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Juan Herrero, Pep Vivas, Andrea Torres, Francisco J Rodríguez
Introduction: Little scholarly attention has been paid to the analysis of the history of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women with different male partners and how it could be related to levels of IPV with the current male partner. From this point of view, been a victim of IPV could increase the vulnerability of women and, therefore, exert a negative influence on the selection of partners over time, thus increasing the odds of potentially mating with abusive male partners. Alternatively, for some women victims of IPV in previous relationships, there may be additional resources that reduce their vulnerability to victimization by new partners...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jessica Franzen, Kerstin Brinkmann, Guido H E Gendolla, Othman Sentissi
BACKGROUND: The present study tested the hypothesis of a differential pattern of reward and punishment responsiveness in depression measuring effort mobilization during anticipation and facial expressions during consumption. METHODS: Twenty patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 20 control participants worked on a memory task under neutral, reward, and punishment instructions. Effort mobilization was operationalized as cardiovascular reactivity, while facial expressions were measured by facial electromyographic reactivity...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Douglas McCloskey, Sibei Xu, Troy E Sandberg, Elizabeth Brunk, Ying Hefner, Richard Szubin, Adam M Feist, Bernhard O Palsson
Aromatic metabolites provide the backbone for numerous industrial and pharmaceutical compounds of high value. The Phosphotransferase System (PTS) is common to many bacteria, and is the primary mechanism for glucose uptake by Escherichia coli. The PTS was removed to conserve phosphoenolpyruvate (pep), which is a precursor for aromatic metabolites and consumed by the PTS, for aromatic metabolite production. Replicate adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) of PTS and detailed omics data sets collected revealed that the PTS bridged the gap between respiration and fermentation, leading to distinct high fermentative and high respiratory rate phenotypes...
June 12, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Mitsuru Sugimoto, Tadayuki Takagi, Rei Suzuki, Naoki Konno, Hiroyuki Asama, Yuki Sato, Hiroki Irie, Ko Watanabe, Jun Nakamura, Hitomi Kikuchi, Yuichi Waragai, Mika Takasumi, Takuto Hikichi, Hiromasa Ohira
AIM: To investigate the location to which a pancreatic stent should be inserted to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP). METHODS: Over a ten-year period at our hospital, 296 patients underwent their first ERCP procedure and had a pancreatic stent inserted; this study included 147 patients who had ERCP performed primarily for biliary investigation and had a pancreatic stent inserted to prevent PEP. We divided these patients into two groups: 131 patients with a stent inserted into the pancreatic head (head group) and 16 patients with a stent inserted up to the pancreatic body or tail (body/tail group)...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
C Torrent, M Reinares, A Martinez-Arán, B Cabrera, S Amoretti, I Corripio, F Contreras, S Sarró, A González-Pinto, A Lobo, M J Cuesta, A Sánchez-Torres, D Bergé, J Castro-Fornieles, C Moreno, M Bernardo, E Vieta
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess (1) whether there were clinical, neuropsychological and functional differences between and within affective and non-affective psychoses at baseline and two years-follow-up and (2) to explore clinical and neuropsychological predictors of psychosocial functioning in the whole sample. METHOD: This is a subanalysis from a multicentre, naturalistic, longitudinal prospective study ('Phenotype-genotype and environmental interaction...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sulav Duwal, Laura Dickinson, Saye Khoo, Max von Kleist
To achieve the 90-90-90 goals set by UNAIDS, the number of new HIV infections needs to decrease to approximately 500,000 by 2020. One of the 'five pillars' to achieve this goal is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Truvada (emtricitabine-tenofovir) is currently the only medication approved for PrEP. Despite its advantages, Truvada is costly and requires individuals to adhere to the once-daily regimen. To improve PrEP, many next-generation regimen, including long-acting formulations, are currently investigated...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Barbara Kabai Burmen, Joseph Mogunde, Pamela Olilo
Background: Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) aides in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HBV, respectively, from accidental or occupational exposure. We assessed compliance to guidelines for HIV and HBV prevention after occupational exposure among hospital staff at a referral Kenyan hospital. Methods: We reviewed PEP registers for hospital staff reporting an occupational injury at a referral hospital in Western Kenya between January 2011 and December 2012...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Qiuhui Hu, Hengjun Du, Gaoxing Ma, Fei Pei, Ning Ma, Biao Yuan, Paul A Nakata, Wenjian Yang
Pleurotus eryngii contains bioactive compounds that can activate the immune system. Here we report the identification, purification, and functional characterization of the bioactive P. eryngii protein (PEP) 1b. PEP 1b was discovered to be a 21.9 kDa protein with the ability to induce the M1-polarization of the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 cells. Biochemical measurements showed that PEP 1b stimulated nitric oxide (NO), IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production and regulated inducible NO synthase. Phosphorylation and inhibitor studies revealed that PEP 1b promoted the translocation of NF-kB from the cytosol to the nucleus allowing the induction of target gene expression and NO production...
June 13, 2018: Food & Function
Mary D Santos, Maree A Milross, John P Eisenhuth, Jennifer A Alison
OBJECTIVES: To determine the positive expiratory pressures (PEP) and oscillation frequencies generated in the therapist-made-bubble-PEP device using tubing with different internal diameters (IDs). DESIGN: Bench-top experimental study. Therapist-made-bubble-PEP device with a 10 cm column height of water, tubing length of 30 cm with distal end of the tubing resting 3 cm from base of container. Tubing with 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 10 mm IDs were tested with flows of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 L/min...
