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Glomerular basement membrane

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920570/formation-of-tight-junctions-between-neighboring-podocytes-is-an-early-ultrastructural-feature-in-experimental-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#1
Lena Succar, Ross A Boadle, David C Harris, Gopala K Rangan
PURPOSE: In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) from day 1 to day 14...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917694/outcomes-of-kidney-transplantation-in-alport-syndrome-compared-with-other-forms-of-renal-disease
#2
Yvelynne P Kelly, Anish Patil, Luke Wallis, Susan Murray, Saumitra Kant, Mohammed A Kaballo, Liam Casserly, Brendan Doyle, Anthony Dorman, Patrick O'Kelly, Peter J Conlon
INTRODUCTION: Alport syndrome is an inherited renal disease characterized by hematuria, renal failure, hearing loss and a lamellated glomerular basement membrane. Patients with Alport syndrome who undergo renal transplantation have been shown to have patient and graft survival rates similar to or better than those of patients with other renal diseases. METHODS: In this national case series, based in Beaumont Hospital Dublin, we studied the cohort of patients who underwent renal transplantation over the past 33 years, recorded prospectively in the Irish Renal Transplant Registry, and categorized them according to the presence or absence of Alport syndrome...
December 5, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904025/early-raas-blockade-exerts-renoprotective-effects-in-autosomal-recessive-alport-syndrome
#3
Nao Uchida, Naonori Kumagai, Kandai Nozu, Xue Jun Fu, Kazumoto Iijima, Yoshiaki Kondo, Shigeo Kure
Alport syndrome is a progressive renal disease caused by mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes that encode collagen type IV alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5 chains, respectively. Because of abnormal collagen chain, glomerular basement membrane becomes fragile and most of the patients progress to end-stage renal disease in early adulthood. COL4A5 mutation causes X-linked form of Alport syndrome, and two mutations in either COL4A3 or COL4A4 causes an autosomal recessive Alport syndrome. Recently, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade has been shown to attenuate effectively disease progression in Alport syndrome...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872232/therapeutic-potential-of-progranulin-in-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-cardiorenal-dysfunction
#4
Yi Fu, Yu Sun, Meng Zhou, Xiaojie Wang, Ziying Wang, Xinbing Wei, Yan Zhang, Zeyu Su, Kaili Liang, Wei Tang, Fan Yi
Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) is an important independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Although multiple approaches lowering the levels of homocysteine have been used in experimental studies and clinical trials, there is no effective therapy available to fully prevent homocysteine-induced injury. Therefore, identifying key molecules in the pathogenic pathways may provide clues to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of hHcys-associated injury beyond lowering the plasma homocysteine levels...
November 21, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862656/matrix-metalloproteinase-12-mmp-12-deficiency-attenuates-experimental-crescentic-anti-gbm-glomerulonephritis
#5
Abu P Abraham, Frank Y Ma, William R Mulley, David J Nikolic-Paterson, Greg H Tesch
AIM: MMP-12 (macrophage elastase) is an enzyme that can cleave various extracellular matrix proteins and is required for macrophage infiltration and pulmonary fibrosis in experimental emphysema. We have shown previously that MMP-12 is highly up-regulated in experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether MMP-12 is required for glomerular macrophage infiltration and crescent formation in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. METHODS: Accelerated anti-GBM disease was induced in groups of MMP-12 gene deficient mice (MMP-12-/-) and wild type C57BL/6 J (WT) controls, which were killed 12 days after injection of anti-GBM serum...
