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John Edmunds

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649474/using-high-throughput-sequencing-of-its2-to-describe-symbiodinium-metacommunities-in-st-john-us-virgin-islands
#1
Ross Cunning, Ruth D Gates, Peter J Edmunds
Symbiotic microalgae (Symbiodinium spp.) strongly influence the performance and stress-tolerance of their coral hosts, making the analysis of Symbiodinium communities in corals (and metacommunities on reefs) advantageous for many aspects of coral reef research. High-throughput sequencing of ITS2 nrDNA offers unprecedented scale in describing these communities, yet high intragenomic variability at this locus complicates the resolution of biologically meaningful diversity. Here, we demonstrate that generating operational taxonomic units by clustering ITS2 sequences at 97% similarity within, but not across, samples collapses sequence diversity that is more likely to be intragenomic, while preserving diversity that is more likely interspecific...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621634/the-utility-of-screening-colonoscopy-during-kidney-transplant-evaluation
#2
Yu Zheng, Kevin V Chaung, Paul J Park, Joshua J Augustine, Nagaraju Sarabu, James A Schulak, Edmund Q Sanchez, Vanessa R Humphreville, John B Ammori, Kenneth J Woodside
OBJECTIVES: Transplant centers often recommend, but not necessarily require, screening colonoscopies for people over 50 years of age in accordance with the US Preventative Services Task Force guidelines for the general population. We sought to identify risk factors affecting colonoscopy results in renal failure patients undergoing kidney transplant evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients undergoing kidney transplant evaluation from 2009 to 2012 (n = 469 patients)...
June 16, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601491/a-validation-of-the-nottingham-clavicle-score-a-clavicle-acromioclavicular-joint-and-sternoclavicular-joint-specific-patient-reported-outcome-measure
#3
Edmund R Charles, Vinod Kumar, James Blacknall, Kimberley Edwards, John M Geoghegan, Paul A Manning, W Angus Wallace
BACKGROUND: Patients with acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) and sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) injuries and with clavicle fractures are typically younger and more active than those with other shoulder pathologies. We developed the Nottingham Clavicle Score (NCS) specifically for this group of patients to improve sensitivity for assessing the outcomes of treatment of these conditions compared with the more commonly used Constant Score (CS) and Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cohort study in which the preoperative and 6-month postoperative NCS evaluations of outcome in 90 patients were compared with the CS, OSS, Imatani Score (IS), and the EQ-5D scores...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592303/assessing-the-efficiency-of-catch-up-campaigns-for-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-a-modelling-study-based-on-data-from-pcv10-introduction-in-kilifi-kenya
#4
Stefan Flasche, John Ojal, Olivier Le Polain de Waroux, Mark Otiende, Katherine L O'Brien, Moses Kiti, D James Nokes, W John Edmunds, J Anthony G Scott
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation recommends the use of catch-up campaigns as part of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to accelerate herd protection and hence PCV impact. The value of a catch-up campaign is a trade-off between the costs of vaccinating additional age groups and the benefit of additional direct and indirect protection. There is a paucity of observational data, particularly from low- and middle-income countries, to quantify the optimal breadth of such catch-up campaigns...
June 7, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555884/intraspecific-variation-in-growth-rate-is-a-poor-predictor-of-fitness-for-reef-corals
#5
Peter J Edmunds
Genetic variation underlying differences in organism performance is subject to natural selection, and organisms with high values of genetically-determined phenotypic measures of fitness should perform better than those that do not. Using small scleractinian corals (i.e., ≤ 40-mm diameter), this principle was tested with 20 y of census data from St. John, US Virgin Islands. Using growth rate (change in diameter) as a measure of fitness, growth in one year was tested for association with growth and survivorship in the following two years, and this process was repeated over 20 y using a three-year sliding window...
