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chromium toxicity

Sylwia Terpilowska, Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chromium(III) and iron(III) and molybdenum(III) and nickel(II) and their combinations on cyto-, genotoxicity and mutagenicity in BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cells. The results obtained from cytotoxicity assays indicate that there are differences between BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cell lines in their sensitivity to chromium chloride, iron chloride, molybdenum trioxide and nickel chloride. The statistically significant increase of DNA damage of all used microelements in both cell lines was observed...
March 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Masafumi Yoshinaga, Hiromasa Ninomiya, M M Aeorangajeb Al Hossain, Makoto Sudo, Anwarul Azim Akhand, Nazmul Ahsan, Md Abdul Alim, Md Khalequzzaman, Machiko Iida, Ichiro Yajima, Nobutaka Ohgami, Masashi Kato
Chromium (Cr) pollution caused by wastewater from tanneries is a worldwide environmental problem. To develop a countermeasure, we performed a comprehensive study using Hazaribagh, the tannery area in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, as a model. Our environmental monitoring indicated that the soluble form of Cr, but not barium or arsenic, in Buriganga River is derived from Hazaribagh. Our chemical analysis next showed that Cr, the primary pollutant in canal water at Hazaribagh, consisted of ≤0.7 μM hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] and ≤1705 μM trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Mir Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Lokman Ali, Md Saiful Islam, Md Zillur Rahman
This study was conducted to assess the levels of toxic metals like arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in water and sediments of the Pasur River in Bangladesh. The ranges of Cr, As, Cd, Pb in water were 25.76-77.39, 2.76-16.73, 0.42-2.98 and 12.69-42.67 μg/L and in sediments were 20.67-83.70, 3.15-19.97, 0.39-3.17 and 7.34-55.32 mg/kg. The level of studied metals in water samples exceeded the safe limits of drinking water, indicating that water from this river is not safe for drinking and cooking...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Tímea Kollár, Eszter Kása, Árpád Ferincz, Béla Urbányi, Zsolt Csenki-Bakos, Ákos Horváth
The effect of seven heavy metals on the motility parameter of zebrafish sperm was tested in order to develop an in vitro toxicological test system as an alternative to live animal testing. In vitro test systems are currently preferred in ecotoxicology due to their practical and ethical advantages and fish sperm can be a suitable model. A number of studies had been carried out previously on this topic, but the described methods had not been standardized in numerous aspects (donor species, measured endpoint, etc...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jingya Ren, Guilong Zhang, Dongfang Wang, Jie Han, Zhengyan Wu, Dongqing Cai
Because of the wide use of chromium-containing feed, much hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) tends to accumulate in pork. In order to decrease the toxicity of Cr(VI)-containing pork for human beings, high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation was used to reduce highly toxic Cr(VI) to low toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) in lean, fat, and marbled pork. HEEB irradiation could efficiently and nondestructively reduce both free and adsorbed Cr(VI) in pork, achieving the highest reductive efficiency (RE) of 98.03%...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
V Petrosino, G Motta, G Tenore, M Coletta, A Guariglia, D Testa
Previous literature has highlighted the mechanisms of molecular toxicity induced by substances such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, barium and PCBs. The research was carried out on 20 volunteers, all the patients gave their consent to the research: the aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of metals and PCBs in these different matrices (blood and hair), correlating the biochemical data to pathological conditions present, and also to the area in which patients resided. Various quantitative determinations were carried out on samples of blood and hair for 14 heavy metals and on blood samples for 12 PCBs...
