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Glomerular endothelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784692/a-kidney-selective-biopolymer-for-targeted-drug-delivery
#1
Gene L Bidwell, Fakhri Mahdi, Qingmei Shao, Omar C Logue, Jamarius P Waller, Caleb Reese, Alejandro R Chade
Improving drug delivery to the kidney using renal-targeted therapeutics is a promising but under-developed area. We aimed to develop a kidney-targeting construct for renal-specific drug delivery. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are non-immunogenic protein-based carriers that can stabilize attached small molecule and peptide therapeutics. We modified ELP at its N-terminus with a cyclic, seven amino acid kidney-targeting peptide (KTP) and at its C-terminus with a cysteine residue for tracer conjugation. Comparative in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in rat and swine models and in vitro cell binding studies using human renal cells were performed...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771030/endothelial-dysfunction-of-internal-thoracic-artery-graft-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Takeshi Kinoshita, Masashi Tawa, Tomoaki Suzuki, Yoshinari Aimi, Tohru Asai, Tomio Okamura
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the association between chronic kidney disease and the endothelial function of internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. An isometric tension study was performed in ITA strips obtained during surgery. Concentration-response curves for acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside were constructed in ITA strips partially precontracted with phenylephrine under the inhibition of cyclooxygenase...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756187/endocan-and-albuminuria-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Mehmet Ali Cikrikcioglu, Zeynep Erturk, Elif Kilic, Kenan Celik, Iskender Ekinci, Ayse Irem Yasin Cetin, Tuba Ozkan, Guven Cetin, Shute Ailia Dae, Rumeyza Kazancioglu, Reha Erkoc
BACKGROUND: Endocan is a newly identified proteoglycan released from endothelium, stimulating angiogenesis and when increased, indicates endothelial activation (inflammation). Our aim was to examine the association between serum endocan levels and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR). METHOD: One hundred and thirty-seven patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal serum creatinine who had no co-morbidities other than hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, or neuropathy were divided into normoalbuminuria (G1), microalbuminuria (G2), and macroalbuminuria (G3) groups and compared cross-sectionally regarding serum endocan levels...
October 18, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754292/br-09-2-novel-approaches-to-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-proteinuric-kideny-disease
#4
James Scholey
The classical view of the RAS is a linear signaling pathway beginning with the conversion of angiotensinogen to ANG I by renin, an enzyme secreted by the kidney. ANG I is converted to ANG II by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ANG II binds to the G-protein coupled angiotensin II receptor type 1. The RAS is a circulating system but we now know that the RAS is also locally expressed in a number of tissues, including the kidneys and the heart. ANG II exerts adverse hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic effects on renal cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701167/metabolic-and-hormonal-determinants-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-renal-hemodynamics-in-severely-obese-individuals
#5
Edoardo Vitolo, Eleonora Santini, Antonio Salvati, Duccio Volterrani, Valerio Duce, Rosa Maria Bruno, Anna Solini
OBJECTIVE: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm) perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. METHODS: We measured GFR (mGFR) by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF) by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects...
2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643290/br-09-2-novel-approaches-to-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-proteinuric-kideny-disease
#6
James Scholey
The classical view of the RAS is a linear signaling pathway beginning with the conversion of angiotensinogen to ANG I by renin, an enzyme secreted by the kidney. ANG I is converted to ANG II by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ANG II binds to the G-protein coupled angiotensin II receptor type 1. The RAS is a circulating system but we now know that the RAS is also locally expressed in a number of tissues, including the kidneys and the heart. ANG II exerts adverse hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic effects on renal cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582103/both-clic4-and-clic5a-activate-erm-proteins-in-glomerular-endothelium
#7
Mahtab Tavasoli, Abass Al-Momany, Xin Wang, Laiji Li, John Clark Edwards, Barbara J Ballermann
The chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) 5A is expressed at very high levels in renal glomeruli, in both endothelial cells (EC) and podocytes. CLIC5A stimulates Rac1- and PI[4,5]P2-dependent ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) activation. ERM proteins, in turn, function in lumen formation and in the development of actin-based cellular projections. In mice lacking CLIC5A, ERM phosphorylation is profoundly reduced in podocytes, but preserved in glomerular EC. Since glomerular EC also express CLIC4, we reasoned if CLIC4 activates ERM proteins like CLIC5A, then CLIC4 could compensate for the CLIC5A loss in glomerular EC...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496491/endocan-concentration-and-chronic-inflammatory-process-among-heart-transplant-recipients
#8
P Przybylowski, G Wasilewski, E Koc-Żórawska, J Malyszko
