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Mitochondrial efficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214560/mitochondrial-genotype-modulates-mtdna-copy-number-and-organismal-phenotype-in-drosophila
#1
Tiina S Salminen, Marcos T Oliveira, Giuseppe Cannino, Päivi Lillsunde, Howard T Jacobs, Laurie S Kaguni
We evaluated the role of natural mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation on mtDNA copy number, biochemical features and life history traits in Drosophila cybrid strains. We demonstrate the effects of both coding region and non-coding A+T region variation on mtDNA copy number, and demonstrate that copy number correlates with mitochondrial biochemistry and metabolically important traits such as development time. For example, high mtDNA copy number correlates with longer development times. Our findings support the hypothesis that mtDNA copy number is modulated by mtDNA genome variation and suggest that it affects OXPHOS efficiency through changes in the organization of the respiratory membrane complexes to influence organismal phenotype...
February 15, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214329/-p-clphse-2-reduces-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-monosodium-glutamate-by-improving-mitochondrial-function-in-rats
#2
Caroline B Quines, Pietro M Chagas, Diane Hartmann, Nélson R Carvalho, Félix A Soares, Cristina W Nogueira
It is has been demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory process are associated with progress of morbid obesity in human patients. For this reason, the searching for safe and effective antiobesity drugs has been the subject of intense research. In this context, the organic selenium compounds have attracted much attention due to their pharmacological properties, such as antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe)2 , an organic selenium compound, in a model of obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) administration in rats...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212523/redox-regulation-in-metabolic-programming-and-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Helen R Griffiths, Dan Gao, Chathyan Pararasa
Energy metabolism and redox state are intrinsically linked. In order to mount an adequate immune response, cells must have an adequate and rapidly available energy resource to migrate to the inflammatory site, to generate reactive oxygen species using NADPH as a cofactor and to engulf bacteria or damaged tissue. The first responder cells of the innate immune response, neutrophils, are largely dependent on glycolysis. Neutrophils are relatively short-lived, dying via apoptosis in the process of bacterial killing through production of hypochlorous acid and release of extracellular NETs...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209841/salicylic-acid-dependent-plant-stress-signalling-via-mitochondrial-succinate-dehydrogenase
#4
Katharina Belt, Shaobai Huang, Louise F Thatcher, Hayley Casarotto, Karam Singh, Olivier Van Aken, A Harvey Millar
Mitochondria are known for their role in ATP production and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but little is known about the mechanism of their early involvement in plant stress signalling. The role of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in salicylic acid (SA) signalling was analysed using two mutants; disrupted in stress response 1 (dsr1) which is a point mutation in SDH1 identified in a loss of SA signalling screen, and a knockdown mutant (sdhaf2) for SDH assembly factor 2 that is required for FAD insertion into SDH1...
February 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208064/mitochondrial-genes-are-altered-in-blood-early-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Katie Lunnon, Aoife Keohane, Ruth Pidsley, Stephen Newhouse, Joanna Riddoch-Contreras, Elisabeth B Thubron, Matthew Devall, Hikka Soininen, Iwona Kłoszewska, Patrizia Mecocci, Magda Tsolaki, Bruno Vellas, Leonard Schalkwyk, Richard Dobson, Afshan N Malik, John Powell, Simon Lovestone, Angela Hodges
Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease in the brain and blood, the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are unknown. Here we have replicated our previous findings demonstrating reduced expression of nuclear-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits and subunits required for the translation of mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS genes in blood from people with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Interestingly this was accompanied by increased expression of some mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS genes, namely those residing closest to the transcription start site of the polycistronic heavy chain mitochondrial transcript (MT-ND1, MT-ND2, MT-ATP6, MT-CO1, MT-CO2, MT-C03) and MT-ND6 transcribed from the light chain...