May 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552739/a-left-thoracoabdominal-approach-for-transdiaphragmatic-fistulas-following-bariatric-surgery
#6
John S Riley, Edmund K Bartlett, Daniel T Dempsey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545152/short-term-changes-in-the-health-state-of-children-with-group-b-meningococcal-disease-a-prospective-national-cohort-study
#7
Iain T R Kennedy, Albert J van Hoek, Sonia Ribeiro, Hannah Christensen, W John Edmunds, Mary E Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani
OBJECTIVES: The short-term impact of childhood invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) on quality-of-life (QoL) remains largely unquantified. This study aimed to quantify QoL loss at the point when illness was at its worst, and assess health state recovery in the months following illness. METHODS: Parents of children aged <16 years with laboratory-confirmed meningococcal group B (MenB) disease in England, with onset dates from November 2012 to May 2013 were asked to complete a short questionnaire, which included EQ-5DY, a version of EQ-5D for 8-15 year-olds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#8
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532403/assessing-the-impoverishment-effects-of-out-of-pocket-healthcare-payments-prior-to-the-uptake-of-the-national-health-insurance-scheme-in-ghana
#9
James Akazili, John Ele-Ojo Ataguba, Edmund Wedam Kanmiki, John Gyapong, Osman Sankoh, Abraham Oduro, Di McIntyre
BACKGROUND: There is a global concern regarding how households could be protected from relatively large healthcare payments which are a major limitation to accessing healthcare. Such payments also endanger the welfare of households with the potential of moving households into extreme impoverishment. This paper examines the impoverishing effects of out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare payments in Ghana prior to the introduction of Ghana's national health insurance scheme. METHODS: Data come from the Ghana Living Standard Survey 5 (2005/2006)...
May 22, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513478/a-gaze-independent-hybrid-bci-based-on-visual-spatial-attention
#10
John M Egan, Gerard M Loughnane, Helen Fletcher, Emma Meade, Edmund C Lalor
OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) use measures of brain activity to convey a user's intent without the need for muscle movement. Hybrid designs, which use multiple measures of brain activity, have been shown to increase the accuracy of BCIs, including those based on EEG signals reflecting covert attention. Our study examined whether incorporating a measure of the P3 response improved the performance of a previously reported attention-based BCI design that incorporates measures of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) and alpha band modulations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493399/diagnosis-of-fatty-liver-by-computed-tomography-coronary-artery-calcium-score
#11
Sarah E Kerut, John T Balart, Edmund K Kerut, Michael R McMullan
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may range from simple steatosis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. It is associated with the development of coronary artery calcification and appears to be an independent predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events. As the presence of a fatty liver appears to portray an independent increased risk, it may be beneficial to note this on coronary artery calcium scoring reports. Determination of fatty liver is relatively easy to perform. We discuss the method used by the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study for determination of fatty liver from CT coronary artery calcium scoring acquisitions, which may be implemented in clinical analysis...
May 11, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485675/assessing-the-catastrophic-effects-of-out-of-pocket-healthcare-payments-prior-to-the-uptake-of-a-nationwide-health-insurance-scheme-in-ghana
#12
James Akazili, Diane McIntyre, Edmund W Kanmiki, John Gyapong, Abraham Oduro, Osman Sankoh, John E Ataguba
BACKGROUND: Financial risk protection against the cost of unforeseen healthcare has gained global attention in recent years. Although Ghana implemented a nationwide health insurance scheme with a goal of reducing financial barriers to accessing healthcare and addressing impoverishing effects of out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare payments, there is a paucity of knowledge on the extent of financial catastrophe of such payments in Ghana. Thus, this paper assesses the catastrophic effect of OOP healthcare payments in Ghana...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437185/absence-of-evidence-of-rift-valley-fever-infection-in-eulemur-fulvus-brown-lemur-in-mayotte-during-an-interepidemic-period
#13
Raphaëlle Métras, Laure Dommergues, Katia Ortiz, Marion Pannequin, Christian Schuler, Patrick Roux, John W Edmunds, Matt J Keeling, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Eric Cardinale
The potential role of Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur) in the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Mayotte, during an interepidemic period, was explored. In February and March 2016, 72 animals were blood sampled and tested for RVF. No evidence of RVF genome or antibodies was found in the samples. The role of other wild mammals on the island should, however, be further investigated.
May 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422043/real-world-efficacy-and-safety-of-ritonavir-boosted-paritaprevir-ombitasvir-dasabuvir-%C3%A2-ribavirin-for-hepatitis-c-genotype-1-final-results-of-the-rev1tal-study
#14
John Lubel, Simone Strasser, Katherine A Stuart, Gregory Dore, Alexander Thompson, Stephen Pianko, Steven Bollipo, Joanne L Mitchell, Vincenzo Fragomeli, Tracey Jones, Sarah Chivers, Paul Gow, David Iser, Miriam Levy, Edmund Tse, Alessia Gazzola, Wendy Cheng, Saroj Nazareth, Sam Galhenage, Amanda Wade, Martin Weltman, Alan Wigg, Gerry MacQuillan, Joe Sasadeusz, Jacob George, Amany Zekry, Stuart K Roberts
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the outcomes of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir with ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD) ± ribavirin in a real-world setting. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of PrOD-based therapy in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with and without cirrhosis, and to explore pre-treatment factors predictive of sustained viral response (SVR) and serious adverse events (SAEs) on treatment. METHODS: 451 patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 treated in 20 centres across Australia were included...
