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Simon Brooker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457129/monitoring-the-impact-of-a-national-school-based-deworming-programme-on-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-kenya-the-first-three-years-2012-2014
#1
Collins Okoyo, Birgit Nikolay, Jimmy Kihara, Elses Simiyu, Joshua V Garn, Mathew C Freeman, Mariam T Mwanje, Dunstan A Mukoko, Simon J Brooker, Rachel L Pullan, Sammy M Njenga, Charles S Mwandawiro
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the Kenyan Ministries of Health and of Education began a programme to deworm all school-age children living in areas at high risk of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and schistosome infections. The impact of this school-based mass drug administration (MDA) programme in Kenya is monitored by the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) as part of a five-year (2012-2017) study. This article focuses on the impact of MDA on STH infections and presents the overall achieved reductions from baseline to mid-term, as well as yearly patterns of reductions and subsequent re-infections per school community...
July 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430028/analysis-of-the-population-level-impact-of-co-administering-ivermectin-with-albendazole-or-mebendazole-for-the-control-and-elimination-of-trichuris-trichiura
#2
Hugo C Turner, James E Truscott, Alison A Bettis, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Simon J Brooker, Roy M Anderson
INTRODUCTION: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are predominately controlled by providing children with preventive chemotherapy with either albendazole or mebendazole. However, neither has a high efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. This low efficacy limits the overall effectiveness of the current STH control programmes against T. trichiura. It has been demonstrated that co-administering ivermectin with albendazole or mebendazole significantly increases the efficacy of current treatments, which may increase the overall effectiveness of control programmes...
June 2016: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401569/intermittent-preventive-treatment-with-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-in-ugandan-schoolchildren-selects-for-plasmodium-falciparum-transporter-polymorphisms-that-modify-drug-sensitivity
#3
Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Melissa D Conrad, Jennifer Legac, Stephen Tukwasibwe, Patrick Tumwebaze, Bonnie Wandera, Simon J Brooker, Sarah G Staedke, Moses R Kamya, Sam L Nsobya, Grant Dorsey, Philip J Rosenthal
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) offers prolonged protection against malaria, but its impact on Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitivity is uncertain. In a trial of intermittent preventive treatment in schoolchildren in Tororo, Uganda, in 2011 to 2012, monthly DP for 1 year decreased the incidence of malaria by 96% compared to placebo; DP once per school term offered protection primarily during the first month after therapy. To assess the impact of DP on selection of drug resistance, we compared the prevalence of key polymorphisms in isolates that emerged at different intervals after treatment with DP...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198217/understanding-the-relationship-between-prevalence-of-microfilariae-and-antigenaemia-using-a-model-of-lymphatic-filariasis-infection
#4
Michael A Irvine, Sammy M Njenga, Shamini Gunawardena, Claire Njeri Wamae, Jorge Cano, Simon J Brooker, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969283/plasmodium-falciparum-parasitaemia-and-clinical-malaria-among-school-children-living-in-a-high-transmission-setting-in-western-kenya
#5
Stella Kepha, Birgit Nikolay, Fred Nuwaha, Charles S Mwandawiro, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Juliet Ndibazza, Jorge Cano, Damaris Matoke-Muhia, Rachel L Pullan, Elizabeth Allen, Katherine E Halliday, Simon J Brooker
BACKGROUND: Malaria among school children is increasingly receiving attention, yet the burden of malaria in this age group is poorly defined. This study presents data on malaria morbidity among school children in Bungoma county, western Kenya. METHOD: This study investigated the burden and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infection, clinical malaria, and anaemia among 2346 school children aged 5-15 years, who were enrolled in an individually randomized trial evaluating the effect of anthelmintic treatment on the risks of malaria...
March 11, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903608/ascaris-lumbricoides-infection-following-school-based-deworming-in-western-kenya-assessing-the-role-of-pupils-school-and-home-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-exposures
#6
Joshua V Garn, Charles S Mwandawiro, Birgit Nikolay, Carolyn D Drews-Botsch, Jimmy H Kihara, Simon J Brooker, Elses W Simiyu, Collins Okoyo, Matthew C Freeman
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya...
May 4, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897109/cost-effectiveness-of-scaling-up-mass-drug-administration-for-the-control-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-a-comparison-of-cost-function-and-constant-costs-analyses
#7
Hugo C Turner, James E Truscott, Fiona M Fleming, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Simon J Brooker, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: The coverage of mass drug administration (MDA) for neglected tropical diseases, such as the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), needs to rapidly expand to meet WHO's 2020 targets. We aimed to compare use of a cost function to take into account economies of scale to the standard method of assuming a constant cost per treatment when investigating the cost and cost-effectiveness of scaling up a STH MDA programme targeting Ascaris lumbricoides. METHODS: We fitted a cost function describing how the costs of MDA change with scale to empirical cost data and incorporated it into a STH transmission model...
