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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646736/cell-damage-caused-by-ultraviolet-b-radiation-in-the-desert-cyanobacterium-phormidium-tenue-and-its-recovery-process
#1
Gaohong Wang, Songqiang Deng, Jiafeng Liu, Chaoran Ye, Xiangjun Zhou, Lanzhou Chen
Phormidium tenue, a cyanobacterium that grows in the topsoil of biological soil crusts (BSCs), has the highest recovery rate among desert crust cyanobacteria after exposure to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. However, the mechanism underlying its recovery process is unclear. To address this issue, we measured chlorophyll a fluorescence, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and repair of DNA breakage in P. tenue following exposure to UV-B. We found that UV-B radiation at all doses tested reduced photosynthesis and induced cell damage in P...
June 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646222/effects-of-chemical-alternation-on-damage-accumulation-in-concentrated-solid-solution-alloys
#2
Mohammad W Ullah, Haizhou Xue, Gihan Velisa, Ke Jin, Hongbin Bei, William J Weber, Yanwen Zhang
Single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have recently gained unprecedented attention due to their promising properties. To understand effects of alloying elements on irradiation-induced defect production, recombination and evolution, an integrated study of ion irradiation, ion beam analysis and atomistic simulations are carried out on a unique set of model crystals with increasing chemical complexity, from pure Ni to Ni80Fe20, Ni50Fe50, and Ni80Cr20 binaries, and to a more complex Ni40Fe40Cr20 alloy...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645711/proteome-dynamics-during-post-desiccation-recovery-reveal-convergence-of-desiccation-and-gamma-radiation-stress-response-pathways-in-deinococcus-radiodurans
#3
Aman Kumar Ujaoney, Mahesh Kumar Padwal, Bhakti Basu
Deinococcus radiodurans is inherently resistant to both ionizing radiation and desiccation. Fifteen months of desiccation was found to be the LD50 dose for D. radiodurans. Desiccated cells of D. radiodurans entered 6h of growth arrest during post-desiccation recovery (PDR). Proteome dynamics during PDR were mapped by resolving cellular proteins by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. At least 41 proteins, represented by 51 spots on proteome profiles, were differentially expressed throughout PDR...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644558/current-understanding-of-cancer-stem-cells-review-of-their-radiobiology-and-role-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#4
REVIEW
Paul Ambrose Reid, Puthenparampil Wilson, Yanrui Li, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eva Bezak
Evidence of cancer cells that bear attributes analogous to those of normal stem cells has developed a hierarchical model of cancer's architecture and progression. This subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs) drives the progression and therapy resistance of cancers. Research to identify the phenotypes of these CSCs presents evidence of a subpopulation that is more resistant to therapy and may proliferate in response. Literature shows that CSCs typically represent around 1%-10% of cell populations in head and neck cancer but this proportion may increase in response to a therapeutic radiation dose...
June 23, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643452/emerging-nanotechnology-and-advanced-materials-for-cancer-radiation-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Guosheng Song, Liang Cheng, Yu Chao, Kai Yang, Zhuang Liu
Radiation therapy (RT) including external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and internal radioisotope therapy (RIT) has been widely used for clinical cancer treatment. However, owing to the low radiation absorption of tumors, high doses of ionizing radiations are often needed during RT, leading to severe damages to normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Meanwhile, the RT efficacies are limited by different mechanisms, among which the tumor hypoxia-associated radiation resistance is a well-known one, as there exists hypoxia inside most solid tumors while oxygen is essential to enhance radiation-induced DNA damages...
June 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643230/crosstalk-between-m2-macrophages-and-glioma-stem-cells
#6
Leora M Nusblat, Molly J Carroll, Charles M Roth
PURPOSE: Given its extremely poor prognosis, there is a pressing need for an improved understanding of the biology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including the roles of tumor subpopulations that may contribute to their growth rate and therapy resistance. The most malignant phenotypes of GBM have been ascribed to the presence of subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation and which promote invasiveness and metastasis...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642964/metastasis-of-breast-cancer-cells-to-the-bone-lung-and-lymph-nodes-promotes-resistance-to-ionizing-radiation
#7
Takamitsu Hara, Manabu Iwadate, Kazunoshin Tachibana, Satoshi Waguri, Seiichi Takenoshita, Nobuyuki Hamada
BACKGROUND: Metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer deaths, necessitating strategies for its treatment. Although radiotherapy is employed for both primary and metastatic breast cancers, the difference in their ionizing radiation response remains incompletely understood. This study is the first to compare the radioresponse of a breast cancer cell line with its metastatic variants and report that such metastatic variants are more radioresistant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A luciferase expressing cell line was established from human basal-like breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 and underwent in vivo selections, whereby a cycle of inoculations into the left cardiac ventricle or the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice, isolation of metastases to the bone, lung and lymph nodes visualized with bioluminescence imaging, and expansion of obtained cells was repeated twice or three times...
