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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887599/how-severe-and-prevalent-are-ebola-and-marburg-viruses-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-case-fatality-rates-and-seroprevalence
#1
Luke Nyakarahuka, Clovice Kankya, Randi Krontveit, Benjamin Mayer, Frank N Mwiine, Julius Lutwama, Eystein Skjerve
BACKGROUND: Ebola and Marburg virus diseases are said to occur at a low prevalence, but are very severe diseases with high lethalities. The fatality rates reported in different outbreaks ranged from 24-100%. In addition, sero-surveys conducted have shown different seropositivity for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. We aimed to use a meta-analysis approach to estimate the case fatality and seroprevalence rates of these filoviruses, providing vital information for epidemic response and preparedness in countries affected by these diseases...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833670/dengue-zika-and-chikungunya-emerging-arboviruses-in-the-new-world
#2
REVIEW
Jessica Patterson, Maura Sammon, Manish Garg
The arboviruses that cause dengue, chikungunya, and Zika illnesses have rapidly expanded across the globe in recent years, with large-scale outbreaks occurring in Western Hemisphere territories in close proximity to the United States (U.S.). In March 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC) expanded its vector surveillance maps for A. aegypti and A. albopictus, the mosquito vectors for these arboviruses. They have now been shown to inhabit a larger portion of the U.S., including the heavily populated northeast corridor...
November 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795338/clinical-microbiology-laboratories-adoption-of-culture-independent-diagnostic-tests-are-a-threat-to-food-borne-disease-surveillance-in-the-united-states
#3
Shari Shea, Kristy A Kubota, Hugh Maguire, Stephen Gladbach, Amy Woron, Robyn Atkinson-Dunn, Marc Roger Couturier, Melissa B Miller
In November, 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a letter to State and Territorial epidemiologists, State and Territorial public health laboratory directors, and State and Territorial health officials. In this letter, culture independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for detection for enteric pathogens were characterized as "a serious and current threat to public health surveillance, particularly for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and Salmonella." The document says CDC and its public health partners are approaching this issue, in part, by "reviewing regulatory authority in public health agencies to require culture isolates or specimen submission if CIDTs are used...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787493/outbreak-of-influenza-a-h3n2-variant-virus-infections-among-persons-attending-agricultural-fairs-housing-infected-swine-michigan-and-ohio-july-august-2016
#4
Rebekah S Schicker, John Rossow, Seth Eckel, Nicolas Fisher, Sally Bidol, Lilith Tatham, Janice Matthews-Greer, Kevin Sohner, Andrew S Bowman, James Avrill, Tony Forshey, Lenee Blanton, C Todd Davis, John Schiltz, Susan Skorupski, LaShondra Berman, Yunho Jang, Joseph S Bresee, Stephen Lindstrom, Susan C Trock, David Wentworth, Alicia M Fry, Sietske de Fijter, Kimberly Signs, Mary DiOrio, Sonja J Olsen, Matthew Biggerstaff
On August 3, 2016, the Ohio Department of Health Laboratory reported to CDC that a respiratory specimen collected on July 28 from a male aged 13 years who attended an agricultural fair in Ohio during July 22-29, 2016, and subsequently developed a respiratory illness, tested positive by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for influenza A(H3N2) variant* (H3N2v). The respiratory specimen was collected as part of routine influenza surveillance activities. The next day, CDC was notified of a child aged 9 years who was a swine exhibitor at an agricultural fair in Michigan who became ill on July 29, 2016, and tested positive for H3N2v virus at the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services Laboratory...