July 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26822604/understanding-the-relationship-between-prevalence-of-microfilariae-and-antigenaemia-using-a-model-of-lymphatic-filariasis-infection
#8
Michael A Irvine, Sammy M Njenga, Shamini Gunawardena, Claire Njeri Wamae, Jorge Cano, Simon J Brooker, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease that affects impoverished communities. Rapid diagnostic tests of antigenaemia are a practical alternative to parasitological tests of microfilaraemia for mapping and surveillance. However the relationship between these two methods of measuring burden has previously been difficult to interpret. METHODS: A statistical model of the distribution of worm burden and microfilariae (mf) and resulting antigenaemic and mf prevalence was developed and fitted to surveys of two contrasting sentinel sites undergoing interventions...
February 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26813411/multi-parallel-qpcr-provides-increased-sensitivity-and-diagnostic-breadth-for-gastrointestinal-parasites-of-humans-field-based-inferences-on-the-impact-of-mass-deworming
#9
Alice V Easton, Rita G Oliveira, Elise M O'Connell, Stella Kepha, Charles S Mwandawiro, Sammy M Njenga, Jimmy H Kihara, Cassian Mwatele, Maurice R Odiere, Simon J Brooker, Joanne P Webster, Roy M Anderson, Thomas B Nutman
BACKGROUND: Although chronic morbidity in humans from soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections can be reduced by anthelmintic treatment, inconsistent diagnostic tools make it difficult to reliably measure the impact of deworming programs and often miss light helminth infections. METHODS: Cryopreserved stool samples from 796 people (aged 2-81 years) in four villages in Bungoma County, western Kenya, were assessed using multi-parallel qPCR for 8 parasites and compared to point-of-contact assessments of the same stools by the 2-stool 2-slide Kato-Katz (KK) method...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26738593/slab-melting-as-a-barrier-to-deep-carbon-subduction
#10
Andrew R Thomson, Michael J Walter, Simon C Kohn, Richard A Brooker
Interactions between crustal and mantle reservoirs dominate the surface inventory of volatile elements over geological time, moderating atmospheric composition and maintaining a life-supporting planet. While volcanoes expel volatile components into surface reservoirs, subduction of oceanic crust is responsible for replenishment of mantle reservoirs. Many natural, 'superdeep' diamonds originating in the deep upper mantle and transition zone host mineral inclusions, indicating an affinity to subducted oceanic crust...
January 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26725835/cryptic-effects-of-habitat-declines-coral-associated-fishes-avoid-coral-seaweed-interactions-due-to-visual-and-chemical-cues
#11
Rohan M Brooker, Simon J Brandl, Danielle L Dixson
Seaweed-dominated coral reefs are becoming increasingly common as environmental conditions shift away from those required by corals and toward those ideal for rampant seaweed growth. How coral-associated organisms respond to seaweed will not only impact their fate following environmental change but potentially also the trajectories of the coral communities on which they rely. However, behavioral responses by coral-associated organisms to seaweeds are poorly understood. This study examined interactions between a guild of obligate and opportunistic coral-feeding butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) and scleractinian corals to determine whether fishes continue to interact with corals in contact with seaweed or if they are avoided...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26607626/enabling-hospital-staff-to-care-for-people-with-dementia
#12
Jennifer Bray, Simon Evans, Mary Bruce, Christine Carter, Dawn Brooker, Sarah Milosevic, Rachel Thompson, Catherine Woods
This is the fourth and final article in a short series that presents case study examples of the positive work achieved by trusts who participated in the Royal College of Nursing's development programme to improve dementia care in acute hospitals. Dementia training in hospitals is often inadequate and staff do not always have sufficient knowledge of dementia to provide appropriate care. It can also be difficult for them to identify when patients with dementia are in pain, especially when their communication skills deteriorate...
December 2015: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26542226/an-economic-evaluation-of-expanding-hookworm-control-strategies-to-target-the-whole-community
#13
Hugo C Turner, James E Truscott, Alison A Bettis, Kathryn V Shuford, Julia C Dunn, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Simon J Brooker, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: The WHO treatment guidelines for the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) focus on targeting children for the control of morbidity induced by heavy infections. However, unlike the other STHs, the majority of hookworm infections are harboured by adults. This untreated burden may have important implications for controlling both hookworm's morbidity and transmission. This is particularly significant in the context of the increased interest in investigating STH elimination strategies...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26539700/shrinking-the-lymphatic-filariasis-map-of-ethiopia-reassessing-the-population-at-risk-through-nationwide-mapping
#14
Maria P Rebollo, Heven Sime, Ashenafi Assefa, Jorge Cano, Kebede Deribe, Alba Gonzalez-Escalada, Oumer Shafi, Gail Davey, Simon J Brooker, Amha Kebede, Moses J Bockarie
BACKGROUND: Mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is essential for the delineation of endemic implementation units and determining the population at risk that will be targeted for mass drug administration (MDA). Prior to the current study, only 116 of the 832 woredas (districts) in Ethiopia had been mapped for LF. The aim of this study was to perform a nationwide mapping exercise to determine the number of people that should be targeted for MDA in 2016 when national coverage was anticipated...
