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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343282/effective-chemotherapy-of-heterogeneous-and-drug-resistant-early-colon-cancers-by-intermittent-dose-schedules-a-computer-simulation-study
#1
David E Axelrod, Sudeepti Vedula, James Obaniyi
PURPOSE: The effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy is limited by intra-tumor heterogeneity, the emergence of spontaneous and induced drug-resistant mutant subclones, and the maximum dose to which normal tissues can be exposed without adverse side effects. The goal of this project was to determine if intermittent schedules of the maximum dose that allows colon crypt maintenance could overcome these limitations, specifically by eliminating mixtures of drug-resistant mutants from heterogeneous early colon adenomas while maintaining colon crypt function...
March 25, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342853/thyroid-hormone-promotes-differentiation-of-colon-cancer-stem-cells
#2
Annunziata Gaetana Cicatiello, Raffaele Ambrosio, Monica Dentice
Tumor formation and maintenance depend on a small fraction of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can self-renew and generate a wide variety of differentiated cells. CSCs are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation, and can represent a reservoir of cancer cells that often cause relapse after treatment. Evidence suggests that CSCs also give rise to metastases. Thyroid hormone (TH) controls a variety of biological processes including the development and functioning of most adult tissues. Recent years has seen the emergence of an intimate link between TH and multiple steps of tumorigenesis...
March 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340496/recent-developments-in-nanomedicine-for-melanoma-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Jian-Qin Tang, Xiao-Yang Hou, Chun-Sheng Yang, Ya-Xi Li, Yong Xin, Wen-Wen Guo, Zhi-Ping Wei, Yan-Qun Liu, Guan Jiang
Melanoma is a most aggressive skin cancer with limited therapeutic options and its incidence is increasing rapidly in recent years. The discovery and application of new targeted therapy agents have shown significant benefits. However, adverse side-effects and resistance to chemotherapy remain formidable challenges in the clinical treatment of malignant melanoma. Nanotherapeutics offers an important prospect of overcoming these drawbacks. The anti-tumoral applications of nanomedicine are varied, including those in chemotherapy, RNA interference, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339092/macc1-decreases-the-chemosensitivity-of-gastric-cancer-cells-to-oxaliplatin-by-regulating-fasn-expression
#4
Jiangman Duan, Lishan Chen, Minyu Zhou, Jingwen Zhang, Li Sun, Na Huang, Jianping Bin, Yulin Liao, Wangjun Liao
The effect of chemotherapeutic agents is limited as a result of drug resistance, which demands prompt solutions provided by clinical studies. To date, the underlying mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance are relatively unknown. Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) is an oncogene associated with the progression and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that MACC1 is positively associated with fatty acid synthase (FASN), a major enzyme of lipogenesis, and drives chemoresistance to oxaliplatin in GC...
March 22, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339062/p53-microrna-374b-akt1-regulates-colorectal-cancer-cell-apoptosis-in-response-to-dna-damage
#5
Hangjun Gong, Yu Cao, Gang Han, Yun Zhang, Qing You, Yidong Wang, Yamin Pan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a rising morbidity worldwide and its resistance to chemotherapy has been observed in clinical treatment. Tumor suppressor p53 is well-studied in CRC, but little is known about its effects during DNA damage of CRC cells. This study was aimed at uncovering potential mechanisms of p53 regarding microRNA-374b and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1) during DNA damage of CRC cells. CRC cells HCT116 and HT29 were transfected with p53-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), p53 overexpression vector or miR-374b inhibitor, and then treated with 10 µM bleomycin (BLM) for 24 h to induce DNA damage...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338617/egfr-family-members-regulation-of-autophagy-is-at-a-crossroads-of-cell-survival-and-death-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth Henson, Yongqiang Chen, Spencer Gibson
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways are altered in many cancers contributing to increased cell survival. These alterations are caused mainly through increased expression or mutation of EGFR family members EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4. These receptors have been successfully targeted for cancer therapy. Specifically, a monoclonal antibody against ErbB2, trastuzumab, and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor against EGFR, gefitinib, have improved the survival of breast and lung cancer patients...
