterization results demonstrated that TMA modification resulted in increased surface area and pore volume, whereas HDTMA modification resulted in decreased surface area and pore volume...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye, Mahmood Abdulai Seidu, Banga Benoit N'guessan, Samuel Frimpong-Manso, Joseph Edusei Sarkodie, Samuel Adjei, Schevadnazy Kutu, Joseph Osei-Little, Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko, Philip Debrah
BACKGROUND: Unsweetened natural cocoa has antimalarial properties. Unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), obtained as a result of the removal of cocoa butter from a cocoa bean protects against malaria episodes. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9 % theobromine and 0.21 % caffeine. Concomitant consumption of cocoa and artemether/lumefantrine (A/L) is a common practice in Ghana, West Africa. This study seeks to determine the elemental composition of UNCP and its protective effect on the heart and kidney against (A/L) administration...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Carla Roselli, Donatella Desideri, Maria Assunta Meli, Ivan Fagiolino, Laura Feduzi
Essential and toxic elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), mass spectrometry (MS), and atomic absorption (AS) in meat of 14 migratory birds originating from central and northern Europe to provide baseline data regarding game meat consumed in central Italy. In all samples analyzed, cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (total) levels were <0.326 mg/kgww. For nonessential or toxic elements, arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), stannous (Sn), thallium (Tl), tellurium (Te), titanium (Ti), cerium (Ce), lantanium (La), and uranium (U) concentrations were <0...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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