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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149787/the-role-of-the-home-environment-in-dementia-care-and-support-systematic-review-of-qualitative-research
#1
Dia Soilemezi, Amy Drahota, John Crossland, Rebecca Stores
Background The domestic home is the preferred site for care provision for people with dementia and their families, therefore creating a dementia and caring friendly home environment is crucial. This systematic review synthesised qualitative studies to explore the role of the home environment and identify potential barriers and facilitators in home dementia care and support to inform future practice and research. Methods A systematic search in 12 databases identified international qualitative literature on perceptions and experiences of community-dwelling people with dementia, family and formal carers regarding the role of the home environment and ways to tackle daily challenges...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149766/numerosity-estimation-benefits-from-transsaccadic-information-integration
#2
Carolin Hübner, Alexander C Schütz
Humans achieve a stable and homogeneous representation of their visual environment, although visual processing varies across the visual field. Here we investigated the circumstances under which peripheral and foveal information is integrated for numerosity estimation across saccades. We asked our participants to judge the number of black and white dots on a screen. Information was presented either in the periphery before a saccade, in the fovea after a saccade, or in both areas consecutively to measure transsaccadic integration...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149746/habitat-mosaics-and-path-analysis-can-improve-biological-conservation-of-aquatic-biodiversity-in-ecosystems-with-low-head-dams
#3
Sean M Hitchman, Martha E Mather, Joseph M Smith, Jane S Fencl
Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149744/bacterial-community-structure-along-the-subtidal-sandy-sediment-belt-of-a-high-arctic-fjord-kongsfjorden-svalbard-islands
#4
Conte Antonella, Papale Maria, Amalfitano Stefano, Mikkonen Anu, Rizzo Carmen, De Domenico Emilio, Michaud Luigi, Lo Giudice Angelina
Open fjords are subject to contrasting environmental conditions, owing to meltwater glacial inputs, terrestrial runoff, and marine water mass exchanges, which are exacerbated by anthropogenic and climate perturbations. Following a slope-dependent water circulation, the subtidal sandy sediment belt regulates the convergent transport of nutrients downward the fjord depths, and the effective entrapment of suspended particles and microorganisms. In this study, we aimed at testing how glacial and seawater inputs may influence the bacterial community structure of subtidal sand deposits in the Kongsfjorden...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149742/stability-of-heavy-metals-in-soil-washing-residue-with-and-without-biochar-addition-under-accelerated-ageing
#5
Zhengtao Shen, Deyi Hou, Bin Zhao, Wendi Xu, Yong Sik Ok, Nanthi S Bolan, Daniel S Alessi
Soil washing residue (SWR), which typically concentrates the washed toxic metals and is comprised of high contents of clay particles, may pose risks to the surrounding environment. This study aims to simulate accelerated ageing to assess the stability of selected metals (Cd(2+) (132mg/kg), Cu(2+) (248mg/kg) and Pb(2+) (3470mg/kg)) in a SWR (89.68% of clay) with and without biochar treatment. The soil was incubated under constant moisture and wet-dry cycles (accelerated ageing), respectively, and the mobility and fractions of heavy metals in the soils with and without biochar treatment were examined...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149714/influence-of-fe-ii-on-the-se-iv-sorption-under-oxic-anoxic-conditions-using-bentonite
#6
Jiangang He, Yanlin Shi, Xiaoyu Yang, Wanqiang Zhou, Yao Li, Chunli Liu
(79)Se, one of the key radionuclides for nuclear waste disposal, threatens the quality of the environment, as well as human health. Therefore, it needs to be permanently isolated from the biosphere. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the removal of (79)Se using bentonite in the pH range of 2.0-10.0 under oxic/anoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, Se(IV) prefers to form inner-sphere complexes with Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, derived from the oxidization of Fe(II) using oxygen...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149712/detection-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-sulphonates-in-italian-eel-samples-by-hplc-hrms-orbitrap
#7
Luca Maria Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Elisa Pasquale, Claudia Balzaretti, Petra Cagnardi, Doriana Tedesco, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contain one or more carbon-bound hydrogens substituted by fluorine. Since the 1950s, these compounds have been used to manufacture fat- and water-resistant fabrics, paper and food containers, and to produce photographic films, firefighting foams, detergents and insecticides. The widespread use and global distribution of PFASs, have led to their accumulation in the environment. Food, particularly fish and other seafood, is considered the main route of human exposure to PFASs...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149710/prevalence-and-sources-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-the-atmospheric-environment-of-lake-victoria-east-africa
#8
Kenneth Arinaitwe, Derek C G Muir, Bernard T Kiremire, Phil Fellin, Henrik Li, Camilla Teixeira, Drake N Mubiru
The large surface area of Lake Victoria (about 68,800 km(2)) makes it vulnerable to high atmospheric deposition of chemical pollutants. We present measurements of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the lake's atmospheric environment. High volume air (24 h) samples were collected within the northern Lake Victoria watershed in Uganda over two periods; 1999-2004 [at Kakira (KAK) and Entebbe (EBB)] and 2008-2010 (at EBB only). Precipitation samples were also collected monthly during the 2008-2010 period at EBB...