March 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338569/case-report-immune-mediated-complete-response-in-a-patient-with-recurrent-advanced-ewing-sarcoma-ews-after-vigil-immunotherapy
#7
Maurizio Ghisoli, McCarley Rutledge, Philip J Stephens, Robert Mennel, Minal Barve, Meghan Manley, Bahram R Oliai, Kathleen M Murphy, Luisa Manning, Belen Gutierrez, Priyanka Rangadass, Ashli Walker, Zhaohui Wang, Donald Rao, Ned Adams, Gladice Wallraven, Neil Senzer, John Nemunaitis
Ewing sarcoma is a highly resistant disease with a <10% chance of survival at 5 years after failure of frontline chemotherapy. This is a case report of an Ewing sarcoma patient with metastatic disease recurrence <2 years after standard chemotherapy/radiation who achieved a durable and sustained complete response after 2 series of treatments with Vigil (GMCSF/bi-shRNA furin DNA autologous tumor immunotherapy) serially manufactured from first and second recurrences with ELISPOT assay correlation. Results support justification of further testing of Vigil with ELISPOT assay as a biomarker to assess level of immune response and correlation with disease control...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338172/antidiabetic-drug-metformin-mitigates-ovarian-cancer-skov3-cell-growth-by-triggering-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-and-inhibition-of-m-tor-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#8
Y-L Fu, Q-H Zhang, X-W Wang, H He
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is one of most extensively prescribed oral hypoglycemic drug and has received increased attention in recent times for its antitumorigenic potential. Many possible mechanisms have been proposed for the ability of metformin to overturn cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of metformin against ovarian SKOV3 cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anticancer activity and IC50 value of metformin were determined by MTT assay...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337370/role-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-lung-cancer-and-targeted-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Tie-Cheng Liu, Xin Jin, Yan Wang, Ke Wang
Lung cancer is the foremost cause of cancer-related deaths world-wide. Both, the major forms of lung cancer, Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and Small cell lung cancers (SCLC), have responded effectively to chemo-, radiation and adjuvant-therapies. Tumor removal through surgery also appeared as a good therapeutic strategy. However, these therapies demonstrated unfavourable side-effects, and hence novel drugs targeting lung cancer emerged essential. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinases is a key reason for lung cancer progression...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336725/quantitative-shotgun-proteomics-unveils-candidate-novel-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-specific-proteins
#10
J Robert O'Neill, Hui-Song Pak, Erola Pairo-Castineira, Vicki Save, Simon Paterson-Brown, Rudolf Nenutil, Bořivoj Vojtěšek, Ian Overton, Alex Scherl, Ted R Hupp
Oesophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and the majority of patients have systemic disease at presentation. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), the predominant subtype in western countries, is largely resistant to current chemotherapy regimens. Selective markers are needed to enhance clinical staging and to allow targeted therapies yet there are minimal proteomic data on this cancer type. After histological review, lysates from OAC and matched normal oesophageal and gastric samples from seven patients were subjected to LC MS/MS after tandem mass tag labelling and OFFGEL fractionation...
March 23, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336470/bioassay-guided-isolation-of-active-principles-from-nigerian-medicinal-plants-identifies-new-trypanocides-with-low-toxicity-and-no-cross-resistance-to-diamidines-and-arsenicals
#11
Godwin Unekwuojo Ebiloma, John Ogbaji Igoli, Evangelos Katsoulis, Anne-Marie Donachie, Anthonius Eze, Alexander Ian Gray, Harry P de Koning
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves from the plant species studied herein are traditionally used in northern Nigeria against various protozoan infections. However, none of these herbal preparations have been standardized, nor have their toxicity to mammalian cells been investigated. In search of improved and non-toxic active antiprotozoal principles that are not cross-resistant with current anti-parasitics, we here report the results of the in vitro screening of extracts from seven selected medicinal plant species (Centrosema pubescens, Moringa oleifera, Tridax procumbens, Polyalthia longifolia, Newbouldia laevis, Eucalyptus maculate, Jathropha tanjorensis), used traditionally to treat kinetoplastid infections in Nigeria, and the isolation of their bioactive principles...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335888/second-and-third-generation-drugs-for-immuno-oncology-treatment-the-more-the-better
#12
REVIEW
Wolfram C M Dempke, Klaus Fenchel, Peter Uciechowski, Stephen P Dale
Recent success in cancer immunotherapy (anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD1/PD-L1) has confirmed the hypothesis that the immune system can control many cancers across various histologies, in some cases producing durable responses in a way not seen with many small-molecule drugs. However, only less than 25% of all patients do respond to immuno-oncology drugs and several resistance mechanisms have been identified (e.g. T-cell exhaustion, overexpression of caspase-8 and β-catenin, PD-1/PD-L1 gene amplification, MHC-I/II mutations)...
March 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335655/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-abc-transporters-to-combat-multi-drug-resistance
#13
Piyush Bugde, Riya Biswas, Fabrice Merien, Jun Lu, Dong-Xu Liu, Mingwei Chen, Shufeng Zhou, Yan Li
Most disseminated cancers remain fatal despite the availability of a variety of conventional and novel treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and biologically targeted therapy. A major factor responsible for the failure of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The overexpression of various ABC transporters in cancer cells can efficiently remove the anticancer drug from the cell, thus causing the drug to lose its effect. Areas covered: In this review, we summarised the ongoing research related to the mechanism, function, and regulation of ABC transporters...
