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John Brownstein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804230/the-effect-of-blood-transfusion-on-outcomes-in-aortic-surgery
#1
REVIEW
Camilo A Velasquez, Mrinal Singh, Syed Usman Bin Mahmood, Adam J Brownstein, Mohammad A Zafar, Ayman Saeyeldin, Bulat A Ziganshin, John A Elefteriades
The use of blood transfusion in cardiac surgery varies widely. The beneficial effects of blood products are offset by an increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite multiple studies showing an association between blood product exposure and adverse short- and long-term events, it is difficult to determine causality. Nevertheless, the implication is sufficient to warrant the search for alternative strategies to reduce the use of blood products while providing a standard of care that optimizes postoperative outcomes...
September 2017: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727821/advances-in-using-internet-searches-to-track-dengue
#2
Shihao Yang, Samuel C Kou, Fred Lu, John S Brownstein, Nicholas Brooke, Mauricio Santillana
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that threatens over half of the world's population. Despite being endemic to more than 100 countries, government-led efforts and tools for timely identification and tracking of new infections are still lacking in many affected areas. Multiple methodologies that leverage the use of Internet-based data sources have been proposed as a way to complement dengue surveillance efforts. Among these, dengue-related Google search trends have been shown to correlate with dengue activity...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719252/severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-in-humans-domesticated-animals-ticks-and-mosquitoes-shaanxi-province-china
#3
Huaiyu Tian, Pengbo Yu, Gerardo Chowell, Shen Li, Jing Wei, Hui Tian, Wen Lv, Zongqi Han, Jing Yang, Shanqian Huang, Sen Zhou, John S Brownstein, Jingjun Wang, Bing Xu
AbstractThe first human infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Shaanxi Province, China, in 2013, although the virus had been reported in 13 other provinces of China since 2010. We collected and analyzed a total of 4,011 samples, including 936 human serum samples, 155 animal serum samples, 895 ticks, 1,950 mosquitoes, 30 midges, and 20 sandflies. SFTSV antibodies were found in 44 human samples (4.7%) with no significant differences between males and females or across counties...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528170/disparities-in-digital-reporting-of-illness-a-demographic-and-socioeconomic-assessment
#4
Samuel Henly, Gaurav Tuli, Sheryl A Kluberg, Jared B Hawkins, Quynh C Nguyen, Aranka Anema, Adyasha Maharana, John S Brownstein, Elaine O Nsoesie
Although digital reports of disease are currently used by public health officials for disease surveillance and decision making, little is known about environmental factors and compositional characteristics that may influence reporting patterns. The objective of this study is to quantify the association between climate, demographic and socio-economic factors on digital reporting of disease at the US county level. We reference approximately 1.5 million foodservice business reviews between 2004 and 2014, and use census data, machine learning methods and regression models to assess whether digital reporting of disease is associated with climate, socio-economic and demographic factors...
August 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520492/use-of-a-digital-health-application-for-influenza-surveillance-in-china
#5
Yulin Hswen, John S Brownstein, Jeremiah Liu, Jared B Hawkins
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a commercial digital health application could support influenza surveillance in China. METHODS: We retrieved data from the Thermia online and mobile educational tool, which allows parents to monitor their children's fever and infectious febrile illnesses including influenza. We modeled monthly aggregated influenza-like illness case counts from Thermia users over time and compared them against influenza monthly case counts obtained from the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China by using time series regression analysis...
July 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482810/using-electronic-health-records-and-internet-search-information-for-accurate-influenza-forecasting
#6
Shihao Yang, Mauricio Santillana, John S Brownstein, Josh Gray, Stewart Richardson, S C Kou
BACKGROUND: Accurate influenza activity forecasting helps public health officials prepare and allocate resources for unusual influenza activity. Traditional flu surveillance systems, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) influenza-like illnesses reports, lag behind real-time by one to 2 weeks, whereas information contained in cloud-based electronic health records (EHR) and in Internet users' search activity is typically available in near real-time. We present a method that combines the information from these two data sources with historical flu activity to produce national flu forecasts for the United States up to 4 weeks ahead of the publication of CDC's flu reports...
May 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439448/spatial-determinants-of-ebola-virus-disease-risk-for-the-west-african-epidemic
#7
Kate Zinszer, Kathryn Morrison, Aman Verma, John S Brownstein
INTRODUCTION: Although many studies have investigated the probability of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks while other studies have simulated the size and speed of EVD outbreaks, few have investigated the environmental and population-level predictors of Ebola transmission once an outbreak is underway. Identifying strong predictors of transmission could help guide and target limited public health resources during an EVD outbreak. We examined several environmental and population-level demographic predictors of EVD risk from the West African epidemic...