November 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149681/mechanistic-insight-into-contextual-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Ying E Zhang
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) controls a wide range of cellular functions by activating both SMADs and non-SMAD pathways. In different tissue or physiological environment, cellular responses to TGF-β can be diverse, even opposite. Complex regulations at the level of ligand mobilization, receptor presentation, and the network of intracellular signal transducers afford the TGF-β pathway with versatile means to induce precise cellular responses in accordance to specific contextual demands. This article summarizes recent development in how cells manage their responses to TGF-β through ligand activation, receptor abundance, as well as SMAD-dependent and SMAD-independent mechanisms...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149672/the-application-of-bacteriophages-as-novel-indicators-of-viral-pathogens-in-wastewater-treatment-systems
#10
Edgard Dias, James Ebdon, Huw Taylor
Many wastewater treatment technologies have been shown to remove bacterial pathogens more effectively than viral pathogens and, in aquatic environments, levels of traditional faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) do not appear to correlate consistently with levels of human viral pathogens. There is, therefore, a need for novel viral indicators of faecal pollution and surrogates of viral pathogens, especially given the increasing importance of indirect and direct wastewater reuse. Potential candidates include bacteriophages (phages) and the study described here sought to elucidate the relationship between three groups of phages (somatic coliphages (SOMPH), F-RNA coliphages (F-RNAPH) and human-specific phages infecting B...
November 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149670/an-updated-review-on-tritium-in-the-environment
#11
REVIEW
Frédérique Eyrolle, Loïc Ducros, Séverine Le Dizès, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Sabine Charmasson, Patrick Boyer, Catherine Cossonnet
Various studies indicated more or less recently that organically bound tritium (OBT) formed from gaseous or liquid tritium releases into the environment potentially accumulates in organisms contradicting hypotheses associated to methods used to assess the biological impact of tritium on humans (ASN, 2010). Increasing research works were then performed during the last decade in order to gain knowledge on this radionuclide expected to be increasingly released by nuclear installations in the near future within the environment...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149642/oxidative-stress-cell-cycle-arrest-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-induced-by-tris-1-3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate
#12
Hanyan Chen, Pingping Wang, Zhongkun Du, Guowei Wang, Shixiang Gao
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP) is an additive flame retardant of high production volume, and frequently detected in biota and environment. However, knowledge on its potential risk and toxicological mechanism still remains limited. In this study, DNA damage, transcriptomic responses and biochemical changes in the liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio) induced by TDCPP were investigated. Zebrafish was exposed to 45.81μg/L (1/100 (96h-LC50)) and 229.05μg/L (1/20 (96h-LC50)) TDCPP for 7 d. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and GSH contents, in addition to antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver changed significantly, and the mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress were alerted in a dose-dependent and/or sex-dependent manner after exposure to TDCPP...
November 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149620/the-dopamine-d4-receptor-gene-birth-weight-maternal-depression-maternal-attention-and-the-prediction-of-disorganized-attachment-at-36-months-of-age-a-prospective-gene%C3%A3-environment-analysis
#13
Justin Graffi, Ellen Moss, Alexia Jolicoeur-Martineau, Gal Moss, Vanessa Lecompte, Katherine Pascuzzo, Vanessa Babineau, Cathryn Gordon-Green, Viara R Mileva-Seitz, Klaus Minde, Roberto Sassi, Meir Steiner, James L Kennedy, Helene Gaudreau, Robert Levitan, Michael J Meaney, Ashley Wazana
BACKGROUND: Efforts to understand the developmental pathways for disorganized attachment reflect the importance of disorganized attachment on the prediction of future psychopathology. The inconsistent findings on the prediction of disorganized attachment from the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, birth weight, and maternal depression as well as the evidence supporting the contribution of early maternal care, suggest the importance of exploring a gene by environment model. METHODS: Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment project; consisting of 655 mother-child dyads...