January 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203526/expression-of-mammalian-mitochondrial-f1-atpase-in-escherichia-coli-depends-on-two-chaperone-factors-af1-and-af2
#6
Toshiharu Suzuki, Naoya Iida, Junko Suzuki, Yasunori Watanabe, Toshiya Endo, Toru Hisabori, Masasuke Yoshida
F1-ATPase (F1) is a multisubunit water-soluble domain of FoF1- ATP synthase and is a rotary enzyme by itself. Earlier genetic studies using yeast suggested that two factors, Atp11p and Atp12p, contribute to F1 assembly. Here, we show that their mammalian counterparts, AF1 and AF2, are essential and sufficient for efficient production of recombinant bovine mitochondrial F1 in Escherichia coli cells. Intactness of the function and conformation of the E. coli-expressed bovine F1 was verified by rotation analysis and crystallization...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202494/fumarate-hydratase-is-a-critical-metabolic-regulator-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-functions
#7
Amelie V Guitart, Theano I Panagopoulou, Arnaud Villacreces, Milica Vukovic, Catarina Sepulveda, Lewis Allen, Roderick N Carter, Louie N van de Lagemaat, Marcos Morgan, Peter Giles, Zuzanna Sas, Marta Vila Gonzalez, Hannah Lawson, Jasmin Paris, Joy Edwards-Hicks, Katrin Schaak, Chithra Subramani, Deniz Gezer, Alejandro Armesilla-Diaz, Jimi Wills, Aaron Easterbrook, David Coman, Chi Wai Eric So, Donal O'Carroll, Douglas Vernimmen, Neil P Rodrigues, Patrick J Pollard, Nicholas M Morton, Andrew Finch, Kamil R Kranc
Strict regulation of stem cell metabolism is essential for tissue functions and tumor suppression. In this study, we investigated the role of fumarate hydratase (Fh1), a key component of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and cytosolic fumarate metabolism, in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. Hematopoiesis-specific Fh1 deletion (resulting in endogenous fumarate accumulation and a genetic TCA cycle block reflected by decreased maximal mitochondrial respiration) caused lethal fetal liver hematopoietic defects and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) failure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202079/a-novel-cytoprotective-peptide-protects-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-induced-by-starvation-via-nrf2-sirt3-foxo3a-pathway
#8
Shuo Wang, Chao Zhang, Sidikejiang Niyazi, Long Zheng, Jiawei Li, Weitao Zhang, Ming Xu, Ruiming Rong, Cheng Yang, Tongyu Zhu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been widely explored in the past decade as a cell-based treatment for various diseases. However, poor survival of adaptively transferred MSCs limits their clinical therapeutic potentials, which is largely ascribed to the nutrient starvation. In this study, we determined whether a novel kidney protective peptide CHBP could protect MSCs against starvation and invested the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: MSCs were subjected to serum deprivation and CHBP of graded concentrations was administered...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197922/coordination-of-cellular-localization-dependent-effects-of-sumoylation-in-regulating-cardiovascular-and-neurological-diseases
#9
Jun-Ichi Abe, Uday G Sandhu, Nguyet Minh Hoang, Manoj Thangam, Raymundo A Quintana-Quezada, Keigi Fujiwara, Nhat Tu Le
Sumoylation, a reversible post-transcriptional modification process, of proteins are involved in cellular differentiation, growth, and even motility by regulating various protein functions. Sumoylation is not limited to cytosolic proteins as recent evidence shows that nuclear proteins, those associated with membranes, and mitochondrial proteins are also sumoylated. Moreover, it is now known that sumoylation plays an important role in the process of major human ailments such as malignant, cardiovascular and neurological diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197854/mitochondrial-complex-i-activity-is-conditioned-by-supercomplex-i-iii2-iv-assembly-in-brain-cells-relevance-for-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Irene Lopez-Fabuel, Monica Resch-Beusher, Monica Carabias-Carrasco, Angeles Almeida, Juan P Bolaños
The assembly of complex I (CI) with complexes III (CIII) and IV (CIV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) to configure I-III- or I-III-IV-containing supercomplexes (SCs) regulates mitochondrial energy efficiency and reactive oxygen species (mROS) production. However, whether the occurrence of SCs impacts on CI specific activity remains unknown to our knowledge. To investigate this issue, here we determined CI activity in primary neurons and astrocytes, cultured under identical antioxidants-free medium, from two mouse strains (C57Bl/6 and CBA) and Wistar rat, i...
