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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227421/an-assessment-of-information-exchange-practices-challenges-and-opportunities-to-support-us-disease-surveillance-in-3-states
#1
Macarena C Garcia, Nedra Y Garrett, Vivian Singletary, Sheereen Brown, Tamara Hennessy-Burt, Gillian Haney, Kimberly Link, Jennifer Tripp, William R Mac Kenzie, Paula Yoon
BACKGROUND: State and local public health agencies collect and use surveillance data to identify outbreaks, track cases, investigate causes, and implement measures to protect the public-s health through various surveillance systems and data exchange practices. PURPOSE: The purpose of this assessment was to better understand current practices at state and local public health agencies for collecting, managing, processing, reporting, and exchanging notifiable disease surveillance information...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155657/frontline-field-epidemiology-training-programs-as-a-strategy-to-improve-disease-surveillance-and-response
#2
A McKenzie André, Augusto Lopez, Samantha Perkins, Stephanie Lambert, Lesley Chace, Nestor Noudeke, Aissatou Fall, Biagio Pedalino
Since 1980, Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) have trained highly qualified field epidemiologists to work for ministries of health (MOH) around the world. However, the 2013-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, which primarily affected Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, demonstrated a lack of field epidemiologists at the local levels. Trained epidemiologists at these levels could have detected the Ebola outbreak earlier. In 2015, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched FETP-Frontline, a 3-month field training program targeting local MOH staff in 24 countries to augment local public health capacity...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152576/meningococcal-antigen-typing-system-mats-based-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-b-coverage-prediction-for-the-menb-4c-vaccine-in-the-united-states
#3
Gowrisankar Rajam, Maria Stella, Ellie Kim, Simon Paulos, Giuseppe Boccadifuoco, Laura Serino, George Carlone, Duccio Medini
Neisseria meningitidis is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults worldwide. A 4-component vaccine against N. meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) disease (MenB-4C [Bexsero]; GSK) combining factor H binding protein (fHBP), neisserial heparin binding protein (NHBA), neisserial adhesin A (NadA), and PorA-containing outer membrane vesicles was recently approved for use in the United States and other countries worldwide. Because the public health impact of MenB-4C in the United States is unclear, we used the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) to assess the strain coverage in a panel of strains representative of serogroup B (NmB) disease in the United States...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138004/development-of-an-empirical-model-to-predict-malaria-outbreaks-based-on-monthly-case-reports-and-climate-variables-in-hefei-china-1990-2011
#4
J X Zhai, Q Lu, W B Hu, S L Tong, B Wang, F T Yang, Z W Xu, S P Xun, X H Shen, Zhiwei Xu
Malaria remains a significant public health concern in developing countries. Drivers of malaria transmission vary across different geographical regions. Climatic variables are major risk factor in seasonal and secular patterns of P. vivax malaria transmission along Anhui province. The study aims to forecast malaria outbreaks using empirical model developed in Hefei, China. Data on the monthly numbers of notified malaria cases and climatic factors were obtained for the period of January 1st 1990 to December 31st 2011 from the Hefei CDC and Anhui Institute of Meteorological Sciences, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121003/surveillance-for-waterborne-disease-outbreaks-associated-with-drinking-water-united-states-2013-2014
#5
Katharine M Benedict, Hannah Reses, Marissa Vigar, David M Roth, Virginia A Roberts, Mia Mattioli, Laura A Cooley, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Timothy J Wade, Kathleen E Fullerton, Jonathan S Yoder, Vincent R Hill
Provision of safe water in the United States is vital to protecting public health (1). Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to CDC through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) (https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/index.html). During 2013-2014, 42 drinking water-associated† outbreaks were reported, accounting for at least 1,006 cases of illness, 124 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. Legionella was associated with 57% of these outbreaks and all of the deaths...
November 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092812/combining-participatory-influenza-surveillance-with-modeling-and-forecasting-three-alternative-approaches
#6
John S Brownstein, Shuyu Chu, Achla Marathe, Madhav V Marathe, Andre T Nguyen, Daniela Paolotti, Nicola Perra, Daniela Perrotta, Mauricio Santillana, Samarth Swarup, Michele Tizzoni, Alessandro Vespignani, Anil Kumar S Vullikanti, Mandy L Wilson, Qian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Influenza outbreaks affect millions of people every year and its surveillance is usually carried out in developed countries through a network of sentinel doctors who report the weekly number of Influenza-like Illness cases observed among the visited patients. Monitoring and forecasting the evolution of these outbreaks supports decision makers in designing effective interventions and allocating resources to mitigate their impact. OBJECTIVE: Describe the existing participatory surveillance approaches that have been used for modeling and forecasting of the seasonal influenza epidemic, and how they can help strengthen real-time epidemic science and provide a more rigorous understanding of epidemic conditions...
