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Autophagy and chemotherapy resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208579/role-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Guangbo Liu, Fen Pei, Fengqing Yang, Lingxiao Li, Amit Dipak Amin, Songnian Liu, J Ross Buchan, William C Cho
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes 85% of all lung cancers, and is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The poor prognosis and resistance to both radiation and chemotherapy warrant further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of NSCLC and the development of new, more efficacious therapeutics. The processes of autophagy and apoptosis, which induce degradation of proteins and organelles or cell death upon cellular stress, are crucial in the pathophysiology of NSCLC. The close interplay between autophagy and apoptosis through shared signaling pathways complicates our understanding of how NSCLC pathophysiology is regulated...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201973/flavonoids-active-against-osteosarcoma-a-review-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-involved
#2
Hui Liu, Yutong Gao, Yonghui Dong, Peng Cheng, Anmin Chen, Hui Huang
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primitive malignant bone tumor affecting adolescents and young adults worldwide. The tumor exhibits aggressive growth in the primary site and readily metastasizes to other organs. There has been no significant improvement in the 5-year survival rate since the 1970s and the figure remains at 60-70%. In addition, the side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and resistance to chemotherapy compromise the effects of treatment for osteosarcoma. In recent years, the development of flavonoids drugs inhibiting carcinogenesis is attracting great interest in the scientific community...
February 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186990/ube2l6-ubch8-and-isg15-attenuate-autophagy-in-esophageal-cancer-cells
#3
Chloe M Falvey, Tracey R O'Donovan, Shereen El-Mashed, Michelle J Nyhan, Seamus O'Reilly, Sharon L McKenna
Esophageal cancer remains a poor prognosis cancer due to advanced stage of presentation and drug resistant disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms influencing response to chemotherapy, we examined genes that are differentially expressed between drug sensitive, apoptosis competent esophageal cancer cells (OE21, OE33, FLO-1) and those which are more resistant and do not exhibit apoptosis (KYSE450 and OE19). Members of the ISG15 (ubiquitin-like) protein modification pathway, including UBE2L6 and ISG15, were found to be more highly expressed in the drug sensitive cell lines...
February 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181188/atorvastatin-promotes-cytotoxicity-and-reduces-migration-and-proliferation-of-human-a172-glioma-cells
#4
Karen A Oliveira, Tharine Dal-Cim, Flávia G Lopes, Fabiana K Ludka, Cláudia B Nedel, Carla I Tasca
Malignant gliomas have resistance mechanisms to chemotherapy that enable tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness. Alternative therapies in cancer treatment, as statins, have been suggested to decrease proliferation, inhibit cell migration, and induce cell death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin (ATOR) on cell viability, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy in A172 human glioma cells. Temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapic used to glioma treatment, was tested as a comparison to cytotoxic effects on gliomas...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154825/bu-zhong-yi-qi-decoction-the-water-extract-of-chinese-traditional-herbal-medicine-enhances-cisplatin-cytotoxicity-in-a549-ddp-cells-through-induction-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy
#5
Ning Yu, Ying Xiong, Chun Wang
Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138700/microrna-410-regulates-autophagy-related-gene-atg16l1-expression-and-enhances-chemosensitivity-via-autophagy-inhibition-in-osteosarcoma
#6
Ren Chen, Xiaohai Li, Bin He, Wei Hu
Osteosarcoma, which is the most common type of primary bone tumor in adolescents, is characterized by complex genetic alterations and frequent resistance to conventional treatments. MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as fundamental regulators in gene expression through their ability to silence gene expression at post-transcriptional and translational levels. The present study investigated the role of miR‑410 in the progression of osteosarcoma. The results demonstrated that the expression of miR‑410 was markedly downregulated in human osteosarcoma tissues, and U2OS and MG‑63 osteosarcoma cell lines...