June 22, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642484/mir-100-5p-inhibition-induces-apoptosis-in-dormant-prostate-cancer-cells-and-prevents-the-emergence-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#8
Noushin Nabavi, Nur Ridzwan Nur Saidy, Erik Venalainen, Anne Haegert, Abhijit Parolia, Hui Xue, Yuwei Wang, Rebecca Wu, Xin Dong, Colin Collins, Francesco Crea, Yuzhuo Wang
Carcinoma of the prostate is the most common cancer in men. Treatment of aggressive prostate cancer involves a regiment of radical prostectomy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Despite significant improvements in the last decade, the treatment of prostate cancer remains unsatisfactory, because a significant fraction of prostate cancers develop resistance to multiple treatments and become incurable. This prompts an urgent need to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of therapy-induced resistance of prostate cancer either in the form of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) or transdifferentiated neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640996/polyoxometalate-based-radiosensitization-platform-for-treating-hypoxic-tumors-by-attenuating-radioresistance-and-enhancing-radiation-response
#9
Yuan Yong, Chunfang Zhang, Zhanjun Gu, Jiangfeng Du, Zhao Guo, Xinghua Dong, Jiani Xie, Guangjin Zhang, Xiangfeng Liu, Yuliang Zhao
Radioresistance is one of the undesirable impediments in hypoxic tumors, which sharply diminishes the therapeutic effectiveness of radiotherapy and eventually results in the failure of their treatments. An attractive strategy for attenuating radioresistance is developing an ideal radiosensitization system with appreciable radiosensitization capacity to attenuate tumor hypoxia and reinforce radiotherapy response in hypoxic tumors. Therefore, we describe the development of Gd-containing polyoxometalates-conjugated chitosan (GdW10@CS nanosphere) as a radiosensitization system for simultaneous extrinsic and intrinsic radiosensitization, by generating an overabundance of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) using high-energy X-ray stimulation and mediating the hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) siRNA to down-regulate HIF-1α expression and suppress broken double-stranded DNA self-healing...
June 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640393/malagasy-cichlids-differentially-limit-impacts-of-body-shape-evolution-on-oral-jaw-functional-morphology
#10
Christopher M Martinez, John S Sparks
Patterns of trait covariation, like integration and modularity, are vital factors that influence the evolution of vertebrate body plans. In functional systems, decoupling of morphological modules buffers functional change in one trait by reducing correlated variation with another. However, for complex morphologies with many-to-one mapping of form to function (MTOM), resistance to functional change may also be achieved by constraining morphological variation within a functionally stable region of morphospace...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639905/high-expression-of-kruppel-like-factor-4-as-a-predictor-of-poor-prognosis-for-cervical-cancer-patient-response-to-radiotherapy
#11
Hai-Xia Liu, Na Li, Li Wei, Fu-Xing Zhou, Rui Ma, Feng Xiao, Wei Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yan-Ping Hui, Hui Song, Bi-Liang Chen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the associations of Kruppel-like factor 4 expression with sensitivity to radiation therapy in locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. METHODS: The records of 117 locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients were retrospectively reviewed, and Kruppel-like factor 4 expression in cervical carcinoma tissues was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The associations of Kruppel-like factor 4 expression with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637411/venom-peptides-and-toxins-a-prospective-spearhead-in-cancer-treatment
#12
Janet Pik Ching Wong, Bin Li, Hang Fai Kwok
Cancer is a condition of genetically or environmentally mutated, uncontrollable cell growth that directly affects human morbidity and mortality. Many treatments have been adopted to reduce cancer cell proliferation; however, new mutated developments of some cancer cells have started to show resistance towards current therapies and treatments that cause some drugs to lose their efficacy. Additionally, deleterious side-effects of some hard application methods like radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are less favorable...
June 21, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636807/targeting-protein-for-xenopus-kinesin-like-protein-2-knockdown-enhances-radiation-sensitivity-of-human-lung-squamous-carcinoma-cell
#13
Jie Yang, Feng Gao, Xinjian Xu, Yuxiang Wang, Shuchai Zhu
Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) has been demonstrated to be associated with the tumorigenesis of many cancers. In the present study, we investigated the role and preliminary mechanism of TPX2 in the resistance of lung squamous carcinoma to radiation therapy. The results showed that SK-MES-1R and NCI-H226R cells were more resistant to X-ray irradiation than the parental cells (SK-MES-1 and NCI-H226). Moreover, TPX2 was upregulated in the radioresistant cells compared with the parental cells...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632529/respiratory-system-mechanics-during-low-versus-high-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-open-abdominal-surgery-a-substudy-of-provhilo-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Davide D'Antini, Robert Huhle, Jacob Herrmann, Demet S Sulemanji, Jun Oto, Pasquale Raimondo, Lucia Mirabella, Sabrine N T Hemmes, Marcus J Schultz, Paolo Pelosi, David W Kaczka, Marcos Francisco Vidal Melo, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Gilda Cinnella
BACKGROUND: In the 2014 PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure (PROVHILO) trial, intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 12 cm H2O) and lung recruitment maneuvers did not decrease postoperative pulmonary complications when compared to low PEEP (0-2 cm H2O) approach without recruitment breaths. However, effects of intraoperative PEEP on lung compliance remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that higher PEEP leads to a dominance of intratidal overdistension, whereas lower PEEP results in intratidal recruitment/derecruitment (R/D)...
