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John Brownstein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044249/evaluation-of-facebook-and-twitter-monitoring-to-detect-safety-signals-for-medical-products-an-analysis-of-recent-fda-safety-alerts
#1
Carrie E Pierce, Khaled Bouri, Carol Pamer, Scott Proestel, Harold W Rodriguez, Hoa Van Le, Clark C Freifeld, John S Brownstein, Mark Walderhaug, I Ralph Edwards, Nabarun Dasgupta
INTRODUCTION: The rapid expansion of the Internet and computing power in recent years has opened up the possibility of using social media for pharmacovigilance. While this general concept has been proposed by many, central questions remain as to whether social media can provide earlier warnings for rare and serious events than traditional signal detection from spontaneous report data. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine whether specific product-adverse event pairs were reported via social media before being reported to the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS)...
January 2, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017559/spread-of-yellow-fever-virus-outbreak-in-angola-and-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2015-16-a-modelling-study
#2
Moritz U G Kraemer, Nuno R Faria, Robert C Reiner, Nick Golding, Birgit Nikolay, Stephanie Stasse, Michael A Johansson, Henrik Salje, Ousmane Faye, G R William Wint, Matthias Niedrig, Freya M Shearer, Sarah C Hill, Robin N Thompson, Donal Bisanzio, Nuno Taveira, Heinrich H Nax, Bary S R Pradelski, Elaine O Nsoesie, Nicholas R Murphy, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, John S Brownstein, Andrew J Tatem, Tulio de Oliveira, David L Smith, Amadou A Sall, Oliver G Pybus, Simon I Hay, Simon Cauchemez
BACKGROUND: Since late 2015, an epidemic of yellow fever has caused more than 7334 suspected cases in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including 393 deaths. We sought to understand the spatial spread of this outbreak to optimise the use of the limited available vaccine stock. METHODS: We jointly analysed datasets describing the epidemic of yellow fever, vector suitability, human demography, and mobility in central Africa to understand and predict the spread of yellow fever virus...
December 22, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012555/corrigendum-to-surface-water-areas-significantly-impacted-2014-dengue-outbreaks-in-guangzhou-china-environ-res-150-2016-299-305
#3
Huaiyu Tian, Shanqian Huang, Sen Zhou, Peng Bi, Zhicong Yang, Xiujun Li, Lifan Chen, Bernard Cazelles, Jing Yang, Lei Luo, Qinlong Jing, Wenping Yuan, Yao Pei, Zhe Sun, Tianxiang Yue, Mei-PoK Wan, Qiyong Liu, Ming Wang, Shilu Tong, John S Brownstein, Bing Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817958/media-content-about-vaccines-in-the-united-states-and-canada-2012-2014-an-analysis-using-data-from-the-vaccine-sentimeter
#4
Guido Antonio Powell, Kate Zinszer, Aman Verma, Chi Bahk, Lawrence Madoff, John Brownstein, David Buckeridge
BACKGROUND: A system for monitoring vaccine-related media content was previously developed and studied from an international perspective. This monitoring approach could also have value at a regional level, but it has yet to be evaluated at this scale. We examined regional patterns of vaccine-related media topics and sentiment in the US and Canada. METHODS: We extracted vaccine-relevant US and Canadian online media reports between June 2012 and October 2014 from the Vaccine Sentimeter, a HealthMap-based automated media monitoring system for news aggregators and blogs...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759033/the-growth-of-the-central-region-by-acquisition-of-counterrotating-gas-in-star-forming-galaxies
#5
Yan-Mei Chen, Yong Shi, Christy A Tremonti, Matt Bershady, Michael Merrifield, Eric Emsellem, Yi-Fei Jin, Song Huang, Hai Fu, David A Wake, Kevin Bundy, David Stark, Lihwai Lin, Maria Argudo-Fernandez, Thaisa Storchi Bergmann, Dmitry Bizyaev, Joel Brownstein, Martin Bureau, John Chisholm, Niv Drory, Qi Guo, Lei Hao, Jian Hu, Cheng Li, Ran Li, Alexandre Roman Lopes, Kai-Ke Pan, Rogemar A Riffel, Daniel Thomas, Lan Wang, Kyle Westfall, Ren-Bin Yan
Galaxies grow through both internal and external processes. In about 10% of nearby red galaxies with little star formation, gas and stars are counter-rotating, demonstrating the importance of external gas acquisition in these galaxies. However, systematic studies of such phenomena in blue, star-forming galaxies are rare, leaving uncertain the role of external gas acquisition in driving evolution of blue galaxies. Here, based on new measurements with integral field spectroscopy of a large representative galaxy sample, we find an appreciable fraction of counter-rotators among blue galaxies (9 out of 489 galaxies)...
