Read by QxMD icon Read


Christian Rellstab, Stefan Zoller, Lorenz Walthert, Isabelle Lesur, Andrea R Pluess, René Graf, Catherine Bodénès, Christoph Sperisen, Antoine Kremer, Felix Gugerli
Testing how populations are locally adapted and predicting their response to their future environment is of key importance in view of climate change. Landscape genomics is a powerful approach to investigate genes and environmental factors involved in local adaptation. In a pooled amplicon sequencing approach of 94 genes in 71 populations, we tested if >3'500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the three most common oak species in Switzerland (Quercus petraea, Q. pubescens, Q. robur) show an association with abiotic factors related to local topography, historical climate, and soil characteristics...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Huiping Zhang, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is influenced by gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors can affect gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review outlines the findings regarding the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. METHODS: We searched PubMed (by April 2016) and identified 29 studies that examined the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. We also evaluated the methods used in these studies...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Lissa C Baird, Paul Klimo, Ann Marie Flannery, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Catherine Mazzola
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines are not currently available for the treatment of positional plagiocephaly and, in particular, for the use of physical therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVE: To answer the question: "does physical therapy provide effective treatment for positional plagiocephaly?" Treatment recommendations are created based on the available evidence. METHODS: The PubMed and the Cochrane Library were queried using MeSH headings and key words relevant to the objective of this systematic review...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Paul Klimo, Patrick Ryan Lingo, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Catherine Mazzola, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: Plagiocephaly, involving positional deformity of the calvarium in infants, is one of the most common reasons for pediatric neurosurgical consultation. OBJECTIVE: To answer the question: "what is the evidence for the effectiveness of repositioning for positional plagiocephaly?" Treatment recommendations are provided based on the available evidence. METHODS: The National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database and the Cochrane Library were queried using MeSH headings and key words relevant to repositioning as a means to treat plagiocephaly and brachycephaly...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Beth Wieczorek, Judith Ascenzi, Yun Kim, Hallie Lenker, Caroline Potter, Nehal J Shata, Lauren Mitchell, Catherine Haut, Ivor Berkowitz, Frank Pidcock, Jeannine Hoch, Connie Malamed, Tamara Kravitz, Sapna R Kudchadkar
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and feasibility of an early mobilization program in a PICU. DESIGN: Observational, pre-post design. SETTING: PICU in a tertiary academic hospital in the United States. PATIENTS: Critically ill pediatric patients admitted to the PICU. INTERVENTION: This quality improvement project involved a usual-care baseline phase, followed by a quality improvement phase that implemented a multicomponent, interdisciplinary, and tiered activity plan to promote early mobilization of critically ill children...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Jonathan B Gillespie, Michelle Maclean, Martin J Given, Mark P Wilson, Martin D Judd, Igor V Timoshkin, Scott J MacGregor
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates possible advantages in pulsed over continuous 405-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light for bacterial inactivation and energy efficiency. BACKGROUND: Alternative nonantibiotic methods of disinfection and infection control have become of significant interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the application of systems using 405-nm LEDs for continuous disinfection of the clinical environment, and also for potential treatment of contaminated wounds...
October 19, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
F Femiano, R Femiano, L Femiano, A Jamilian, R Rullo, L Perillo
AIM: This review aims to summarise our understanding of the destructive role of acid environment and metalloproteinases in dentin caries progression using a review process. METHOD: The acids resulting from consumption of sugars by acidogenic and aciduric bacteria can cause demineralisation of the tooth surface, but are not able to cause caries-like lesions. The appearance of such lesions requires the activation of enzymatic proteolysis in an acidic environment for degradation of the dentin organic matrix, leading to cavity formation...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Justin A Lemkul, Alexander D MacKerell
Mg2+ ions are important in biological systems, particularly in stabilizing compact RNA folds. Mg2+ is strongly polarizing, and representing its interactions in heterogeneous environments is a challenge for empirical force field development. To date, the most commonly used force fields in molecular dynamics simulations utilize a pairwise-additive approximation for electrostatic interactions, which cannot account for the significant polarization response in systems containing Mg2+. In the present work, we refine the interactions of Mg2+ with water, Cl- ions, and nucleic acid moieties using a polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator model...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Zhen Yang, Andreas Kappler, Jie Jiang
Humic substances (HS) are redox-active organic compounds with a broad spectrum of molecular sizes and reducing capacities, i.e. number of electrons donated or accepted. However, it is unknown which role the distribution of redox-active functional groups in different molecule sizes plays for HS redox reactions in varying pore sizes micro-environments. We used dialysis experiments to separate bulk humic acids (HA) into low molecular weight fractions (LMWF) and retentate, e.g. the remaining HA in the dialysis bag...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Harlene Hayne, Katja Jaeger, Trine Sonne, Julien Gross
The visual recognition memory (VRM) paradigm has been widely used to measure memory during infancy and early childhood; it has also been used to study memory in human and nonhuman adults. Typically, participants are familiarized with stimuli that have no special significance to them. Under these conditions, greater attention to the novel stimulus during the test (i.e., novelty preference) is used as the primary index of memory. Here, we took a novel approach to the VRM paradigm and tested 1-, 2-, and 3-year olds using photos of meaningful stimuli that were drawn from the participants' own environment (e...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
S S Garcia, Q Du, H Wu
The oral cavity is a dynamic environment characterized by hundreds of bacterial species, saliva, and an influx of nutrients and metal ions such as copper. Although there is a physiologic level of copper in the saliva, the oral cavity is often challenged with an influx of copper ions. At high concentrations copper is toxic and must therefore be strictly regulated by pathogens for them to persist and cause disease. The cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans manages excess copper using the copYAZ operon that encodes a negative DNA-binding repressor (CopY), the P1-ATPase copper exporter (CopA), and the copper chaperone (CopZ)...