March 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334734/multinucleated-polyploidy-drives-resistance-to-docetaxel-chemotherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Karuna Mittal, Shashi Donthamsetty, Ramneet Kaur, Chunhua Yang, Meenakshi V Gupta, Michelle D Reid, Da Hoon Choi, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is the only FDA-approved first-line treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Docetaxel treatment inevitably leads to tumour recurrence after an initial therapeutic response with generation of multinucleated polyploid (MP) cells. Here we investigated role of MP cells in clinical relapse of CRPC. METHODS: Prostate cancer (PC-3) cells were treated with docetaxel (5 nM) for 3 days followed by a washout and samples were collected at close intervals over 35 days post drug washout...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334700/single-agent-pixantrone-as-a-bridge-to-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-refractory-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#15
Lorena Appio, Carlo Landoni, Maria La Targia, Vanda Bertolli, Martina Chiarucci, Giovanni Crovetti, Elisabetta Vassenna, Giovanni Serio, Marco Bregni
Aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with poor long-term survival after relapse or resistance to chemotherapy. We report a case of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma refractory to first-line R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and second-line R-DHAP (rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin) chemotherapy treatments. The patient achieved remission with single-agent pixantrone, and received a consolidation with high-dose BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan) chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation...
March 24, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334546/-parathyroid-cancer
#16
Ivana Ságová, Matej Stančík, Peter Kentoš, Dušan Pavai, Daniela Kantárová, Anton Vaňuga, Peter Vaňuga
Parathyroid cancer is a rare endocrine malignancy, representing less than 1 % of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. The exact etiology of the disease remains unknown. Known risk factors include neck irradiation, end stage renal failure, genetic factors, particularly the the HPRT2/CDCT73 gene mutation. The clinical picture is often indolent, yet progressive with a trend of local invasion and metastasis formation in advanced disease. The clinical picture includes symptoms of severe and resistant hypercalcemia, requiring intensive therapy often with the need of dialysis...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334432/uch-l1-containing-exosomes-mediate-chemotherapeutic-resistance-transfer-in-breast-cancer
#17
Kuan Ning, Teng Wang, Xu Sun, Pengfei Zhang, Yun Chen, Jian Jin, Dong Hua
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy resistance has become a serious challenge in the treatment of breast cancer. Previous studies showed cells can transfer proteins, including those responsible for drug resistance to adjacent cells via exosomes. METHODS: The switches of drug resistance via exosomes transfer were assessed by CellTiter-Blue Viability assay, flow cytometry, and immunostaining analysis. Relative protein levels of Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), and phospho-extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2) were measured by Western blot...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334047/clinical-validation-of-chemotherapy-predictors-developed-on-global-microrna-expression-in-the-nci60-cell-line-panel-tested-in-ovarian-cancer
#18
Kira Philipsen Prahm, Claus Høgdall, Mona Aarenstrup Karlsen, Ib Jarle Christensen, Guy Wayne Novotny, Steen Knudsen, Anker Hansen, Peter Buhl Jensen, Thomas Jensen, Mansoor Raza Mirza, Anne Weng Ekmann-Gade, Lotte Nedergaard, Estrid Høgdall
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies. This is partly due to a non-durable response to chemotherapy. Prediction of resistance to chemotherapy could be a key role in more personalized treatment. In the current study we aimed to examine if microRNA based predictors could predict resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer, and to investigate if the predictors could be prognostic factors for progression free and overall survival. METHODS: Predictors of chemotherapy-resistance were developed based on correlation between miRNA expression and differences in measured growth inhibition in a variety of human cancer cell lines in the presence of Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Docetaxel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333284/revisiting-the-mutant-prevention-concentration-to-guide-dosing-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#19
Devan Jaganath, H Simon Schaaf, Peter R Donald
The mutant prevention concentration (MPC) is a well-known concept in the chemotherapy of many bacterial infections, but is seldom considered in relation to tuberculosis (TB) treatment, as the required concentrations are generally viewed as unachievable without undue toxicity. Early studies revealed single mutations conferring high MICs of first- and second-line anti-TB agents; however, the growing application of genomics and quantitative drug susceptibility testing in TB suggests a wide range of MICs often determined by specific mutations and strain type...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333127/selective-intracellular-vaporisation-of-antibody-conjugated-phase-change-nano-droplets-in-vitro
#20
A Ishijima, K Minamihata, S Yamaguchi, S Yamahira, R Ichikawa, E Kobayashi, M Iijima, Y Shibasaki, T Azuma, T Nagamune, I Sakuma
While chemotherapy is a major mode of cancer therapeutics, its efficacy is limited by systemic toxicities and drug resistance. Recent advances in nanomedicine provide the opportunity to reduce systemic toxicities. However, drug resistance remains a major challenge in cancer treatment research. Here we developed a nanomedicine composed of a phase-change nano-droplet (PCND) and an anti-cancer antibody (9E5), proposing the concept of ultrasound cancer therapy with intracellular vaporisation. PCND is a liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticle with a liquid-gas phase that is transformable upon exposure to ultrasound...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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