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Mariya Mukhtar-Yola, Adekunle Tolulope Otuneye, Amsa Baba Mairami, Yewande Wey, Vincent Nwatah, Lamidi Isah Audu
Background: Ninety percentage of children acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the form of Mother-to-child Transmission (MTCT). In the absence of interventions, transmission rates range from 15% to 45%. This can be reduced to below 5% with effective interventions. The last published national guideline (NG) on prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) was in 2010. Clinical audits are essential in improving the quality of care delivered to patients. Objectives: The study objectives were to determine the rate of MTCT of HIV in exposed infants at a follow-up clinic between 2011 and 2014 and to determine the level of adherence to 2010 NG on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, feeding options, antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis and the use of co-trimoxazole (CTZ)...
January 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Ruth Link-Gelles, Megan G Hofmeister, Noele P Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis A can cause widespread outbreaks. Until 2018, postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in the United States for individuals >40 years consisted of immune globulin (IG) administered as soon as possible after exposure, ideally within 14 days whereas those aged ≤40 should receive hepatitis A (HepA) vaccine. However, state health departments reporting difficulty quickly accessing and administering IG, costs of higher IG doses and importance of long-term HAV protection prompted CDC to review immunogenicity data for use of HepA vaccine for PEP in older adults...
April 16, 2018: Vaccine
Daniel Y Bigman, Bradford D Bobrin
Postencephalitic parkinsonism (PEP) is currently perceived as having a very close etiologic relationship with encephalitis lethargica (von Economo's disease [EL]), with PEP developing immediately after the acute phase of EL or at some time later. EL was classically described by von Economo and has somnolent-ophthalmoplegic, hyperkinetic, and amyostatic-akinetic forms. Previous cases have reported success with levodopa in PEP. We report a case with PEP showing success after administration of levodopa and carbidopa...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Aleksandra Lipka, Grzegorz Panasiewicz, Marta Majewska, Lukasz Paukszto, Martyna Bieniek-Kobuszewska, Bozena Szafranska
Aspartic proteinases (AP) form a multigenic group widely distributed in various organisms and includes pepsins (pep), cathepsins D and E, pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) as well as plant, fungal, and retroviral proteinases. This study describes the transcript identification and expression localization of the AP within the discoid placenta of the Castor fiber . We identified 1257 bp of the AP cDNA sequence, encoding 391 amino acids (aa) of the polypeptide precursor composed of 16 aa signal peptide, 46 aa pro-piece, and 329 aa of the mature protein...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Meriem Chadli, Ofelia Maniti, Christophe Marquette, Bruno Tillier, Sandra Cortès, Agnès Girard-Egrot
A new prototype of a membrane protein biochip is presented in this article. This biochip was created by the combination of novel technologies of peptide-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (pep-tBLM) formation and solid support micropatterning. Pep-tBLMs integrating a membrane protein were obtained in the form of microarrays on a gold chip. The formation of the microspots was visualized in real-time by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) and the functionality of a GPCR (CXCR4), reinserted locally into microwells, was assessed by ligand binding studies...
April 18, 2018: Analyst
Balasaheb V Sonawane, Robert E Sharwood, Spencer Whitney, Oula Ghannoum
The high-energy cost and apparently low plasticity of C4 photosynthesis, compared to C3 photosynthesis, may limit the productivity and distribution of C4 plants in low light (LL) environments. C4 photosynthesis evolved numerous times but it remains unclear how different biochemical subtypes perform under LL. We grew eight C4 grasses belonging to three biochemical subtypes (NADP-ME, NAD-ME and PEP-CK) under shade (16% sunlight) or control (full sunlight) conditions and measured their photosynthetic characteristics at both low and high light...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Naoki Kamo, Gosuke Hayashi, Akimitsu Okamoto
An efficient method for peptide ligation between C-terminal Asp(OAllyl) and N-terminal Cys has been developed. Peptide ligation and removal of the allyl group at the Asp carboxylate side chain proceeded in one pot by adding a small amount of Pd/TPPTS complex. Based on this efficient synthetic method, PEP-19 (61 amino acids), which is highly expressed in Purkinje cells, was synthesized.