March 31, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389417/determinants-of-participants-follow-up-and-characterization-of-representativeness-in-flu-near-you-a-participatory-disease-surveillance-system
#8
Kristin Baltrusaitis, Mauricio Santillana, Adam W Crawley, Rumi Chunara, Mark Smolinski, John S Brownstein
BACKGROUND: Flu Near You (FNY) is an Internet-based participatory surveillance system in the United States and Canada that allows volunteers to report influenza-like symptoms using a brief weekly symptom report. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the representativeness of the FNY population compared with the general population of the United States, explore the demographic and behavioral characteristics associated with FNY's high-participation users, and summarize results from a user survey of a cohort of FNY participants...
April 7, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346168/vaccine-compliance-and-the-2016-arkansas-mumps-outbreak
#9
Maimuna S Majumder, Colleen M Nguyen, Emily L Cohn, Yulin Hswen, Sumiko R Mekaru, John S Brownstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166175/using-twitter-to-identify-and-respond-to-food-poisoning-the-food-safety-stl-project
#10
Jenine K Harris, Jared B Hawkins, Leila Nguyen, Elaine O Nsoesie, Gaurav Tuli, Raed Mansour, John S Brownstein
CONTEXT: Foodborne illness affects 1 in 4 US residents each year. Few of those sickened seek medical care or report the illness to public health authorities, complicating prevention efforts. Citizens who report illness identify food establishments with more serious and critical violations than found by regular inspections. New media sources, including online restaurant reviews and social media postings, have the potential to improve reporting. OBJECTIVE: We implemented a Web-based Dashboard (HealthMap Foodborne Dashboard) to identify and respond to tweets about food poisoning from St Louis City residents...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123858/social-media-as-a-sentinel-for-disease-surveillance-what-does-sociodemographic-status-have-to-do-with-it
#11
Elaine O Nsoesie, Luisa Flor, Jared Hawkins, Adyasha Maharana, Tobi Skotnes, Fatima Marinho, John S Brownstein
INTRODUCTION: Data from social media have been shown to have utility in augmenting traditional approaches to public health surveillance. Quantifying the representativeness of these data is needed for making accurate public health inferences. METHODS: We applied machine-learning methods to explore spatial and temporal dengue event reporting trends on Twitter relative to confirmed cases, and quantified associations with sociodemographic factors across three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais) at the municipality level...
December 7, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102319/temporal-topic-modeling-to-assess-associations-between-news-trends-and-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#12
Saurav Ghosh, Prithwish Chakraborty, Elaine O Nsoesie, Emily Cohn, Sumiko R Mekaru, John S Brownstein, Naren Ramakrishnan
In retrospective assessments, internet news reports have been shown to capture early reports of unknown infectious disease transmission prior to official laboratory confirmation. In general, media interest and reporting peaks and wanes during the course of an outbreak. In this study, we quantify the extent to which media interest during infectious disease outbreaks is indicative of trends of reported incidence. We introduce an approach that uses supervised temporal topic models to transform large corpora of news articles into temporal topic trends...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044249/evaluation-of-facebook-and-twitter-monitoring-to-detect-safety-signals-for-medical-products-an-analysis-of-recent-fda-safety-alerts
#13
Carrie E Pierce, Khaled Bouri, Carol Pamer, Scott Proestel, Harold W Rodriguez, Hoa Van Le, Clark C Freifeld, John S Brownstein, Mark Walderhaug, I Ralph Edwards, Nabarun Dasgupta
INTRODUCTION: The rapid expansion of the Internet and computing power in recent years has opened up the possibility of using social media for pharmacovigilance. While this general concept has been proposed by many, central questions remain as to whether social media can provide earlier warnings for rare and serious events than traditional signal detection from spontaneous report data. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine whether specific product-adverse event pairs were reported via social media before being reported to the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS)...
April 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017559/spread-of-yellow-fever-virus-outbreak-in-angola-and-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2015-16-a-modelling-study
#14
Moritz U G Kraemer, Nuno R Faria, Robert C Reiner, Nick Golding, Birgit Nikolay, Stephanie Stasse, Michael A Johansson, Henrik Salje, Ousmane Faye, G R William Wint, Matthias Niedrig, Freya M Shearer, Sarah C Hill, Robin N Thompson, Donal Bisanzio, Nuno Taveira, Heinrich H Nax, Bary S R Pradelski, Elaine O Nsoesie, Nicholas R Murphy, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, John S Brownstein, Andrew J Tatem, Tulio de Oliveira, David L Smith, Amadou A Sall, Oliver G Pybus, Simon I Hay, Simon Cauchemez
BACKGROUND: Since late 2015, an epidemic of yellow fever has caused more than 7334 suspected cases in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including 393 deaths. We sought to understand the spatial spread of this outbreak to optimise the use of the limited available vaccine stock. METHODS: We jointly analysed datasets describing the epidemic of yellow fever, vector suitability, human demography, and mobility in central Africa to understand and predict the spread of yellow fever virus...