November 14, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149596/rational-design-of-evolutionarily-stable-microbial-kill-switches
#14
Finn Stirling, Lisa Bitzan, Samuel O'Keefe, Elizabeth Redfield, John W K Oliver, Jeffrey Way, Pamela A Silver
The evolutionary stability of synthetic genetic circuits is key to both the understanding and application of genetic control elements. One useful but challenging situation is a switch between life and death depending on environment. Here are presented "essentializer" and "cryodeath" circuits, which act as kill switches in Escherichia coli. The essentializer element induces cell death upon the loss of a bi-stable cI/Cro memory switch. Cryodeath makes use of a cold-inducible promoter to express a toxin. We employ rational design and a toxin/antitoxin titering approach to produce and screen a small library of potential constructs, in order to select for constructs that are evolutionarily stable...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149571/imaging-and-spectroscopy-of-single-metal-nanostructure-absorption
#15
Anneli Joplin, Wei-Shun Chang, Stephan Link
The highly tunable optical properties of metal nanoparticles make them an ideal building block in any application that requires control over light, heat, or electrons on the nanoscale. Because of their size, metal nanoparticles both absorb and scatter light efficiently. Consequently, improving their performance often involves shifting the balance between absorption and scattering to promote desirable features of their optical properties. Scattering by single metal nanoparticles is commonly characterized using dark-field scattering spectroscopy, but routine methods to characterize pure absorption over a broad wavelength range are much more complex...
November 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149558/quantification-of-humic-substances-in-natural-water-using-nitrogen-doped-carbon-dots
#16
Yan-Fang Guan, Bao-Cheng Huang, Chen Qian, Han-Qing Yu
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in aqueous environments and plays a significant role in pollutant mitigation, transformation and organic geochemical circulation. DOM is also capable of forming carcinogenic by-products in the disinfection treatment processes of drinking water. Thus, efficient methods for DOM quantification are highly desired. In this work, a novel sensor for rapid and selective detection of humic substances (HS), a key component of DOM, based on fluorescence quenching of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots was developed...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149507/registered-nurse-and-midwife-experiences-of-using-videoconferencing-in-practice-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-studies
#17
REVIEW
Robyn A Penny, Natalie K Bradford, Danette Langbecker
AIM: To synthesise evidence of registered nurses' and midwives' experiences with videoconferencing and identify perceptions of the appropriateness, meaningfulness and feasibility of this technology in professional and clinical practice. BACKGROUND: Videoconferencing is a form of telehealth that can facilitate access to high quality care to improve health outcomes for patients and enable clinicians working in isolation to access education, clinical supervision, peer support and case review...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149499/being-there-and-reconnecting-midwives-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-mindfulness-training-on-their-practice
#18
Louise Hunter, Sarah Snow, Sian Warriner
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain how midwives perceived attending a mindfulness course impacted on their professional practice, particularly in regard to any stress they experienced at work. DESIGN: A qualitative study using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine midwives. SETTING: A large maternity Trust in the United Kingdom. INTERVENTION: An eight-week Mindfulness course, adapted from Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149473/exploring-communication-during-the-journey-from-noticing-bodily-changes-to-a-diagnosis-of-endometrial-cancer
#19
Catherine Cook, Margaret Brunton, Tepora Pukepuke, Ai Ling Tan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To understand women's perspectives about the trajectory from first bodily changes to diagnosis. BACKGROUND: With endometrial cancer, as with all gynaecological cancers, early diagnosis is key to successful outcomes. However, women do not always seek clinical advice early. Previously, this gap has been referred to as a 'delay', blamed on fear or refusal to acknowledge symptoms. METHODS: A qualitative research project which involved face-to-face interviews with 16 women who had presented with symptoms of endometrial cancer...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149460/the-impact-of-a-prolonged-stay-in-the-icu-on-patients-fundamental-care-needs
#20
Claire Minton, Lesley Batten, Annette Huntington
AIM: To explore patients', families', and health professionals' experiences of a long-stay patient in an intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: The fast-paced technologically driven intensive care unit environment, designed for a short patient stay, supports the provision of complex physiologically-focused care for those with life-threatening illnesses. Long stay patients with pronounced fundamental care needs fall outside predicted patient pathways, and nurses can find caring for these patients challenging...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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