October 28, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764076/notes-from-the-field-outbreak-of-zika-virus-disease-american-samoa-2016
#5
Jessica M Healy, M Catherine Burgess, Tai-Ho Chen, W Thane Hancock, Karrie-Ann E Toews, Magele Scott Anesi, Ray T Tulafono, Mary Aseta Mataia, Benjamin Sili, Jacqueline Solaita, A Christian Whelen, Rebecca Sciulli, Remedios B Gose, Vasiti Uluiviti, Morgan Hennessey, Fara Utu, Motusa Tuileama Nua, Marc Fischer
During December 2015-January 2016, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) detected through surveillance an increase in the number of cases of acute febrile rash illness. Concurrently, a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection documented to cause microcephaly and other severe brain defects in some infants born to women infected during pregnancy (1,2) was reported in a traveler returning to New Zealand from American Samoa. In the absence of local laboratory capacity to test for Zika virus, ASDoH initiated arboviral disease control measures, including public education and vector source reduction campaigns...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736836/surveillance-for-silicosis-michigan-and-new-jersey-2003-2011
#6
Patricia L Schleiff, Jacek M Mazurek, Mary Jo Reilly, Kenneth D Rosenman, Martha B Yoder, Margaret E Lumia, Karen Worthington
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), state health departments, and other state entities maintain a state-based surveillance program of confirmed silicosis cases. Data on confirmed cases are collected and compiled by state entities and submitted to CDC. This report summarizes information for cases of silicosis that were reported to CDC for 2003-2011 by Michigan and New Jersey, the only states that continue to provide data voluntarily to NIOSH. The data for this report were final as of January 8, 2015...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736835/blood-lead-levels-in-children-aged-5-years-united-states-2007-2013
#7
Jaime Raymond, Mary Jean Brown
This report provides data concerning childhood blood lead levels (BLLs) in the United States during 2007-2013. These data were collected and compiled from raw data extracts sent by state and local health departments to CDC's Childhood Blood Lead Surveillance (CBLS) system. These raw data extracts have been de-identified and coded into a format specifically for childhood lead reporting. The numbers of children aged <5 years reported to CDC for 2013 with newly confirmed BLLs ≥10 µg/dL are provided in tabular form by month (Table 1) and geographic location (Table 2)...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736832/foodborne-1973-2013-and-waterborne-1971-2013-disease-outbreaks-united-states
#8
Daniel Dewey-Mattia, Virginia A Roberts, Antonio Vieira, Kathleen E Fullerton
CDC collects data on foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks reported by all U.S. states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) (http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/fdoss/surveillance/index.html) and the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance), respectively. These two systems are the primary source of national data describing the number of reported outbreaks; outbreak-associated illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths; etiologic agents; water source or implicated foods; settings of exposure; and other factors associated with recognized foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736830/elevated-blood-lead-levels-among-employed-adults-united-states-1994-2013
#9
Walter A Alarcon
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and state health departments collect data on laboratory-reported adult blood lead levels (BLLs). This report presents data on elevated BLLs among employed adults (defined as persons aged ≥16 years) in the United States for 1994-2013. This report is a part of the Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks - United States, which encompasses various surveillance years but is being published in 2016 (1). The Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks appears in the same volume of the Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) as the annual Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases (2)...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736826/surveillance-for-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-united-states-2012
#10
Simple D Singh, S Jane Henley, A Blythe Ryerson
This report provides, in tabular and graphic form, official federal statistics on the occurrence of cancer for 2012 and trends for 1999-2012 as reported by CDC and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1). Cancer incidence data are from population-based cancer registries that participate in CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program reported as of November 2014. Cancer mortality data are from death certificate information reported to state vital statistics offices through 2012 and compiled into a national file for the entire United States by CDC's National Center for Health Statistics' (NCHS) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS)...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736825/acute-nonoccupational-pesticide-related-illness-and-injury-united-states-2007-2011
#11
Gonza Namulanda, Michele M Monti, Prakash Mulay, Sheila Higgins, Michelle Lackovic, Abby Schwartz, Joanne Bonnar Prado, Justin Waltz, Yvette Mitchell, Geoffrey M Calvert
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collects data on acute pesticide-related illness and injury reported by 12 states (California, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington). This report summarizes the data on illnesses and injuries arising from nonoccupational exposure to conventional pesticides that were reported during 2007-2011. Conventional pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736824/acute-occupational-pesticide-related-illness-and-injury-united-states-2007-2011
#12
Geoffrey M Calvert, John Beckman, Joanne Bonnar Prado, Heidi Bojes, Abby Schwartz, Prakash Mulay, Kathy Leinenkugel, Sheila Higgins, Michelle Lackovic, Justin Waltz, Derry Stover, Stephanie Moraga-McHaley
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collects data on acute pesticide-related illness and injury reported by 12 states (California, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, Nebraska, North Carolina, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington). This report summarizes the data on illnesses and injuries arising from occupational exposure to conventional pesticides from 2007 through 2011. This report is a part of the Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks - United States, which encompasses various surveillance years but is being published in 2016 (1)...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628040/impact-of-interventions-on-malaria-in-internally-displaced-persons-along-the-china-myanmar-border-2011-2014
#13
Guofa Zhou, Eugenia Lo, Daibin Zhong, Xiaoming Wang, Ying Wang, Sameer Malla, Ming-Chieh Lee, Zhaoqing Yang, Liwang Cui, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Internally displaced persons (IDP) represent vulnerable populations whose public health conditions merit special attention. In the China-Myanmar border area, human movement and resettlements of IDP can influence malaria transmission. Comparison of disease incidence and vector densities between IDP camps and surrounding local villages allows for better understanding of current epidemiology and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in the region. METHODS: Malaria and vector surveillance was conducted in three IDP camps and three local villages neighbouring the camps along the China-Myanmar border in Myanmar...