January 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131096/tp53inp2-related-basal-autophagy-is-involved-in-the-growth-and-malignant-progression-in-human-liposarcoma-cells
#7
Yamei Hu, Xin Li, Wenwen Xue, Juan Pang, Yiwei Meng, Yan Shen, Qiang Xu
BACKGROUND: Understanding the function of autophagy may allow us to develop a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance the effects of chemotherapy and improve clinical outcomes in the treatment of cancers. Here, we studied the contribution of basal autophagy in human liposarcoma. METHODS: The levels of basal autophagy were analyzed by measuring autophagy-related protein expression and autophagosome formation. TP53INP2 expression was determined by real-time PCR, western blot and tissue microarray...
January 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088622/reactive-oxygen-species-and-cancer-paradox-to-promote-or-to-suppress
#8
REVIEW
Sehamuddin Galadari, Anees Rahman, Siraj Pallichankandy, Faisal Thayyullathil
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a group of highly reactive ions and molecules, are increasingly being appreciated as powerful signaling molecules involved in the regulation of a variety of biological processes. Indeed, their role is continuously being delineated in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. For instance, cancer cells are shown to have increased ROS levels in comparison to their normal counterparts. This is partly due to an enhanced metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells. The escalated ROS generation in cancer cells contributes to the biochemical and molecular changes necessary for the tumor initiation, promotion and progression, as well as, tumor resistance to chemotherapy...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079894/mir-26-enhances-chemosensitivity-and-promotes-apoptosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-through-inhibiting-autophagy
#9
Fangfang Jin, Yanbo Wang, Mingzhen Li, Yanan Zhu, Hongwei Liang, Chen Wang, Feng Wang, Chen-Yu Zhang, Ke Zen, Limin Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) generally possesses a high resistance to chemotherapy. Given that autophagy is an important factor promoting tumor chemoresistance and HCC express low level of miR-26, we aim to investigate the functional role of miR-26 in autophagy-mediated chemoresistance of HCC. We found that chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (Dox) induced autophagy but decreased the level of miR-26a/b in HCC cells. Activating autophagy using rapamycin can directly downregulate the level of miR-26a/b in HCC cells...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026821/the-role-of-survivin-in-the-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-gynaecological-cancers
#10
Marta Denel-Bobrowska, Agnieszka Marczak
Survivin is a member of the family of apoptosis inhibitors. It regulates several essential cellular processes, i.e. it inhibits apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation, DNA repair and autophagy. Survivin is responsible for development of the cell's resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Overexpression of survivin generally correlates with poor prognosis. Its presence has been detected in most types of human tumours. Currently much attention is paid to the possibilities of using this protein as a diagnostic marker of cancer or a prognostic factor...
December 8, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024518/-role-of-autophagy-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-review
#11
Qiong Liao, Xia Ren, Guo-Sheng Jiang
Autophagy is an evolutionarily highly conservative lysosomal degradative process and closely associates with pathogenesis, process, treatment, drug resistance and relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Whether the autophagy displays resistance to chemotherapy or a tumor suppressor in ALL, it mainly depends on the context of autophagy in the cells. Understanding the different role of autophagy in different conditions for ALL, determing the autophagy signaling pathways and targeting combination with autophagy revulsants or inhibitors were significant for the therapy of ALL, particularly for the treatment of refractory/relapsed ALL patients...
December 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009971/dacomitinib-a-new-pan-egfr-inhibitor-is-effective-in-killing-ovarian-cancer-cells
#12
Lei Xu, Huini Wu, Chao Jiang, Hongcai Wang, Bei Gao, Shumei Yan, Yushu Qi, Shufeng Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in a variety of cancers and its inhibitors have been studied for over a decade. We aim to investigate the effects of dacomitinib, a second generation pan-EGFR inhibitor, on ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: By immunohistochemistry, we studied the clinical significance of EGFR expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The correlations between EGFR expression and the clinicopathological variables of patients with EOC were assessed using Pearson's X2 test...