February 14, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197778/evaluating-effects-of-l-carnitine-on-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Koichi Fujisawa, Taro Takami, Yumi Fukui, Luiz Fernando Quintanilha, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Naoki Yamamoto, Isao Sakaida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells showing potential for use in regenerative medicine. Culture techniques that are more stable and methods for the more efficient production of MSCs with therapeutic efficacy are needed. We evaluate the effects of growing bone marrow (Bm)-derived MSCs in the presence of L-carnitine, which is believed to promote lipid metabolism and to suppress apoptosis. The presence of L-carnitine decreased the degree of drug-induced apoptosis and suppressed adipogenic differentiation...
February 14, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195448/mitochondrion-anchoring-photosensitizer-with-aggregation-induced-emission-characteristics-synergistically-boosts-the-radiosensitivity-of-cancer-cells-to-ionizing-radiation
#12
Chris Y Y Yu, Huae Xu, Shenglu Ji, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Xiaolin Li, Sunil Krishnan, Dan Ding, Ben Zhong Tang
The first mitochondrion-anchoring photosensitizer that specifically generates singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ) in mitochondria under white light irradiation that can serve as a highly effective radiosensitizer is reported here, significantly sensitizing cancer cells to ionizing radiation. An aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen), namely DPA-SCP, is rationally designed with α-cyanostilbene as a simple building block to reveal AIE, diphenylamino (DPA) group as a strong electron donating group to benefit red emission and efficient light-controlled (1) O2 generation, as well as a pyridinium salt as the targeting moiety to ensure specific mitochondrial localization...
February 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192959/a-spatial-dependent-fluorescent-probe-for-detecting-different-situations-of-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-conveniently-and-efficiently
#13
Xuechen Li, Minggang Tian, Ge Zhang, Ruoyao Zhang, Ruiqing Feng, Lifang Guo, Xiaoqiang Yu, Ning Zhao, Xiuquan He
The feedback from mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in different situations (normal, decreasing, and vanishing) can reflect different cellular status, which can be applied in biomedical research and diagnosis of the related diseases. Thus, the efficient and convenient detection for MMP in different situations is particularly important yet the operations of current fluorescent probes are complex. In order to address this concern, we presented herein a spatial-dependent fluorescent probe composed of organic cationic salt...
February 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191935/ecogenomics-of-zooplankton-reveals-ecological-threshold-of-ammonia-nitrogen
#14
Jianghua Yang, Xiaowei Zhang, Yuwei Xie, Chao Song, Jingying Sun, Yong Zhang, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
Communities of zooplankton can be adversely affected by contamination resulting from human activities. Yet understanding the influence of water quality on zooplankton under field-conditions is hindered by traditional labor-intensive approaches that are prone to incomplete or uncertain taxonomic determinations. Here, for the first time, an eco-genomic approach, based on genetic diversity in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) region of DNA of zooplankton was used to develop a site-specific, water quality criterion (WQC) for ammonia (NH3)...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191700/supplement-of-autologous-ooplasm-into-porcine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-does-not-alter-embryo-development
#15
W-J Lee, J-H Lee, R-H Jeon, S-J Jang, S-C Lee, J-S Park, S-L Lee, W-A King, G-J Rho
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is considered as the technique in which a somatic cell is introduced into an enucleated oocyte to make a cloned animal. However, it is unavoidable to lose a small amount of the ooplasm during enucleation step during SCNT procedure. The present study was aimed to uncover whether the supplement of autologous ooplasm could ameliorate the oocyte competence so as to improve low efficiency of embryo development in porcine SCNT. Autologous ooplasm-transferred (AOT) embryos were generated by the supplementation with autologous ooplasm into SCNT embryos...