March 8, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Ewa Sawicka, Agnieszka Piwowar, Tomasz Musiala, Anna Dlugosz
The interaction of estrogens with environmental toxins in free radicals generation: reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which participates in cancerogenesis is not yet recognized. Chromium(VI) is widely present in environment. One of its toxicity pathway is free radicals generation. Estrogens have the ability to scavenge free radicals, but may also act as prooxidants. Both chromium(VI) and estrogens are classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogens, so synergistic effect seems very dangerous...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
P V Nidheesh, Jayraj Khatri, T S Anantha Singh, R Gandhimathi, S T Ramesh
Zero-valent metals (ZVM) are widely used to remove heavy metals, contaminants, toxicity, etc. from water and wastewater. Zero-valent aluminium (ZVAl) has large surface area and high surface reactivity. It has enormous flexibility for the in-situ application. ZVAl can be applied as either a single or a bimetallic system as well as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). It is observed that ZVAl is capable of generating hydroxyl and sulfate radicals in water medium, which remove non-biodegradable pollutants from aqueous solution...
February 25, 2018: Chemosphere
Donatella Desideri, Carla Roselli, Ivan Fagiolino, Maria Assunta Meli
The occurrence and mobility of different elements in oral smokeless tobacco products (STPs) were determined because the effects on human health must take into account their availability. In this research, the elemental analysis of 15 oral STPs of different brands purchased in local specialty stores in Europe, and the determination of % extraction of the different elements into an artificial salivary juice during the sucking or chewing operations were performed. In all samples analyzed, cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (total) levels were <0...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
F Arcega-Cabrera, L Fargher, M Quesadas-Rojas, R Moo-Puc, I Oceguera-Vargas, E Noreña-Barroso, L Yáñez-Estrada, J Alvarado, L González, N Pérez-Herrera, S Pérez-Medina
Merida is the largest urban center in the Mexican State of Yucatan. Here domestic sewage is deposited in poorly built septic tanks and is not adequately treated. Because of contamination from such waste, water from the top 20 m of the aquifer is unsuitable for human consumption. Given this situation and because children are highly vulnerable to environmental pollution, including exposure to toxic trace elements, this study focused on evaluating the exposure of children to arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and mercury (Hg) in water...
March 5, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
L Xueting, M U Rehman, H Zhang, X Tian, X Wu, Shixue, K Mehmood, D Zhou
The valuable role of selenium in mitigation of oxidative stress and heavy metal toxicity is well-known. Thus, the aim of the current study on broiler chickens was to examine whether nano elemental selenium (Nano-Se) supplementation can reduce the effects of chromium VI (K2Cr2O7) toxicity. For this purpose, a total of 150, one-day-old broiler chickens were allotted to five groups with three replicates: control group (standard diet), poisoned group (K2Cr2O7 via drinking water), protection group (K2Cr2O7 + Nano- Se), cure group (K2Cr2O7 for initial 2 weeks and then Nano-Se), and prevention group (opposite to the cure group)...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Abdul Wakeel, Imran Ali, Sakila Upreti, Aziz Ullah, Bohan Liu, Ali Raza Khan, Linli Huang, Minjie Wu, Yinbo Gan
The hexavalent form of chromium [Cr(VI)], causes a major reduction in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The root is the first plant organ that interacts with Cr(VI) toxicity, which inhibits primary root elongation, but the underlying mechanisms of this inhibition remain elusive. In the current study, we investigate the possibility that Cr(VI) reduces primary root growth of Arabidopsis by modulating the cell cycle-related genes and that ethylene signaling contributes to this process. We show that Cr(VI) mediated inhibition of primary root elongation was alleviated by the ethylene perception and biosynthesis antagonists silver (Ag) and cobalt (Co) respectively...
March 2, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Yibing Zhu, Zhiwen Li, Yiming Pang, Wenhua Huo, Nan Li, Zhenjiang Li, Jingxu Zhang, Rongwei Ye, Bin Wang
Tobacco smoke contains various toxic heavy metals that individuals are exposed to when they smoke. Despite the presence of heavy metals in tobacco smoke, the relationship between smoking and the accumulation of toxic metals in pregnant women after long-term exposure remains under discussion. We examined the association between long-term exposure to tobacco smoke and the accumulation of toxic metals in the hair of female participants. Our study recruited 252 women from the Shanxi and Hebei provinces of Northern China; these participants were self-reported non-active smokers, and had previously delivered healthy babies without birth defects...