October 19, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684332/yellow-fever-vaccination-coverage-heterogeneities-in-luanda-province-angola
#6
Maimuna S Majumder, Colleen M Nguyen, Sumiko R Mekaru, John S Brownstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665707/evaluating-the-performance-of-infectious-disease-forecasts-a-comparison-of-climate-driven-and-seasonal-dengue-forecasts-for-mexico
#7
Michael A Johansson, Nicholas G Reich, Aditi Hota, John S Brownstein, Mauricio Santillana
Dengue viruses, which infect millions of people per year worldwide, cause large epidemics that strain healthcare systems. Despite diverse efforts to develop forecasting tools including autoregressive time series, climate-driven statistical, and mechanistic biological models, little work has been done to understand the contribution of different components to improved prediction. We developed a framework to assess and compare dengue forecasts produced from different types of models and evaluated the performance of seasonal autoregressive models with and without climate variables for forecasting dengue incidence in Mexico...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649306/global-capacity-for-emerging-infectious-disease-detection-1996-2014
#8
Sheryl A Kluberg, Sumiko R Mekaru, David J McIver, Lawrence C Madoff, Adam W Crawley, Mark S Smolinski, John S Brownstein
The speed with which disease outbreaks are recognized is critical for establishing effective control efforts. We evaluate global improvements in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and communication during 2010-2014 as a follow-up to a 2010 report. For all outbreaks reported by the World Health Organization's Disease Outbreak News, we estimate the number of days from first symptoms until outbreak discovery and until first public communication. We report median discovery and communication delays overall, by region, and by Human Development Index (HDI) quartile...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618573/reconstruction-of-zika-virus-introduction-in-brazil
#9
Kate Zinszer, Kathryn Morrison, John S Brownstein, Fatima Marinho, Alexandre F Santos, Elaine O Nsoesie
We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year.
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593584/potential-for-zika-virus-introduction-and-transmission-in-resource-limited-countries-in-africa-and-the-asia-pacific-region-a-modelling-study
#10
Isaac I Bogoch, Oliver J Brady, Moritz U G Kraemer, Matthew German, Maria I Creatore, Shannon Brent, Alexander G Watts, Simon I Hay, Manisha A Kulkarni, John S Brownstein, Kamran Khan
BACKGROUND: As the epidemic of Zika virus expands in the Americas, countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are becoming increasingly susceptible to the importation and possible local spread of the virus. To support public health readiness, we aim to identify regions and times where the potential health, economic, and social effects from Zika virus are greatest, focusing on resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. METHODS: Our model combined transportation network analysis, ecological modelling of mosquito occurrences, and vector competence for flavivirus transmission, using data from the International Air Transport Association, entomological observations from Zika's primary vector species, and climate conditions using WorldClim...
November 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457472/environment-wide-association-study-of-blood-pressure-in-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-1999-2012
#11
Denise P McGinnis, John S Brownstein, Chirag J Patel
Identifying environmental exposures associated with blood pressure is a priority. Recently, we proposed the environment-wide association study to search for and replicate environmental factors associated with phenotypes. We conducted the environment-wide association study (EWAS) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2012) which evaluated a total of 71,916 participants to prioritize environmental factors associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We searched for factors on participants from survey years 1999-2006 and tentatively replicated findings in participants from years 2007-2012...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443670/genetic-evidence-for-avian-influenza-h5n1-viral-transmission-along-the-black-sea-mediterranean-flyway
#12
Sen Zhou, Huaiyu Tian, Xiaoxu Wu, Bo Xu, Jing Yang, Karen Kie Yan Chan, Shanqian Huang, Lu Dong, John Brownstein, Bing Xu
The current epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus is considered to pose a significant threat to the health of wild and domestic avian species, and even to human beings. The Black Sea-Mediterranean Flyway is one of the most important epidemic areas of H5N1. However, the epidemic along this flyway has not been fully explored. To better understand the role of hosts in the spread and evolution of H5N1 virus along the flyway, a phylogeographic study was conducted using haemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences obtained during 2005-2013...
September 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415615/disease-surveillance-on-complex-social-networks
#13
Jose L Herrera, Ravi Srinivasan, John S Brownstein, Alison P Galvani, Lauren Ancel Meyers
As infectious disease surveillance systems expand to include digital, crowd-sourced, and social network data, public health agencies are gaining unprecedented access to high-resolution data and have an opportunity to selectively monitor informative individuals. Contact networks, which are the webs of interaction through which diseases spread, determine whether and when individuals become infected, and thus who might serve as early and accurate surveillance sensors. Here, we evaluate three strategies for selecting sensors-sampling the most connected, random, and friends of random individuals-in three complex social networks-a simple scale-free network, an empirical Venezuelan college student network, and an empirical Montreal wireless hotspot usage network...