November 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511422/improving-the-hospital-environment-for-people-with-dementia
#15
Jennifer Bray, Simon Evans, Mary Bruce, Christine Carter, Dawn Brooker, Sarah Milosevic, Rachel Thompson, Jane Longden, Jennifer Robinson
This article is the third in a series presenting examples of the positive work achieved by trusts who participated in the Royal College of Nursing's development programme to improve dementia care in acute hospitals. The hospital environment is often disorientating for people with dementia and can be particularly distressing when a patient is admitted in an emergency. Subsequent ward moves can also be disruptive and confusing, especially if they take place out of hours. Two NHS trusts aimed to improve the experience for patients with dementia by addressing the physical environment along with practical aspects of care provision at different stages in the hospital journey...
November 2015: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26482774/interrupting-transmission-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-a-study-protocol-for-cluster-randomised-trials-evaluating-alternative-treatment-strategies-and-delivery-systems-in-kenya
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Simon J Brooker, Charles S Mwandawiro, Katherine E Halliday, Sammy M Njenga, Carlos Mcharo, Paul M Gichuki, Beatrice Wasunna, Jimmy H Kihara, Doris Njomo, Dorcas Alusala, Athuman Chiguzo, Hugo C Turner, Caroline Teti, Claire Gwayi-Chore, Birgit Nikolay, James E Truscott, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Dina Balabanova, Ulla K Griffiths, Matthew C Freeman, Elizabeth Allen, Rachel L Pullan, Roy M Anderson
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, an unprecedented emphasis has been given to the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The mainstay of STH control is school-based deworming (SBD), but mathematical modelling has shown that in all but very low transmission settings, SBD is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and that new treatment strategies are required. This study seeks to answer the question: is it possible to interrupt the transmission of STH, and, if so, what is the most cost-effective treatment strategy and delivery system to achieve this goal? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two cluster randomised trials are being implemented in contrasting settings in Kenya...
October 19, 2015: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26468868/pressure-induced-separation-of-phase-transition-triggered-abrupt-vs-gradual-components-of-spin-crossover
#17
Reece G Miller, Suresh Narayanaswamy, Simon M Clark, Przemslaw Dera, Geoffrey B Jameson, Jeffery L Tallon, Sally Brooker
The application of pressure on [Co(II)(dpzca)2], which at ambient pressure undergoes abrupt spin crossover (SCO) with thermal hysteresis, gives unique insights into SCO. It reversibly separates the crystallographic phase transition (I41/a↔P21/c) and associated abrupt SCO from the underlying gradual SCO, as shown by detailed room temperature (RT) X-ray crystallography and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility studies, both under a range of 10 different pressures. The pressure effects are shown to be reversible...
December 28, 2015: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377070/design-implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-training-programme-for-school-teachers-in-the-use-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-as-part-of-a-basic-first-aid-kit-in-southern-malawi
#18
Stefan Witek-McManus, Don P Mathanga, Allison Verney, Austin Mtali, Doreen Ali, John Sande, Reuben Mwenda, Saidi Ndau, Charles Mazinga, Emmanuel Phondiwa, Tiyese Chimuna, David Melody, Natalie Roschnik, Simon J Brooker, Katherine E Halliday
BACKGROUND: With increasing levels of enrolment, primary schools present a pragmatic opportunity to improve the access of school children to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria, increasingly recognised as a major health problem within this age group. The expanded use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) by community health workers (CHWs) has raised the prospect of whether teachers can provide similar services for school children. We describe and evaluate the training of primary school teachers to use a first aid kit containing malaria RDTs and ACT for the diagnosis and treament of uncomplicated malaria in school children in southern Malawi...
September 17, 2015: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26310230/understanding-the-needs-of-people-with-dementia-and-family-carers
#19
Jennifer Bray, Simon Evans, Rachel Thompson, Mary Bruce, Christine Carter, Dawn Brooker, Sarah Milosevic, Helen Coleman, Wilf McSherry
This is the first in a short series that presents case study examples of the positive work achieved by trusts who participated in the Royal College of Nursing's development programme to improve dementia care in acute hospitals. When a person with dementia is in hospital, poor understanding of individual needs and preferences can contribute to a lack of person-centred care. Similarly, the needs of family carers can often be overlooked and staff do not always appreciate these needs at such a stressful time. This article illustrates how three NHS trusts have addressed these issues...
September 2015: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26291538/should-the-goal-for-the-treatment-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-sth-infections-be-changed-from-morbidity-control-in-children-to-community-wide-transmission-elimination
#20
Roy M Anderson, Hugo C Turner, James E Truscott, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Simon J Brooker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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