November 8, 2016: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858870/simultaneous-comprehensive-multiplex-autoantibody-analysis-for-rapidly-progressive-glomerulonephritis
#6
Mandy Sowa, Barbara Trezzi, Rico Hiemann, Peter Schierack, Kai Grossmann, Juliane Scholz, Valentina Somma, Renato Alberto Sinico, Dirk Roggenbuck, Antonella Radice
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is mainly caused by anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis, immune-complex or anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides and leads to rapid loss of renal function. Detection of ANCA and autoantibodies (autoAbs) to GBM and dsDNA enables early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of RPGN aiding in preventing end-stage renal disease.Determination of ANCA on neutrophils (ANCA) as well as autoAbs to myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA), proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA), GBM, and dsDNA was performed by the novel multiplex CytoBead technology combining cell- and microbead-based autoAb analyses by automated indirect immunofluorescence (IIF)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852608/dba2j-db-db-mice-are-susceptible-to-early-albuminuria-and-glomerulosclerosis-that-correlates-with-systemic-insulin-resistance
#7
Mette Viberg Østergaard, Vanda Pinto, Kirsty Stevenson, Jesper Worm, Lisbeth N Fink, Richard John Mark Coward
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of kidney failure in the world. To understand important mechanisms underlying this condition, and to develop new therapies, good animal models are required. In mouse models of type-1 diabetes, the DBA/2J strain has been shown to be more susceptible to develop kidney disease than other common strains. We hypothesized this would also be the case in type-2 diabetes. We studied db/db and wt DBA/2J mice and compared these with the db/db BLKS/J mouse, which is currently the most widely used type-2 DN model...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842978/significance-of-urinary-glycosaminoglycans-proteoglycans-in-the-evaluation-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-complications
#8
Antonio Junior Lepedda, Pierina De Muro, Giampiero Capobianco, Marilena Formato
Because of the high incidence of kidney disease in diabetic patients, the early diagnosis of renal impairment is a key point for intervention and management. Although urinary albumin excretion currently represents the accepted standard to assess both diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular risk, it has some limitations as structural changes in the glomerular basement membrane may occur before the onset of microalbuminuria. It is therefore important to identify urinary markers that may provide greater sensitivity, earlier detection, and greater predictive power for diabetes complications...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833513/plasma-and-urinary-type-iv-collagen-levels-for-early-detection-of-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#9
K Balu Mahendran, M Vijaya Bhaskar, K Santha, R Inmozhi, K K Perumal
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication with high morbidity and mortality, and leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Type IV collagen is the main component of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and the extracellular matrix. The thickening of the GBM is due to accumulation of type IV collagen and alterations in its structure and composition. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma and urine type IV collagen with albuminuria status and to determine the clinical implications of type IV collagen as a marker in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830351/antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-glomerulonephritis-with-immunoglobulin-deposition
#10
Orie Hirose, Mitsuyo Itabashi, Takashi Takei, Kazuho Honda, Kosaku Nitta
BACKGROUND: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis is commonly classified as pauci-immune glomerulonephritis; however, some cases have granular immunoglobulin deposition along the glomerular capillary. The pathogenesis of immune deposits is poorly studied. METHODS: Of 66 patients diagnosed with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis on renal biopsy, cases with immunoglobulin deposition along the glomerular capillary were identified and their clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed...
November 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829813/olanzapine-induced-biochemical-and-histopathological-changes-after-its-chronic-administration-in-rats
#11
Rehmat Shah, Fazal Subhan, Gowhar Ali, Ihsan Ullah, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Shahid, Nisar Ahmad, Khwaja Fawad
Objective: Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic acting mainly as a dopamine D2 and serotonine 5-HT2 receptors antagonist prescribed in the treatment of schizophrenia and various other psychiatric illnesses. Even though olanzapine is widely used in psychiatry, its effects on the architecture of pancreas, liver and kidneys are little known. The histology of pancreas especially has never been studied. For these reasons, the current study was designed to elucidate the toxic effects of chronic administration of olanzapine on pancreas, liver and kidneys and the enzymes released by these tissues in an escalating dose manner...
November 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823966/the-association-between-expression-of-ifit1-in-podocytes-of-mrl-lpr-mice-and-the-renal-pathological-changes-it-causes-an-animal-study
#12
Weiping Hu, Guodong Niu, Hongbo Li, Hanyuan Gao, Rudian Kang, Xiaoqing Chen, Ling Lin
Renal damage is the major cause of SLE associated mortality, and IFIT1expression was elevated in SLE cases in accordance of previous studies. Therefore, we conducted an animal study to identify the role of IFIT1 expression in renal pathological changes.18 female MRL/lpr mice and same number of female BALB/c mice were enrolled in present study. Quantitative analysis of urine protein, Complement C3 and C4, and anti-ds DNA antibody were conducted. HE and PAS staining and TEM analysis were employed to observe the pathological changes in renal tissue...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816946/advanced-glycation-end-products-mediated-cellular-and-molecular-events-in-the-pathology-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
Anil Kumar Pasupulati, P Swathi Chitra, G Bhanuprakash Reddy
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Degenerative changes such as glomerular hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, widening of basement membranes, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and podocytopathy manifest in various degrees of proteinuria in DN. One of the key mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of DN is non-enzymatic glycation (NEG). NEG is the irreversible attachment of reducing sugars onto free amino groups of proteins by a series of events, which include the formation of Schiff's base and an Amadori product to yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
December 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816395/-alport-syndrome-hereditary-nephropathy-associated-with-mutations-in-genes-coding-for-type-iv-collagen-chains
#14
Laurence Heidet, Marie-Claire Gubler
Alport syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by the association of a progressive haematuric nephropathy with ultrastructural abnormalities of the glomerular basement membranes, a progressive sensorineural hearing loss and sometimes ocular involvement. Its incidence is less than 1 per 5000 individuals and the disease is the cause of about 2% of end stage renal disease in Europe and the United States. Alport syndrome is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. It is related to mutations in the genes encoding one of three chains, α3, α4 α5 of type IV collagen, the main component of basement membranes, expressed in the glomerular basement membrane...