April 19, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407140/development-and-testing-of-candidate-items-for-inclusion-in-a-new-rheumatoid-arthritis-stiffness-patient-reported-outcome-measure
#15
Serena Halls, Emma Dures, John R Kirwan, Jon Pollock, Gill Baker, Avis Edmunds, Sarah Hewlett
Objective.: To qualitatively develop and test a set of candidate items for a new RA stiffness patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) that capture the patient perspective. This is an essential first step in PROM development, prior to quantitative development, assessment and validation. Methods.: Focus groups further examined the previously developed stiffness conceptual model and explored the patient perspective regarding stiffness assessment. Data were analysed using thematic analysis...
April 11, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396474/evaluating-the-frequency-of-asymptomatic-ebola-virus-infection
#16
Placide Mbala, Marc Baguelin, Ipos Ngay, Alicia Rosello, Prime Mulembakani, Nikolaos Demiris, W John Edmunds, Jean-Jacques Muyembe
The potential for asymptomatic infection from Ebola viruses has long been questioned. Knowing the proportion of infections that are asymptomatic substantially changes the predictions made by mathematical models and alters the corresponding decisions based upon these models. To assess the degree of asymptomatic infection occurring during an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, we carried out a serological survey in the Djera district of the Equateur province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo affected by an Ebola outbreak in 2014...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396473/the-impact-of-control-strategies-and-behavioural-changes-on-the-elimination-of-ebola-from-lofa-county-liberia
#17
Sebastian Funk, Iza Ciglenecki, Amanda Tiffany, Etienne Gignoux, Anton Camacho, Rosalind M Eggo, Adam J Kucharski, W John Edmunds, Josephus Bolongei, Phillip Azuma, Peter Clement, Tamba S Alpha, Esther Sterk, Barbara Telfer, Gregory Engel, Lucy Anne Parker, Motoi Suzuki, Nico Heijenberg, Bruce Reeder
The Ebola epidemic in West Africa was stopped by an enormous concerted effort of local communities and national and international organizations. It is not clear, however, how much the public health response and behavioural changes in affected communities, respectively, contributed to ending the outbreak. Here, we analyse the epidemic in Lofa County, Liberia, lasting from March to November 2014, by reporting a comprehensive time line of events and estimating the time-varying transmission intensity using a mathematical model of Ebola transmission...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396465/the-2013-2016-ebola-epidemic-multidisciplinary-success-conceals-a-missed-opportunity
#18
Cordelia E M Coltart, W John Edmunds, Katherine E Atkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381465/associations-of-blood-pressure-dipping-patterns-with-left-ventricular-mass-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-blacks-the-jackson-heart-study
#19
Marwah Abdalla, Melissa C Caughey, Rikki M Tanner, John N Booth, Keith M Diaz, D Edmund Anstey, Mario Sims, Joseph Ravenell, Paul Muntner, Anthony J Viera, Daichi Shimbo
BACKGROUND: Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP), including nondipping patterns, assessed using ambulatory BP monitoring, have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk among white and Asian adults. We examined the associations of BP dipping patterns (dipping, nondipping, and reverse dipping) with cardiovascular target organ damage (left ventricular mass index and left ventricular hypertrophy), among participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black population-based cohort...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359335/disease-severity-determines-health-seeking-behaviour-amongst-individuals-with-influenza-like-illness-in-an-internet-based-cohort
#20
Maria Peppa, W John Edmunds, Sebastian Funk
BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza epidemics place considerable strain on health services. Robust systems of surveillance are therefore required to ensure preparedness. Sentinel surveillance does not accurately capture the community burden of epidemics as it misses cases that do not present to health services. In this study, Flusurvey (an internet-based community surveillance tool) was used to examine how severity of disease influences health-seeking behaviour in the UK. METHODS: Logistic regression with random effects was used to investigate the association between health-seeking and symptom severity, duration of illness and reduction in self-reported health-score over four flu seasons between 2011 and 2015...
March 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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