March 1, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Yongfeng Xu, Shixiang Dai, Ke Meng, Yuting Wang, Wenjie Ren, Ling Zhao, Peter Christie, Ying Teng
The residual levels and risk assessment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural soils near different types of pollution sources in Tianjin, China, were studied. The soils were found to be polluted to different extents with PTEs, PAEs and PAHs from different pollution sources. The soil concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), acenaphthylene (Any) and acenaphthene (Ane) were higher than their corresponding regulatory reference limits...
February 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
An Manh Cuong, Nguyen Thi Le Na, Pham Nhat Thang, Trinh Ngoc Diep, Ly Bich Thuy, Nguyen Lai Thanh, Nguyen Dinh Thang
BACKGROUND: Currently, it is recognized that water polluted with toxic heavy metal ions may cause serious effects on human health. Therefore, the development of new materials for effective removal of heavy metal ions from water is still a widely important area. Melanin is being considered as a potential material for removal of heavy metal from water. METHODS: In this study, we synthesized two melanin-embedded beads from two different melanin powder sources and named IMB (Isolated Melanin Bead originated from squid ink sac) and CMB (Commercial Melanin Bead originated from sesame seeds)...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Shuai Zhao, Pu Liu, Yongyan Niu, Zhengjun Chen, Aman Khan, Pengyun Zhang, Xiangkai Li
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a well-known toxic heavy metal in industrial wastewater, but in situ and real time monitoring cannot be achieved by current methods used during industrial wastewater treatment processes. In this study, a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC) was used as a biosensor for in situ real-time monitoring of Cr(VI), which was the organic substrate is oxidized in the anode and Cr(VI) is reduced at the cathode simultaneously. The pH 6.4 and temperature 25 °C were optimal conditions for the operation...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
Jiyu Peng, Fei Liu, Tingting Shen, Lanhan Ye, Wenwen Kong, Wei Wang, Xiaodan Liu, Yong He
Fast detection of toxic metals in crops is important for monitoring pollution and ensuring food safety. In this study, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to detect the chromium content in rice leaves. We investigated the influence of laser wavelength (532 nm and 1064 nm excitation), along with the variations of delay time, pulse energy, and lens-to-sample distance (LTSD), on the signal (sensitivity and stability) and plasma features (temperature and electron density). With the optimized experimental parameters, univariate analysis was used for quantifying the chromium content, and several preprocessing methods (including background normalization, area normalization, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) transformation and standardized normal variate (SNV) transformation were used to further improve the analytical performance...
February 18, 2018: Sensors
Inayat Ur Rehman, Muhammad Ishaq, Liaqat Ali, Sardar Khan, Imtiaz Ahmad, Imran Ud Din, Hameed Ullah
This study focuses on enrichment, spatial distribution, potential ecological risk index (PERI) and human health risk of various toxic metals taken via soil and surface water in the vicinity of Sewakht mines, Pakistan. The samples of soils (n = 54) of different fields and surface water (n = 38) were analyzed for toxic metals including cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and molybdenum (Mo). Soil pollution level was evaluated using pollution indices including geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (CD), enrichment factor (EF) and PERI...
February 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fraser P Filice, Michelle S M Li, Jonathan M Wong, Zhifeng Ding
Chromium is a useful heavy metal which has been employed in numerous industry and house applications. However, there are several known health risks associated with its uses. Cr (VI) is a toxic heavy metal format which serves no essential biological role in humans. It has been associated with oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Contamination of groundwater or soil due to improper handling lead to long term environmental damage. This study explores the effects of long duration chronic exposure to Cr (VI) on live human cells...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Preeti Sharma, Uma Melkania
In the present study, the effect of heavy metals (lead, mercury, copper, and chromium) on the hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated using co-culture of facultative anaerobes Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. Heavy metals were applied at concentration range of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg/L. The results revealed that lead, mercury, and chromium negatively affected hydrogen production for the range of concentrations applied. Application of copper slightly enhanced hydrogen production at low concentration and resulted in the hydrogen yield of 36...
February 6, 2018: Waste Management
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