BACKGROUND: Endocan is a novel soluble dermatan sulfate proteoglycan derived from endothelium. It has the capacity of binding to different biologically active molecules associated with cellular signaling, adhesion, and regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, and adhesion of different cell types in health and pathology. Its elevated level is connected with endothelial activation, neovascularization, and inflammation or carcinogenesis. METHODS: The level of serum endocan among 131 heart transplant recipients on 3-drug immunosuppression (calcineurin inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid, steroid) in correlation with other markers of endothelial damage was determined...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477767/the-endoderm-indirectly-influences-morphogenetic-movements-of-the-zebrafish-head-kidney-through-the-posterior-cardinal-vein-and-vegfc
#9
Chih-Wei Chou, Hsiao-Chu Hsu, May-Su You, Jamie Lin, Yi-Wen Liu
Integration of blood vessels and organ primordia determines organ shape and function. The head kidney in the zebrafish interacts with the dorsal aorta (DA) and the posterior cardinal vein (PCV) to achieve glomerular filtration and definitive hematopoiesis, respectively. How the head kidney co-develops with both the axial artery and vein remains unclear. We found that in endodermless sox32-deficient embryos, the head kidney associated with the PCV but not the DA. Disrupted convergent migration of the PCV and the head kidney in sox32-deficient embryos was rescued in a highly coordinated fashion through the restoration of endodermal cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465797/activation-of-general-control-nonderepressible-2-kinase-protects-human-glomerular-endothelial-cells-from-harmful-high-glucose-induced-molecular-pathways
#10
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Konstantina Tsogka, Georgios Pissas, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
PURPOSE: Considering the referred beneficial effects of protein restriction on diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the role of renal endothelium in its pathogenesis, we evaluated the effect of general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase activation, a sensor of amino acid deprivation, on known detrimental molecular pathways in primary human glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC). METHODS: GEnC were cultured under normal or high-glucose conditions in the presence or not of the GCN2 kinase activator, tryptophanol...
October 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460033/c3-mesangial-proliferative-glomerulonephritis-initially-presenting-with-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-a-case-report
#11
Can Huzmeli, Ferhan Candan, Ayse Seker, Esin Yildiz, Hatice Terzi, Mansur Kayatas
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia. In C3 mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, an increase in mesangial cell proliferation without thickening in the glomerular capillary wall can be seen under light microscopy, but the definitive diagnosis is made with the immunohistologic demonstration of isolated C3 deposits in the mesangium. C3 glomerulonephritis may be detected in childhood; however, in this case report we describe the first case of isolated C3 glomerulonephritis together with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in an adult patient...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424703/fanconi-syndrome-due-to-light-chain-proximal-tubulopathy-in-a-patient-with-multiple-myeloma
#12
Mohit Mathur, Bobby Chacko, Mahesha Vankalakunti, Channappa Patil
Fanconi syndrome (FS) in an adult patient is an unusual finding and it merits thorough evaluation. Paraproteinemias are one of the common etiologies in adult FS and need to be ruled out. Among the various forms of renal involvement in multiple myeloma, light chain proximal tubulopathy (LCPT) is the rarest. Usually, it causes proximal tubular dysfunction which is characterized by intracytoplasmic deposition of crystallized, mostly kappa monoclonal light chains in proximal tubules; however, glomerular crystal deposition is unusual...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362315/human-cytomegalovirus-encoded-receptor-us28-is-expressed-in-renal-allografts-and-facilitates-viral-spreading-in-vitro
#13
Wouter T Lollinga, Raymond H de Wit, Afsar Rahbar, Gwenda F Vasse, Belghis Davoudi, Arjan Diepstra, Annelies Riezebos-Brilman, Martin C Harmsen, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands, Cecilia Söderberg-Naucler, Willem J van Son, Martine J Smit, Jan-Stephan Sanders, Jacob van den Born
BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) activation is associated with decreased renal graft function and survival. Human cytomegalovirus encodes several immune modulatory proteins, including the G protein-coupled receptor US28, which scavenges human chemokines and modulates intracellular signaling. METHODS: Our aim was to identify the expression and localization of US28 in renal allograft biopsies by immunohistochemistry and determine its role in viral spreading in vitro...
June 29, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315281/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-maintains-the-survival-of-cadmium-exposed-human-renal-glomerular-endothelial-cells
#14
Hongyan Zhang, Liqun Li, Yifan Wang, Fengyun Dong, Xiaocui Chen, Fuhong Liu, Dongmei Xu, Fan Yi, Carolyn M Kapron, Ju Liu
The kidney is one of the primary organs targeted by cadmium (Cd), a widely distributed environmental pollutant. The glomerular endothelium is the major component of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, the effects of Cd on glomerular endothelial cells remain largely unknown. For this purpose, we aimed to determine the effects of low dose Cd on the survival of human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs). Cultured HRGECs were exposed to 4 µM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and examined at different time-points...