June 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632383/taking-advantage-of-disorder-small-molecule-organic-glasses-for-radiation-detection-and-particle-discrimination
#15
Joseph S Carlson, Peter Marleau, Ryan A Zarkesh, Patrick L Feng
A series of fluorescent silyl-fluorene molecules were synthesized and studied with respect to their photophysical properties and response toward ionizing neutron and gamma-ray radiation. Optically transparent and stable organic glasses were prepared from these materials using a bulk melt-casting procedure. The prepared organic glass monoliths provided fluorescence quantum yields and radiation detection properties exceeding the highest-performing benchmark materials such as solution-grown trans-stilbene crystals...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631337/a-method-to-assess-the-loss-of-a-dipole-antenna-for-ultra-high-field-mri
#16
Gang Chen, Christopher M Collins, Daniel K Sodickson, Graham C Wiggins
PURPOSE: To describe a new bench measurement based on quality (Q) factors to estimate the coil noise relative to the sample noise of dipole antennas at 7 T. METHODS: Placing a dipole antenna close to a highly conductive sample surrogate (HCSS) greatly reduces radiation loss, and using QHCSS gives a more accurate estimate of coil resistance than Qunloaded . Instead of using the ratio of unloaded and sample-loaded Q factors, the ratio of HCSS-loaded and sample-loaded Q factors should be used at ultra-high fields...
June 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627629/reducing-autophagy-and-inducing-g1-phase-arrest-by-aloperine-enhances-radio-sensitivity-in-lung-cancer-cells
#17
Zhijie Xu, Yuanliang Yan, Shuangshuang Zeng, Long Qian, Shuang Dai, Lingfang Xiao, Lin Wang, Xue Yang, Yi Xiao, Zhicheng Gong
Aloperine (ALO), an isolated alkaloid from the leaves of Sophora alopecuroides (S. alopecuroides), has been suggested to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties, and has been traditionally used to treat various diseases, including cancers. However, little is known about the effects of ALO on the radio-sensitivity of lung cancer cells. In the present study, we confirmed that agent ALO inhibits cell growth, promotes cell aopotosis and induces G1 phase arrest and consequently enhanced the radio-sensitivity in radio-resistant lung cancer cells A549/IR...
June 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622395/optical-imaging-of-radiation-induced-metabolic-changes-in-radiation-sensitive-and-resistant-cancer-cells
#18
Kinan Alhallak, Samir V Jenkins, David E Lee, Nicholas P Greene, Kyle P Quinn, Robert J Griffin, Ruud P M Dings, Narasimhan Rajaram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621668/blocking-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-glioblastoma-with-a-sextet-of-repurposed-drugs-the-eis-regimen
#19
Richard E Kast, Nicolas Skuli, Georg Karpel-Massler, Guido Frosina, Timothy Ryken, Marc-Eric Halatsch
This paper outlines a treatment protocol to run alongside of standard current treatment of glioblastoma- resection, temozolomide and radiation. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) inhibiting sextet, EIS Regimen, uses the ancillary attributes of six older medicines to impede EMT during glioblastoma. EMT is an actively motile, therapy-resisting, low proliferation, transient state that is an integral feature of cancers' lethality generally and of glioblastoma specifically. It is believed to be during the EMT state that glioblastoma's centrifugal migration occurs...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621575/analysis-of-radio-sensitization-patents-in-china-from-2006-to-2015
#20
Guofeng He, Xiaoke Di, Xinchen Sun, Jingjing Yan, Shu Zhang
Radiotherapy is by means of ionizing radiation to kill tumor cells, inhibit and control the growth, metastasis and diffusion of tumor cells. During the last few decades, application of radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy and surgery are clinical mainstream treatments. However, little is known what radio-sensitization agents have been patented in China and what the potential drug candidates for patents are in China. Areas covered: This reviews covers research and patent literature of the last 10 years dealing with the discovery and development of novel radio-sensitization patents in China
...
June 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
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