February 13, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187683/proteomics-profiling-of-chimeric-truncated-tissue-plasminogen-activator-producing-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells-cultivated-in-a-chemically-defined-medium-supplemented-with-protein-hydrolysates
#16
Bahareh Azarian, Seyedeh Matin Sajedin, Amin Azimi, Mozhgan Raigani, Behrouz Vaziri, Fatemeh Davami
Background: Culture media enrichment through the addition of protein hydrolysates is beneficial for achieving higher protein expression. Methods: In this study, designing the optimum mixture of four soy and casein-derived hydrolysates was successfully performed by design of experiment and specific productivity increased in all predicted combinations. Protein profile of recombinant CHO (rCHO) cells producing tissue plasminogen activator in a serum-free medium (SFM) supplemented with designed hydrolysate additives was compared to that of rCHO cells cultivated in SFM...
11, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186588/-analysis-of-nfu1-gene-mutation-in-a-chinese-family-affected-with-multiple-mitochondrial-dysfunction-syndrome
#17
Ying Bai, Xiangdong Kong
OBJECTIVE: To detect potential mutation of NFU1 gene in a Chinese family affected with multiple mitochondrial dysfunction syndrome (MMDS). METHODS: For a mother with two children died of MMDS, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to scan her exome. Suspected mutation was validated with PCR and Sanger sequencing. Potential mutation of exons 1 to 8 and flanking regions of the NFU1 gene was also detected in the father by PCR and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A novel deletional mutation c...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183717/the-transcriptional-regulator-of-the-chaperone-response-hsf1-controls-hepatic-bioenergetics-and-protein-homeostasis
#18
Aijun Qiao, Xiongjie Jin, Junfeng Pang, Demetrius Moskophidis, Nahid F Mivechi
Metabolic energy reprogramming facilitates adaptations to a variety of stress conditions and cellular dysfunction, but how the energetic demands are monitored and met in response to physiological stimuli remains elusive. Our data support a model demonstrating that heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a master transcriptional regulator of the chaperone response, has been coopted from its role as a critical protein quality-control regulator to having a central role in systemic energy sensing and for metabolic adaptation to nutrient availability...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181292/tumor-associated-ape1-variant-exhibits-reduced-complementation-efficiency-but-does-not-promote-cancer-cell-phenotypes
#19
Jennifer L Illuzzi, Daniel R McNeill, Paul Bastian, Boris Brenerman, Robert Wersto, Helen R Russell, Fred Bunz, Peter J McKinnon, Kevin G Becker, David M Wilson
Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway for coping with most forms of endogenous DNA damage, and defects in the process have been associated with carcinogenesis. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a central participant in BER, functioning as a critical endonuclease in the processing of noncoding abasic sites in DNA. Evidence has suggested that APE1 missense mutants, as well as altered expression or localization of the protein, can contribute to disease manifestation. We report herein that the tumor-associated APE1 variant, R237C, shows reduced complementation efficiency of the methyl methanesulfonate hypersensitivity and impaired cell growth exhibited by APE1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
February 9, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179568/kinetics-subcellular-localization-and-contribution-to-parasite-virulence-of-a-trypanosoma-cruzi-hybrid-type-a-heme-peroxidase-tcapx-ccp
#20
Martín Hugo, Alejandra Martínez, Madia Trujillo, Damián Estrada, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Edlaine Linares, Ohara Augusto, Federico Issoglio, Ari Zeida, Darío A Estrín, Harry F G Heijnen, Lucía Piacenza, Rafael Radi
The Trypanosoma cruzi ascorbate peroxidase is, by sequence analysis, a hybrid type A member of class I heme peroxidases [TcAPx-cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP)], suggesting both ascorbate (Asc) and cytochrome c (Cc) peroxidase activity. Here, we show that the enzyme reacts fast with H2O2 (k = 2.9 × 10(7) M(-1)⋅s(-1)) and catalytically decomposes H2O2 using Cc as the reducing substrate with higher efficiency than Asc (kcat/Km = 2.1 × 10(5) versus 3.5 × 10(4) M(-1)⋅s(-1), respectively). Visible-absorption spectra of purified recombinant TcAPx-CcP after H2O2 reaction denote the formation of a compound I-like product, characteristic of the generation of a tryptophanyl radical-cation (Trp(233•+))...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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