November 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994676/pre-clinical-evaluation-of-a-novel-class-of-anti-cancer-agents-the-pyrrolo-1-5-benzoxazepines
#13
REVIEW
L M Greene, S Butini, G Campiani, D C Williams, D M Zisterer
Microtubules are currently ranked one of the most validated targets for chemotherapy; with clinical use of microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) extending beyond half a century. Recent research has focused on the development of novel MTAs to combat drug resistance and drug associated toxicities. Of particular interest are compounds structurally different to those currently used within the clinic. The pyrrolo-1, 5-benzoxazepines (PBOXs) are a structurally distinct novel group of anti-cancer agents, some of which target tubulin...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991962/the-complex-link-between-apoptosis-and-autophagy-a-promising-new-role-for-rb
#14
João M A Delou, Deborah Biasoli, Helena L Borges
Physiological processes, as autophagy, proliferation and apoptosis are affected during carcinogenesis. Restoring cellular sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli, such as the antineoplastic cocktails, has been explored as a strategy to eliminate cancer cells. Autophagy, a physiological process of recycling organelles and macromolecules can be deviated from homeostasis to support cancer cells survival, proliferation, escape from apoptosis, and therapy resistance. The relationship between autophagy and apoptosis is complex and many stimuli can induce both processes...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959427/inhibiting-the-cytoplasmic-location-of-hmgb1-reverses-cisplatin-resistance-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells
#15
Jiyi Xia, Xiaolan Yu, Xueqin Song, Gang Li, Xiguang Mao, Yujiao Zhang
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide, and resistance to chemotherapy drugs is the biggest obstacle in the treatment of cervical cancers. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in human cervical cancer cells were investigated. When human cervical cancer cells were treated with 10 µg/ml of cisplatin for 24 and 48 h, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein expression levels significantly increased in a time‑dependent manner. Comparisons between cisplatin‑sensitive HeLa cells and cisplatin‑resistant HeLa/DDP cells revealed higher levels of HMGB1 in HeLa/DDP cells than in HeLa cells...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958338/ester-modified-cyclometalated-iridium-iii-complexes-as-mitochondria-targeting-anticancer-agents
#16
Fang-Xin Wang, Mu-He Chen, Xiao-Ying Hu, Rui-Rong Ye, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Organometallic iridium complexes are potent anticancer candidates which act through different mechanisms from cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens. Here, ten phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes containing 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid and its diester derivatives as ligands are designed and synthesized. The modification by ester group, which can be hydrolysed by esterase, facilitates the adjustment of drug-like properties. The quantum yields and emission lifetimes are influenced by variation of the ester substituents on the Ir(III) complexes...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956388/autophagy-a-key-mechanism-of-oncogenesis-and-resistance-in-leukemia
#17
Patrick Auberger, Alexandre Puissant
Autophagy is a lysosomal pathway involved in degradation of intracellular material. It appears as an adaptation mechanism that is essential for cellular homeostasis in response to various stress conditions. Over the past decade, many studies have linked alteration of autophagy with cancer initiation and progression, autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic, and degenerative diseases. This review highlights recent findings on the impact of autophagy on leukemic transformation of normal hematopoietic stem cells and summarizes its role on leukemic cell response to chemotherapy...
December 12, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940017/honokiol-a-potential-therapeutic-agent-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-program-cell-death-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-human-thyroid-cancer-cells
#18
Chieh-Hsiang Lu, Shu-Hsin Chen, Yi-Sheng Chang, Yi-Wen Liu, Jin-Yi Wu, Yun-Ping Lim, Hui-I Yu, Ying-Ray Lee
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, the global incidence rate of which is rapidly rising. Surgery and radioiodine therapies are common and effective treatments only for nonmetastasized primary tumors. Therefore, effective treatment modalities are imperative for patients with radioiodine-resistant thyroid cancer. Honokiol, a biophenolic compound derived from Magnolia spp., has been shown have diverse biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties...
January 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916824/graphene-oxide-nanoribbons-induce-autophagic-vacuoles-in-neuroblastoma-cell-lines
#19
Emanuela Mari, Stefania Mardente, Emanuela Morgante, Marco Tafani, Emanuela Lococo, Flavia Fico, Federica Valentini, Alessandra Zicari
Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO) nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912844/heparanase-from-basic-research-to-therapeutic-applications-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#20
Israel Vlodavsky, Preeti Singh, Ilanit Boyango, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Michael Elkin, Ralph D Sanderson, Neta Ilan
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
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