July 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357212/analysis-of-primary-visual-cortex-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-indicates-gabaergic-involvement-associated-with-recurrent-complex-visual-hallucinations
#14
Ahmad A Khundakar, Peter S Hanson, Daniel Erskine, Nichola Z Lax, Joseph Roscamp, Evangelia Karyka, Eliona Tsefou, Preeti Singh, Simon J Cockell, Andrew Gribben, Lynne Ramsay, Peter G Blain, Urs P Mosimann, Deborah J Lett, Matthias Elstner, Douglass M Turnbull, Charles C Xiang, Michael J Brownstein, John T O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor, Johannes Attems, Alan J Thomas, Ian G McKeith, Christopher M Morris
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients frequently experience well formed recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH). This is associated with reduced blood flow or hypometabolism on imaging of the primary visual cortex. To understand these associations in DLB we used pathological and biochemical analysis of the primary visual cortex to identify changes that could underpin RCVH. Alpha-synuclein or neurofibrillary tangle pathology in primary visual cortex was essentially absent. Neurone density or volume within the primary visual cortex in DLB was also unchanged using unbiased stereology...
June 30, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336234/surface-water-areas-significantly-impacted-2014-dengue-outbreaks-in-guangzhou-china
#15
Huaiyu Tian, Shanqian Huang, Sen Zhou, Peng Bi, Zhicong Yang, Xiujun Li, Lifan Chen, Bernard Cazelles, Jing Yang, Lei Luo, Qinlong Jing, Wenping Yuan, Yao Pei, Zhe Sun, Tianxiang Yue, Mei-Po Kwan, Qiyong Liu, Ming Wang, Shilu Tong, John S Brownstein, Bing Xu
Dengue transmission in urban areas is strongly influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors, yet the key drivers still need further exploration. To better understand mechanisms of environment-mosquito-urban dengue transmission, we propose an empirical model parameterized and cross-validated from a unique dataset including viral gene sequences, vector dynamics and human dengue cases in Guangzhou, China, together with a 36-year urban environmental change maps investigated by spatiotemporal satellite image fusion...
October 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251981/utilizing-nontraditional-data-sources-for-near-real-time-estimation-of-transmission-dynamics-during-the-2015-2016-colombian-zika-virus-disease-outbreak
#16
Maimuna S Majumder, Mauricio Santillana, Sumiko R Mekaru, Denise P McGinnis, Kamran Khan, John S Brownstein
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40 countries in Central and South America have experienced local vector-born transmission of Zika virus, resulting in nearly 300,000 total reported cases of Zika virus disease to date. Of the cases that have sought care thus far in the region, more than 70,000 have been reported out of Colombia. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we use nontraditional digital disease surveillance data via HealthMap and Google Trends to develop near real-time estimates for the basic (R) and observed (Robs) reproductive numbers associated with Zika virus disease in Colombia...
2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239817/global-distribution-and-environmental-suitability-for-chikungunya-virus-1952-to-2015
#17
Elaine O Nsoesie, Moritz Ug Kraemer, Nick Golding, David M Pigott, Oliver J Brady, Catherine L Moyes, Michael A Johansson, Peter W Gething, Raman Velayudhan, Kamran Khan, Simon I Hay, John S Brownstein
Chikungunya fever is an acute febrile illness caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Although chikungunya fever is rarely fatal, patients can experience debilitating symptoms that last from months to years. Here we comprehensively assess the global distribution of chikungunya and produce high-resolution maps, using an established modelling framework that combines a comprehensive occurrence database with bespoke environmental correlates, including up-to-date Aedes distribution maps...
May 19, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178645/internet-based-media-coverage-on-dengue-in-sri-lanka-between-2007-and-2015
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Annelies Wilder-Smith, Emily Cohn, David C Lloyd, Yesim Tozan, John S Brownstein
BACKGROUND: Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. OBJECTIVE: To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090089/mapping-global-environmental-suitability-for-zika-virus
#19
Jane P Messina, Moritz Ug Kraemer, Oliver J Brady, David M Pigott, Freya M Shearer, Daniel J Weiss, Nick Golding, Corrine W Ruktanonchai, Peter W Gething, Emily Cohn, John S Brownstein, Kamran Khan, Andrew J Tatem, Thomas Jaenisch, Christopher Jl Murray, Fatima Marinho, Thomas W Scott, Simon I Hay
Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization...
April 19, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045523/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-localized-control-strategies-to-curtail-chikungunya
#20
Martial L Ndeffo-Mbah, David P Durham, Laura A Skrip, Elaine O Nsoesie, John S Brownstein, Durland Fish, Alison P Galvani
Chikungunya, a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, causes debilitating disease characterized by an acute febrile phase and chronic joint pain. Chikungunya has recently spread to the island of St. Martin and subsequently throughout the Americas. The disease is now affecting 42 countries and territories throughout the Americas. While chikungunya is mainly a tropical disease, the recent introduction and subsequent spread of Ae. albopictus into temperate regions has increased the threat of chikungunya outbreaks beyond the tropics...
2016: Scientific Reports
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