November 2, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812762/minimal-change-nephrotic-syndrome-and-prohibitin-2-gene-polymorphism
#15
Keisuke Sugimoto, Tomoki Miyazawa, Kohei Miyazaki, Hidehiko Yanagida, Takuji Enya, Hitomi Nishi, Norihisa Wada, Mitsuru Okada, Tsukasa Takemura
BACKGROUND: Patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) often also have allergic diseases. Abnormalities of Th2-derived cytokines and T-cell functions contribute to development of these diseases. On the other hand, imbalances between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants have been implicated in MCNS and progression of atopic dermatitis. ROS, produced mainly within mitochondria, subject cells to oxidative stress, while prohibitin 2 protects mitochondria by increasing tolerance to ROS...
November 4, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806791/-clinical-features-and-gene-mutation-analysis-of-13-chinese-juvenile-patients-with-nephronophthisis
#16
L Z Sun, H R Lin, Z H Yue, H Y Wang, X Y Jiang, H J Tong, M Li, W G Wang, Y K Mou, F Yang, T Liu, H M Chen
Objective: To explore the clinical features and pathogenic gene mutation of juvenile nephronophthisis (NPHP) in Chinese patients. Method: Clinical data and blood samples of 27 juvenile NPHP patients from 25 families who were initially clinically diagnosed in six hospitals in Guangdong province were collected. NPHP1 homozygous deletions were detected in all patients. Sequencing of NPHP1 gene was performed when homozygous deletions were not found in patients without eye involvement. In patients with eye involvement, NPHP5 sequencing was carried out initially and subsequently NPHP10 gene and NPHP1 when there were no NPHP5 gene mutation found...
November 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797895/viral-associated-gn-hepatitis-c-and-hiv
#17
Warren L Kupin
Viruses are capable of inducing a wide spectrum of glomerular disorders that can be categorized on the basis of the duration of active viremia: acute, subacute, or chronic. The variable responses of the adaptive immune system to each time period of viral infection results mechanistically in different histologic forms of glomerular injury. The unique presence of a chronic viremic carrier state with either hepatitis C (HCV) or HIV has led to the opportunity to study in detail various pathogenic mechanisms of viral-induced glomerular injury, including direct viral infection of renal tissue and the development of circulating immune complexes composed of viral antigens that deposit along the glomerular basement membrane...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795626/anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-crescentic-glomerulonephritis-a-report-from-india-and-review-of-literature
#18
A Gupta, V Agrawal, A Kaul, R Verma, R Pandey
Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is an autoimmune disease that most commonly presents as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with or without pulmonary involvement. It is characterized by the presence of antibodies directed to antigenic targets within glomerular and alveolar basement membranes. This study was performed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and outcome in anti-GBM crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) at a tertiary care center in North India over a period of 9 years (January 2004 to December 2012)...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782909/hypertensive-nephropathy-moving-from-classic-to-emerging-pathogenetic-mechanisms
#19
Teresa M Seccia, Brasilina Caroccia, Lorenzo A Calò
Hypertensive kidney disease classically entails nephroangiosclerosis and hyalinosis with glomerular damage. However, in recent years, several evidences showed that high blood pressure also injures tubular cells, inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Recently investigated mechanisms are also podocyte effacement and loss, which lead to denudation of the glomerular basement membrane and focal adhesion of the tufts to the Bowman's capsule, with reduced filtration and scars...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781206/a-case-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-induced-gene-related-oculorenal-syndrome-granular-corneal-dystrophy-type-ii-with-a-unique-nephropathy
#20
Yoichi Iwafuchi, Tetsuo Morioka, Yuko Oyama, Kandai Nozu, Kazumoto Iijima, Ichiei Narita
Many types of inherited renal diseases have ocular features that occasionally support a diagnosis. The following study describes an unusual example of a 40-year-old woman with granular corneal dystrophy type II complicated by renal involvement. These two conditions may coincidentally coexist; however, there are some reports that demonstrate an association between renal involvement and granular corneal dystrophy type II. Granular corneal dystrophy type II is caused by a mutation in the transforming growth factor-β-induced (TGFBI) gene...
September 2016: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
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