June 13, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Xiaolong Zhang, Yanfeng Liu, Long Liu, Miao Wang, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen
N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) is widely used as a nutraceutical for facilitating infant brain development, maintaining brain health, and enhancing immunity. Currently, NeuAc is mainly produced by extraction from egg yolk and milk, or via chemical synthesis. However, its low concentration in natural resources and its non-ecofriendly chemical synthesis results in insufficient NeuAc production and environmental pollution, respectively. In this study, improved NeuAc production was attained via modular pathway engineering of the supply pathways of two key precursors-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-and by balancing NeuAc biosynthesis and cell growth in engineered Bacillus subtilis...
June 13, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Hey-Min Kim, Chang-Kyu Yoon, Hyeong-In Ham, Yeong-Jae Seok, Young-Ha Park
The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulates a variety of cellular processes in addition to catalyzing the coupled transport and phosphorylation of carbohydrates. We recently reported that, in the presence of glucose, HPr of the PTS is dephosphorylated and interacts with pyruvate kinase A (PykA) catalyzing the conversion of PEP to pyruvate in Vibrio vulnificus . Here, we show that this interaction enables V. vulnificus to survive H2 O2 stress by increasing pyruvate production...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Huiyun Zhu, Si Chen, Pei Xie, Geliang Yang, Zhenqiang Zhong, Huiqing Zhang, Yiqi Du
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important for evidence-based medicine; however, their quality of reporting remains to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the report concerning solid tumor medication. Articles were searched in PubMed to identify all oncology phase III RCTs published from 2011 to 2015, and the results were classified manually through Endnote X7.0 software. Registration rate, primary end point (PEP) consistency, positive result rate, enrollment time point, outcome feedback in the registry, and publish time zone were extracted and assessed...
January 2018: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Francisco Pérez Roldán, Pedro González Carro
Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) is a common complication most feared by endoscopists. Incidence ranges widelly from 2.1% to 24.4%, which results from patient heterogeneity and differences in endoscopist expertise, method, PEP definition, and severity. Pathophysiology is multifactorial, and involves a combination of chemical, thermal, mechanical, hydrostatic, enzymatic, allergic, and microbiological factors resulting from papillary instrumentation and/or contrast administration within the pancreatic duct (volume and osmolarity)...
June 12, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Yutaka Matsunaga, Yasuyuki Sakata, Takumi Yago, Hirohiko Nakamura, Takashi Shimizu, Yasuhiro Takeda
Numerous studies have reported that post-exercise ingestion of carbohydrates with protein supplementation can enhance glycogen recovery. However, few reports have focused on the degrees of degradation of the ingested proteins due to post-exercise glycogen resynthesis. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to clarify the effects of differences in protein degradation on muscle glycogen recovery. Male seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice performed a single bout of 60-min treadmill running exercise and were then orally administered glucose (Glu; 1...
June 11, 2018: Nutrients
Bonna Leerhøy, Daniel M Shabanzadeh, Andreas Nordholm-Carstensen, Srdan Novovic, Mark B Hansen, Lars N Jørgensen
Background: Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common causes of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization and the incidence is increasing. Endo- and exocrine pancreatic function can be compromised after acute pancreatitis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term consequences of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) on pancreatic function. Methods: A follow-up study was carried out with prospective assessment of endo- and exocrine pancreatic function among cases with previous PEP and matched controls from a Danish cohort consisting of 772 patients undergoing first-time ERCP...
May 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Charlotte Fiskum, Tonje G Andersen, Xavier Bornas, Per M Aslaksen, Magne A Flaten, Karl Jacobsen
Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Phirangkul Kerdpanich, Pornthep Chanthavanich, Mari Rose De Los Reyes, Jodor Lim, Delia Yu, Ma Cecilia Ama, Zenaida Mojares, Daniela Casula, Ashwani Kumar Arora, Michele Pellegrini
BACKGROUND: This phase III clinical trial compared the immunogenicity and safety of a purified chick-embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) administered according to a shortened post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) 4-site/1-week intradermal regimen, compared with the currently recommended 2-site/Thai Red Cross (TRC). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This controlled, open-label, multi-center study (NCT02177032) enrolled healthy individuals ≥1 year of age, randomized into 4 groups to receive intradermal PCECV according to one of the 2 regimens, with or without human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) administration at first visit (in adults only)...
June 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Silvere Dieudonne Zaongo, Men-Fang Shaio, Dar-Der Ji
Nelson medium and modified PYNFH medium were used for the axenic culture of the Naegleria fowleri clinical strain LDL to compare the effects of different temperatures on the organism's growth. In addition, Nelson medium supplemented with 1% peptone (N+pep) and modified PYNFH medium without peptone (PYNFH-pep), without yeast extract (PYNFH-yext), without folic acid (PYNFH-folac), and without yeast nucleic acid (PYNFH-yna) were used in order to compare the various effects of these medium components. In general, N...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Hazar Ashouri, Sinan Hersek, Omer T Inan
Seismocardiography (SCG), the measurement of local chest vibrations due to the heart and blood movement, is a non-invasive technique to assess cardiac contractility via systolic time intervals such as the pre-ejection period (PEP). Recent studies show that SCG signals measured before and after exercise can effectively classify compensated and decompensated heart failure (HF) patients through PEP estimation. However, the morphology of the SCG signal varies from person to person and sensor placement making it difficult to automatically estimate PEP from SCG and electrocardiogram signals using a global model...
February 15, 2018: IEEE Sensors Journal
Xingkang He, Wenfang Zheng, Yue Ding, Xia Tang, Jianmin Si, Lei-Min Sun
Background and Aim: Rectal indomethacin was reported to be effective for postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) prophylaxis. However, the preventive effect of indomethacin for average-risk patients remains unclear. Recently, some conflicting evidence was addressed by recent articles. We aimed to determine the protective role of indomethacin in PEP based on the latest available literature. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to identify related articles published before October 2016...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
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