November 1, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036392/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#7
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (Carrie L...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984751/bla-oxa48-gene-microorganisms-outbreak-in-a-tertiary-children-s-hospital-over-3-years-2012-2014-case-report
#8
Rafael Herruzo, Guillermo Ruiz, Veronica Perez-Blanco, Sara Gallego, Eduardo Mora, Maria Jose Vizcaino, Felix Omeñaca
RATIONALE: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging problem in children. Nosocomial spread remains the principal risk factor for acquisition of these microorganisms. PATIENTS CONCERNS: We describe an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae OXA48 (KOXA48) in a tertiary children's hospital during the years 2012 to 2014, as well as the preventive measures put in place in colonized and infected cases. DIAGNOSES: We studied, "in vitro," the KOXA48 susceptibility to antiseptics and surface disinfectants...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981484/human-adenovirus-surveillance-united-states-2003-2016
#9
Alison M Binder, Holly M Biggs, Amber K Haynes, Christina Chommanard, Xiaoyan Lu, Dean D Erdman, John T Watson, Susan I Gerber
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses in the family Adenoviridae; seven species (A-G) and >60 genotypes are known to cause human infection (1). Clinical manifestations associated with HAdV infection include fever, acute respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis. HAdV infection can be severe, particularly among immunocompromised patients, and can cause respiratory failure, disseminated infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, neurologic disease, and death (1,2). Illness tends to occur sporadically and without demonstrated seasonality...
October 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961606/evaluation-of-syndromic-surveillance-systems-in-6-us-state-and-local-health-departments
#10
Mathew J Thomas, Paula W Yoon, James M Collins, Arthur J Davidson, William R Mac Kenzie
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating public health surveillance systems is critical to ensuring that conditions of public health importance are appropriately monitored. Our objectives were to qualitatively evaluate 6 state and local health departments that were early adopters of syndromic surveillance in order to (1) understand the characteristics and current uses, (2) identify the most and least useful syndromes to monitor, (3) gauge the utility for early warning and outbreak detection, and (4) assess how syndromic surveillance impacted their daily decision making...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890593/examples-of-applied-public-health-through-the-work-of-the-epidemic-intelligence-service-officers-at-cdc-s-national-center-for-environmental-health-2006-2015
#11
Yulia I Carroll, Fauzia A Rashid, Henry Falk, Meredith M Howley
The Epidemic Intelligence Service officers (EISOs) at the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) respond to public health outbreaks, assist public health surveillance, and recommend public health actions. We summarize the breadth of work done by EISOs assigned to NCEH/ATSDR during 2006-2015. We used the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases to identify articles authored by the EISOs, number and types of epidemiologic assistance field investigations (Epi-Aids), and interviewed NCEH/ATSDR programs with EISO assignees...
2017: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814955/characterization-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients-in-palestine
#12
Regeen Handal, Lulu Qunibi, Ibrahim Sahouri, Maha Juhari, Rula Dawodi, Hiyam Marzouqa, Musa Hindiyeh
The American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognizes Acinetobacter baumannii as a source of global outbreaks and epidemics especially due to its increasing resistance to commercially available antibiotics. In this study, 69 single patient multidrug resistant isolates collected from all over Palestine, except Gaza, were studied. All the isolates were resistant to all the β-lactam antibiotics including the carbapenems. Of the 69 isolates, 82.6% were positive for blaOXA-23, 14.5% were positive for blaOXA-24, and 3% were positive for blaOXA-58...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764772/phlebotomine-sand-fly-survey-in-the-focus-of-leishmaniasis-in-madrid-spain-2012-2014-seasonal-dynamics-leishmania-infantum-infection-rates-and-blood-meal-preferences
#13
Estela González, Maribel Jiménez, Sonia Hernández, Inés Martín-Martín, Ricardo Molina
BACKGROUND: An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since 2010. Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized P. perniciosus. Isolates were characterized as L. infantum. The aim of the present work was to conduct a comprehensive study of sand flies in the outbreak area, with special emphasis on P...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721176/from-one-to-the-other-responding-to-ebola-cases-on-either-side-of-the-line
#14
Rebecca Day Merrill, Sadie Elizabeth Ward, Marydale Cauble Oppert, Dana Allison Schneider
This case study is adapted from events that occurred along the Sierra Leone and Guinea land border during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. The response activities involved Sierra Leone and Guinea officials, along with assistance from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). This case study builds upon an understanding of basic surveillance systems and outbreak response activities. Through this exercise, students will understand how to incorporate communication and coordination into surveillance and response efforts with counterparts across the border in neighbouring countries...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689510/outbreak-characteristics-associated-with-identification-of-contributing-factors-to-foodborne-illness-outbreaks
#15
L G Brown, E R Hoover, C A Selman, E W Coleman, H Schurz Rogers
Information on the factors that cause or amplify foodborne illness outbreaks (contributing factors), such as ill workers or cross-contamination of food by workers, is critical to outbreak prevention. However, only about half of foodborne illness outbreaks reported to the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have an identified contributing factor, and data on outbreak characteristics that promote contributing factor identification are limited. To address these gaps, we analyzed data from 297 single-setting outbreaks reported to CDC's new outbreak surveillance system, which collects data from the environmental health component of outbreak investigations (often called environmental assessments), to identify outbreak characteristics associated with contributing factor identification...