September 15, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598706/cdc-s-flexible-epidemiologist-a-strategy-for-enhancing-health-department-infectious-disease-epidemiology-capacity
#14
Christina Chung, Leah S Fischer, Angelica OʼConnor, Alvin Shultz
CONTEXT: CDC's Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases (ELC) Cooperative Agreement aims to help health departments strengthen core epidemiology capacity needed to respond to a variety of emerging infectious diseases. In fiscal year 2014, $6 million was awarded to 41 health departments for flexible epidemiologists (FEs). FEs were intended to help meet health departments' unique needs and support unanticipated events that could require the diversion of resources to specific emerging or reemerging diseases...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584717/epidemiology-of-varicella-during-the-2-dose-varicella-vaccination-program-united-states-2005-2014
#15
Adriana S Lopez, John Zhang, Mona Marin
Before availability of varicella vaccine in the United States, an estimated 4 million varicella cases, 11,000-13,500 varicella-related hospitalizations, and 100-150 varicella-related deaths occurred annually. The varicella vaccination program was implemented in the United States in 1996 as a 1-dose routine childhood program. Based on data from two varicella active surveillance sites, the varicella vaccination program led to 90% decline in incidence over the next decade (1). However, because of continued varicella outbreaks, a routine 2-dose schedule (at ages 12-15 months and 4-6 years) was recommended and has been in place since 2006 (2)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549137/dna-barcoding-and-surveillance-sampling-strategies-for-culicoides-biting-midges-diptera-ceratopogonidae-in-southern-india
#16
Lara E Harrup, Swathi Laban, Bethan V Purse, Yarabolu Krishnamohan Reddy, Yella Narasimha Reddy, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda, Naveen Kumar, Kondappa Muniramaiah Purushotham, Shrikant Kowalli, Minakshi Prasad, Gaya Prasad, Alison A Bettis, Rien De Keyser, James Logan, Claire Garros, David Gopurenko, Glenn Bellis, Karien Labuschagne, Bruno Mathieu, Simon Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Culicoides spp. biting midges transmit bluetongue virus (BTV), the aetiological agent of bluetongue (BT), an economically important disease of ruminants. In southern India, hyperendemic outbreaks of BT exert high cost to subsistence farmers in the region, impacting on sheep production. Effective Culicoides spp. monitoring methods coupled with accurate species identification can accelerate responses for minimising BT outbreaks. Here, we assessed the utility of sampling methods and DNA barcoding for detection and identification of Culicoides spp...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527196/chinese-public-attention-to-the-outbreak-of-ebola-in-west-africa-evidence-from-the-online-big-data-platform
#17
Kui Liu, Li Li, Tao Jiang, Bin Chen, Zhenggang Jiang, Zhengting Wang, Yongdi Chen, Jianmin Jiang, Hua Gu
OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014 exerted enormous global public reaction via the Internet and social media. This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the public reaction to Ebola in China and identify the primitive correlation between possible influence factors caused by the outbreak of Ebola in West Africa and Chinese public attention via Internet surveillance. METHODS: Baidu Index (BDI) and Sina Micro Index (SMI) were collected from their official websites, and the disease-related data were recorded from the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), U...
August 4, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390092/travel-and-border-health-measures-to-prevent-the-international-spread-of-ebola
#18
Nicole J Cohen, Clive M Brown, Francisco Alvarado-Ramy, Heather Bair-Brake, Gabrielle A Benenson, Tai-Ho Chen, Andrew J Demma, N Kelly Holton, Katrin S Kohl, Amanda W Lee, David McAdam, Nicki Pesik, Shahrokh Roohi, C Lee Smith, Stephen H Waterman, Martin S Cetron
During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations...
2016: MMWR Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389614/ebola-surveillance-guinea-liberia-and-sierra-leone
#19
Lucy A McNamara, Ilana J Schafer, Leisha D Nolen, Yelena Gorina, John T Redd, Terrence Lo, Elizabeth Ervin, Olga Henao, Benjamin A Dahl, Oliver Morgan, Sara Hersey, Barbara Knust
Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons...
2016: MMWR Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389301/early-identification-and-prevention-of-the-spread-of-ebola-in-high-risk-african-countries
#20
Lucy Breakwell, A Russell Gerber, Ashley L Greiner, Deborah L Hastings, Kelsey Mirkovic, Magdalena M Paczkowski, Sekou Sidibe, James Banaski, Chastity L Walker, Jennifer C Brooks, Victor M Caceres, Ray R Arthur, Frederick J Angulo
In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations...
2016: MMWR Supplements
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