March 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012555/corrigendum-to-surface-water-areas-significantly-impacted-2014-dengue-outbreaks-in-guangzhou-china-environ-res-150-2016-299-305
#15
Huaiyu Tian, Shanqian Huang, Sen Zhou, Peng Bi, Zhicong Yang, Xiujun Li, Lifan Chen, Bernard Cazelles, Jing Yang, Lei Luo, Qinlong Jing, Wenping Yuan, Yao Pei, Zhe Sun, Tianxiang Yue, Mei-PoK Wan, Qiyong Liu, Ming Wang, Shilu Tong, John S Brownstein, Bing Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817958/media-content-about-vaccines-in-the-united-states-and-canada-2012-2014-an-analysis-using-data-from-the-vaccine-sentimeter
#16
Guido Antonio Powell, Kate Zinszer, Aman Verma, Chi Bahk, Lawrence Madoff, John Brownstein, David Buckeridge
BACKGROUND: A system for monitoring vaccine-related media content was previously developed and studied from an international perspective. This monitoring approach could also have value at a regional level, but it has yet to be evaluated at this scale. We examined regional patterns of vaccine-related media topics and sentiment in the US and Canada. METHODS: We extracted vaccine-relevant US and Canadian online media reports between June 2012 and October 2014 from the Vaccine Sentimeter, a HealthMap-based automated media monitoring system for news aggregators and blogs...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759033/the-growth-of-the-central-region-by-acquisition-of-counterrotating-gas-in-star-forming-galaxies
#17
Yan-Mei Chen, Yong Shi, Christy A Tremonti, Matt Bershady, Michael Merrifield, Eric Emsellem, Yi-Fei Jin, Song Huang, Hai Fu, David A Wake, Kevin Bundy, David Stark, Lihwai Lin, Maria Argudo-Fernandez, Thaisa Storchi Bergmann, Dmitry Bizyaev, Joel Brownstein, Martin Bureau, John Chisholm, Niv Drory, Qi Guo, Lei Hao, Jian Hu, Cheng Li, Ran Li, Alexandre Roman Lopes, Kai-Ke Pan, Rogemar A Riffel, Daniel Thomas, Lan Wang, Kyle Westfall, Ren-Bin Yan
Galaxies grow through both internal and external processes. In about 10% of nearby red galaxies with little star formation, gas and stars are counter-rotating, demonstrating the importance of external gas acquisition in these galaxies. However, systematic studies of such phenomena in blue, star-forming galaxies are rare, leaving uncertain the role of external gas acquisition in driving evolution of blue galaxies. Here, based on new measurements with integral field spectroscopy of a large representative galaxy sample, we find an appreciable fraction of counter-rotators among blue galaxies (9 out of 489 galaxies)...
October 19, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684332/yellow-fever-vaccination-coverage-heterogeneities-in-luanda-province-angola
#18
Maimuna S Majumder, Colleen M Nguyen, Sumiko R Mekaru, John S Brownstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665707/evaluating-the-performance-of-infectious-disease-forecasts-a-comparison-of-climate-driven-and-seasonal-dengue-forecasts-for-mexico
#19
Michael A Johansson, Nicholas G Reich, Aditi Hota, John S Brownstein, Mauricio Santillana
Dengue viruses, which infect millions of people per year worldwide, cause large epidemics that strain healthcare systems. Despite diverse efforts to develop forecasting tools including autoregressive time series, climate-driven statistical, and mechanistic biological models, little work has been done to understand the contribution of different components to improved prediction. We developed a framework to assess and compare dengue forecasts produced from different types of models and evaluated the performance of seasonal autoregressive models with and without climate variables for forecasting dengue incidence in Mexico...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649306/global-capacity-for-emerging-infectious-disease-detection-1996-2014
#20
Sheryl A Kluberg, Sumiko R Mekaru, David J McIver, Lawrence C Madoff, Adam W Crawley, Mark S Smolinski, John S Brownstein
The speed with which disease outbreaks are recognized is critical for establishing effective control efforts. We evaluate global improvements in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and communication during 2010-2014 as a follow-up to a 2010 report. For all outbreaks reported by the World Health Organization's Disease Outbreak News, we estimate the number of days from first symptoms until outbreak discovery and until first public communication. We report median discovery and communication delays overall, by region, and by Human Development Index (HDI) quartile...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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