August 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289182/loss-of-endothelial-barrier-integrity-in-mice-with-conditional-ablation-of-podocalyxin-podxl-in-endothelial-cells
#15
Angélica Horrillo, Gracia Porras, Matilde S Ayuso, Consuelo González-Manchón
Podocalyxin (Podxl) has an essential role in the development and function of the kidney glomerular filtration barrier. It is also expressed by vascular endothelia but perinatal lethality of podxl(-/-) mice has precluded understanding of its function in adult vascular endothelial cells (ECs). In this work, we show that conditional knockout mice with deletion of Podxl restricted to the vascular endothelium grow normally but most die spontaneously around three months of age. Histological analysis showed a nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate within the vessel wall frequently associated with degenerative changes, and involving vessels of different caliber in one or more organs...
August 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246914/hyaluronidase-1-deficiency-preserves-endothelial-function-and-glycocalyx-integrity-in-early-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes
#16
Sophie Dogné, Géraldine Rath, François Jouret, Nathalie Caron, Chantal Dessy, Bruno Flamion
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of the glycocalyx involved in the vascular wall and endothelial glomerular permeability barrier. Endocytosed hyaluronidase HYAL1 is known to degrade HA into small fragments in different cell types, including endothelial cells. In diabetes, the size and permeability of the glycocalyx are altered. In addition, patients with type 1 diabetes present increased plasma levels of both HA and HYAL1. To investigate the potential implication of HYAL1 in the development of diabetes-induced endothelium dysfunction, we measured endothelial markers, endothelium-dependent vasodilation, arteriolar glycocalyx size, and glomerular barrier properties in wild-type and HYAL1 knockout (KO) mice with or without streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes...
September 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226110/specific-endothelial-heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor-deletion-ameliorates-renal-injury-induced-by-chronic-angiotensin-ii-infusion
#17
Fenghua Zeng, Lance A Kloepfer, Charlene Finney, André Diedrich, Raymond C Harris
Transactivation of EGF receptor (EGFR) by angiotensin II (Ang II) plays important roles in the initiation and progression of chronic kidney diseases. Studies suggest that heparin-binding EGF-like factor (HB-EGF) may be a critical mediator in this process, but its role in vivo has not been investigated. In the current study, we found that in response to Ang II infusion, kidneys from endothelial HB-EGF deletion mice had significantly reduced EGFR activation compared with controls. Meanwhile, deletion of endothelial HB-EGF expression decreased Ang II infusion related renal injury, as demonstrated by 1) less albuminuria; 2) less glomerulosclerosis; 3) preserved endothelial integrity and decreased podocyte injury, as shown by greater glomerular tuft area and WT1-positive cells, and fewer apoptotic cells measured by cleaved caspase 3 staining; 4) reduced inflammation in the perivascular area and interstitium measured by F4/80 and CD3 immunostaining; and 5) reduced renal fibrosis...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186410/podoplanin-a-small-glycoprotein-with-many-faces
#18
REVIEW
Maciej Ugorski, Piotr Dziegiel, Jaroslaw Suchanski
Podoplanin is a small membrane glycoprotein with a large number of O-glycoside chains and therefore it belongs to mucin-type proteins. It can be found on the surface of many types of normal cells originating from various germ layers. It is present primarily on the endothelium of lymphatic vessels, type I pneumocytes and glomerular podocytes. Increased levels of podoplanin or its neo-expression have been found in numerous types of human carcinomas, but it is especially common in squamous cell carcinomas, such as cervical, larynx, oral cavity, skin and lung cancer...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185367/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-pronephric-glomerulus-development-in-zebrafish
#19
Xiaodong Zhu, Zhaohong Chen, Caihong Zeng, Ling Wang, Feng Xu, Qing Hou, Zhihong Liu
The zebrafish pronephros is a valuable model for studying kidney development and diseases. Ultrastructural studies have revealed that zebrafish and mammals share similarities in nephron structures such as podocytes, slit diaphragms, glomerular basement membrane, and endothelium. However, the basic ultrastructural features of the pronephric glomerulus during glomerulogenesis have not been characterized. To understand these features, it is instructive to consider the developmental process of the pronephros glomerulus...
August 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135778/periodontal-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-pilot-study
#20
S Almeida, C M Figueredo, C Lemos, R Bregman, R G Fischer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This pilot cohort study evaluated the effect of periodontal treatment on renal function, metabolic markers and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) presenting chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with CKD and severe chronic periodontitis were selected. Periodontal parameters included plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
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