August 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683055/two-outbreaks-of-trichinellosis-linked-to-consumption-of-walrus-meat-alaska-2016-2017
#16
Yuri P Springer, Shannon Casillas, Kathryn Helfrich, Deanna Mocan, Marscleite Smith, Gabriela Arriaga, Lyndsey Mixson, Louisa Castrodale, Joseph McLaughlin
During 1975-2012, CDC surveillance identified 1,680 trichinellosis cases in the United States with implicated food items; among these cases, 1,219 were attributed to consumption of raw or pork products, and 461 were attributed to nonpork products. Although trichinellosis in the United States has historically been associated with consumption of pork, multiple nonporcine species of wild game also are competent hosts for Trichinella spp. and have been collectively implicated in the majority of trichinellosis cases since the late 1990s (1-4) (Figure 1)...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662015/multistate-outbreak-of-salmonella-anatum-infections-linked-to-imported-hot-peppers-united-states-may-july-2016
#17
Rashida Hassan, Joshua Rounds, Alida Sorenson, Greg Leos, Jeniffer Concepción-Acevedo, Taylor Griswold, Adiam Tesfai, Tyann Blessington, Cerise Hardy, Colin Basler
Foodborne salmonellosis causes an estimated 1 million illnesses and 400 deaths annually in the United States (1). Salmonella Anatum is one of the top 20 Salmonella serotypes in the United States. During 2013-2015 there were approximately 300-350 annual illnesses reported to PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. In June 2016, PulseNet identified a cluster of 16 Salmonella Anatum infections with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern from four states...
June 30, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606078/how-to-select-a-proper-early-warning-threshold-to-detect-infectious-disease-outbreaks-based-on-the-china-infectious-disease-automated-alert-and-response-system-cidars
#18
Ruiping Wang, Yonggen Jiang, Engelgau Michael, Genming Zhao
BACKGROUND: China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the China Infectious Disease Automated Alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2005. The CIDARS was used to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and aid in the early warning of outbreak. The CIDARS has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the CDC at all levels in China. Early warning threshold is crucial for outbreak detection in the CIDARS, but CDCs at all level are currently using thresholds recommended by the China CDC, and these recommended thresholds have recognized limitations...
June 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520707/using-molecular-characterization-to-support-investigations-of-aquatic-facility-associated-outbreaks-of-cryptosporidiosis-alabama-arizona-and-ohio-2016
#19
Michele C Hlavsa, Dawn M Roellig, Matthew H Seabolt, Amy M Kahler, Jennifer L Murphy, Taishayla K McKitt, Evelyn F Geeter, Ron Dawsey, Sherri L Davidson, Thuy N Kim, Theresa H Tucker, Sally Ann Iverson, Brenna Garrett, Nicole Fowle, Jennifer Collins, Gregory Epperson, Scott Zusy, Joli R Weiss, Ken Komatsu, Edwin Rodriguez, J Gage Patterson, Rebecca Sunenshine, Brandi Taylor, Katie Cibulskas, Lynn Denny, Keoni Omura, Boris Tsorin, Kathleen E Fullerton, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, which can cause profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 2-3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening wasting and malabsorption in immunocompromised patients. Fecal-oral transmission of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the parasite's infectious life stage, occurs via ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or following contact with infected persons or animals, particularly preweaned bovine calves (1)...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455514/enterovirus-d68-subclade-b3-strain-circulating-and-causing-an-outbreak-in-the-united-states-in-2016
#20
Guiqing Wang, Jian Zhuge, Weihua Huang, Sheila M Nolan, Victoria L Gilrane, Changhong Yin, Nevenka Dimitrova, John T Fallon
In 2014 the United States experienced a nationwide outbreak of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infection. There were no confirmed cases of EV-D68 in 2015 and CDC was only aware of limited sporadic EV-D68 detection in the US in 2016. In this report, we analyzed 749 nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens collected in 2015 and 2016 from patients in the Lower Hudson Valley, New York using a previously validated EV-D68-specific rRT-PCR assay. EV-D68 was detected in none of 199 NP specimens collected in 2015, and in one of 108 (0...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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