April 12, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Pablo Barreiro
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral Truvada (tenofovir plus emtricitabine) is effective at preventing HIV infection in high-risk homosexual men. In the United States, PrEP was approved in 2012 and is reimbursed by Medicaid and the majority of private insurers. The situation is diverse and not uniform in the European Union, being PrEP more widely used in France than in the rest of countries. Concerns have been raised that PrEP use may be accompanied by the phenomena of risk compensation or behavioral disinhibition, whereby PrEP users' perception of decreased risk of HIV acquisition may lead them to engage in overall riskier sexual practices and increase their chances of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Blumenthal, et al...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
Claire Edmundson, Ellen Heinsbroek, Rachel Glass, Vivian Hope, Hamish Mohammed, Martin White, Monica Desai
BACKGROUND: Sexualised drug use (SDU) refers to the use of drugs in a sexual context. This includes 'Chemsex'- the use of drugs (specifically crystal methamphetamine, GHB/GBL and mephedrone) before or during planned sexual activity to sustain, enhance, disinhibit or facilitate the experience. Here we aimed to synthesise available UK prevalence data for Chemsex, SDU and the use of Chemsex drugs in an undefined context (CDU) in men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Papers published between January 2007 and August 2017 reporting Chemsex, SDU and/or Chemsex drug use (CDU) prevalence in MSM were identified through PubMed...
April 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Ryan J Giuliano, Christina M Karns, Theodore A Bell, Seth Petersen, Elizabeth A Skowron, Helen J Neville, Eric Pakulak
Multiple theoretical frameworks posit that interactions between the autonomic nervous system and higher-order neural networks are crucial for cognitive and emotion regulation. However, few studies have directly examined the relationship between measures of autonomic physiology and brain activity during cognitive tasks, and fewer studies have examined both the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic branches when doing so. Here, 93 adults completed an ERP auditory selective attention task concurrently with measures of parasympathetic activity (high-frequency heart rate variability; HF-HRV) and sympathetic activity (preejection period; PEP)...
April 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Bashiyar Almarwani, Esther Nzuzi Phambu, Christopher Alexander, Ha Aimee T Nguyen, Nsoki Phambu, Anderson Sunda-Meya
The cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) Pep-1 presents a great potential in drug delivery due to its intrinsic property to cross plasma membrane. However, its mechanism of entry into the cell remains unresolved. In this study, we compare the selectivity of Pep-1 towards vesicles mimicking normal and cancer cell membranes. The interaction was performed in a wide range of peptide-to-lipid molar ratios using infrared (IR), fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques...
April 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rajat Garg, Babu P Mohan, Rajesh Krishnamoorthi, Tarun Rustagi
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported that peri-procedural administration of rectal indomethacin reduces the risk of pancreatitis in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Based on these studies, gastrointestinal (GI) societies recommend prophylactic rectal indomethacin for all patients undergoing ERCP. However, recent studies have reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) in unselected patients who received rectal indomethacin before the ERCP (pre-ERCP) compared to patients who received pre-ERCP rectal placebo...
April 5, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Marisa G Filipe, Sónia Frota, Selene G Vicente
Little is known about the relationship between prosodic abilities and executive function skills. As deficits in executive functions (EFs) and prosodic impairments are characteristics of autism, we examined how EFs are related to prosodic performance in children with high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifteen children with HFA ( M = 7.4 years; SD = 1.12), matched to 15 typically developing peers on age, gender, and non-verbal intelligence participated in the study. The Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) was used to assess prosodic performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ernest Salomo, Pep Rojo, Pol Hernández-Lladó, Antoni Riera, Xavier Verdaguer
A small library of Ir-MaxPHOX catalysts has been applied to the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-aryl imines. A structure-activity analysis of the three chiral center MaxPHOX ligand has been performed. Using complex 1b, the hydrogenation of N-aryl imines took place with up to 96% enantiomeric excess at atmospheric pressure of hydrogen and low temperature. The impact of the stereochemical information at the phosphorous center is small with respect the selectivity, but large with respect the catalyst activity. Non P-stereogenic analogs of MaxPHOX were also synthesized and tested but provided lower selectivity...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Mitsuru Okuno, Junko Shiroko, Daisuke Taguchi, Kimihiro Yamaguchi, Jun Takada, Susumu Imai, Hiroyuki Sato, Shinobu Thanabashi
Objective A 50-100-mg rectal dose of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; diclofenac or indomethacin) has been shown to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP). However, this is higher than the recommended 25-mg dose that is commonly administered to Japanese patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 25-mg rectal dose of diclofenac in preventing PEP. Methods Between January 2016 and March 2017, a total of 147 patients underwent ERCP with or without the rectal administration of diclofenac (25 mg) 20 min before the procedure...