December 21, 2015: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Jie Huang, Ning Gan, Fangying Lv, Yuting Cao, Changrong Ou, Haiqing Tang
In this work, a facile and environmentally friendly solid-phase microextraction assay based on on-fiber derivatization coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed for determining four nonvolatile index biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine) in fish samples. In the assay, the fiber was firstly dipped into a solution with isobutyl chloroformate as derivatization reagent and isooctane as extraction solvent. Thus, a thin organic liquid membrane coating was developed...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
J Trotman, J Trinh, Y L Kwan, J A Estell, J Fletcher, K Archer, K Lee, K Foo, J Curnow, A Bianchi, L Wignall, E Verner, R Gasiorowski, E Siedlecka, I Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary Team (MDT) meetings aimed at facilitating peer review have become standard practice in oncology. However, there is scant literature on the optimal structure and conduct of such meetings. AIMS: We aimed to develop a process for formal peer review of patients with haematologic malignancies, and to audit any resulting changes made to the management recommendations of the treating physician. METHODS: A standard operating procedure (SOP) for MDT meetings was developed essentially to integrate clinical peer review with weekly pathology and radiology meetings...
October 18, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Mariaconcetta Varano, Marco Gaspari, Angela Quirino, Giovanni Cuda, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà
Ochrobactrum anthropi is a gram-negative rod belonging to the Brucellaceae family, able to colonize a variety of environments, and actually reported as a human opportunistic pathogen. Despite its low virulence, the bacterium causes a growing number of hospital-acquired infections mainly, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the global proteome changes occurring in O. anthropi in response to different growth temperatures, in order to achieve a major understanding of the mechanisms by which the bacterium adapts to different habitats and to identify some potential virulence factors...
October 18, 2016: Proteomics
J A DE Fuentes-Vicente, M Cabrera-Bravo, J N Enríquez-Vara, M I Bucio-Torres, A E Gutiérrez-Cabrera, D G Vidal-López, J A Martínez-Ibarra, P M Salazar-Schettino, A Córdoba-Aguilar
Little is known about how the virulence of a human pathogen varies in the environment it shares with its vector. This study focused on whether the virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), the causal agent of Chagas' disease, is related to altitude. Accordingly, Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens were collected at three different altitudes (300, 700 and 1400 m a.s.l.) in Chiapas, Mexico. The parasite was then isolated to infect uninfected T. dimidiata from the same altitudes, as well as female CD-1 mice...
October 18, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J C Vidal-Quist, F Ortego, B N Lambrecht, P Castañera, P Hernández-Crespo
The expression of allergen genes in house dust mites is influenced by temperature and relative humidity, but little is known of the impacts of other environmental factors that may alter the repertoire of allergens released by mites in home microhabitats. Bioassays were conducted in concave microscope slides in combination with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to analyse gene expression of 17 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) exposed to three chemical stressors that can be present in domestic environments...
October 18, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Chris S Ivanoff, Krassimira Yaneva, Diana Luan, Bogomil Andonov, Reena R Kumar, Anirudha Agnihotry, Athena E Ivanoff, Dimitrios Emmanouil, Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato, Filip Koneski, Ilijana Muratovska, Huda A Al-Shehri, Sara M Al-Taweel, Michele Daly
BACKGROUND: Training culturally competent graduates who can practice effectively in a multicultural environment is a goal of contemporary dental education. The Global Oral Health Initiative is a network of dental schools seeking to promote global dentistry as a component of cultural competency training. OBJECTIVE: Before initiating international student exchanges, a survey was conducted to assess students' awareness of global dentistry and interest in cross-national clerkships...
October 18, 2016: International Dental Journal
Sebastian Schnellbacher, Heather O'Mara
Malingering is the intentional fabrication of medical symptoms for the purpose of external gain. Along similar lines as malingering, factitious disorder is the intentional creation or exaggeration of symptoms, but without intent for a concrete benefit. The incidence of malingering and factitious disorder in the military is unclear, but likely under reported for a variety of reasons. One should be aware of potential red flags suggesting malingering or factitious disorder and consider further evaluation to look for these conditions...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Joshua N Hook, David Boan, Don E Davis, Jamie D Aten, John M Ruiz, Thomas Maryon
Hospital safety culture is an integral part of providing high quality care for patients, as well as promoting a safe and healthy environment for healthcare workers. In this article, we explore the extent to which cultural humility, which involves openness to cultural diverse individuals and groups, is related to hospital safety culture. A sample of 2011 hospital employees from four hospitals completed measures of organizational cultural humility and hospital safety culture. Higher perceptions of organizational cultural humility were associated with higher levels of general perceptions of hospital safety, as well as more positive ratings on non-punitive response to error (i...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"