March 30, 2018: Internal Medicine
Teresa Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M Paz García-Portilla, Mara Parellada, Julio Bobes, Ana Calvo, Lucía Moreno-Izco, Ana González-Pinto, Antonio Lobo, Elena de la Serna, Bibiana Cabrera, Carla Torrent, Laura Roldán, Julio Sanjuan, Ángela Ibáñez, Ana María Sánchez-Torres, Iluminada Corripio, Miquel Bernardo, Manuel J Cuesta
BACKGROUND: Many studies having shown significant improvements in non-social and social cognitive performance in smoking FEP patients compared to non-smoking FEP patients. The findings are controversial. This study analyzed the effects of tobacco use on non-social and social cognitive function in a large group of FEP patients and a matched healthy control group. METHODS: A sample of 335 patients with FEP and 253 healthy controls was divided into four subgroups: control tobacco users (CTU), control non-tobacco users (CNTU), patient tobacco users (PTU) and patient non-tobacco users (PNTU)...
March 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Xavier J N M Smeets, David W da Costa, Paul Fockens, Chris J J Mulder, Robin Timmer, Wietske Kievit, Marieke Zegers, Marco J Bruno, Marc G H Besselink, Frank P Vleggaar, Rene W M van der Hulst, Alexander C Poen, Gerbrand D N Heine, Niels G Venneman, Jeroen J Kolkman, Lubbertus C Baak, Tessa E H Römkens, Sven M van Dijk, Nora D L Hallensleben, Wim van de Vrie, Tom C J Seerden, Adriaan C I T L Tan, Annet M C J Voorburg, Jan-Werner Poley, Ben J Witteman, Abha Bhalla, Muhammed Hadithi, Willem J Thijs, Matthijs P Schwartz, Jan Maarten Vrolijk, Robert C Verdonk, Foke van Delft, Yolande Keulemans, Harry van Goor, Joost P H Drenth, Erwin J M van Geenen
BACKGROUND: Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common complication of ERCP and may run a severe course. Evidence suggests that vigorous periprocedural hydration can prevent PEP, but studies to date have significant methodological drawbacks. Importantly, evidence for its added value in patients already receiving prophylactic rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is lacking and the cost-effectiveness of the approach has not been investigated...
April 2, 2018: Trials
Sin How Lim, Mohd Akbar, Jeffrey A Wickersham, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: The intentional use of illicit drugs for sexual purposes (also known as 'chemsex') is well known within the MSM communities in Malaysia although research in this population is scarce primarily because both drug use and homosexuality are illegal and stigmatised in Malaysia. METHODS: From April to December 2014, interviews were conducted with twenty men (age range 21-43) living in Greater Kuala Lumpur who had sexual intercourse with other men in the past 6 months and who used illicit drugs at least monthly in the past 3 months...
March 28, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jinming Jia, Feifei Chen, Yunfei Wu
The transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been demonstrated as a potential treatment strategy for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an important antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies intracellular reactive oxygen species, thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage. PEP-1, a peptide carrier, is able to deliver full-length native peptides or proteins into cells. Therefore, the current study investigated the effect of the transplantation of NSCs in combination with PEP-1-SOD1 for the treatment of experimental TBI in rats...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Robert T Fraser, Peter B Weber, Kenneth D Laxer, Thomas Post
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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