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Radiation resistance

Xuanxuan Wang, Hai Liu, Liming Shi, Xiaoli Yu, Yanjun Gu, Xiaonan Sun
LncRNA in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway 1 (LINP1) is an lncRNA which promotes therapeutic resistance in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the expression and function of LINP1 in cervical cancer is not yet well-understood. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of LINP1 in tumor tissues and cell lines of cervical cancer. We found that LINP1 associates with NHEJ proteins (Ku80 and DNA-PKcs). LINP1 translocates from cytosol to nucleus in response to irradiation. In addition, LINP1 knockdown significantly increases the levels of cleaved caspase3 and PARP, leading to enhanced cell apoptosis after ionizing radiation (IR)...
March 12, 2018: Cell Cycle
Zuzana Tulpová, Ming-Cheng Luo, Helena Toegelová, Paul Visendi, Satomi Hayashi, Petr Vojta, Etienne Paux, Andrzej Kilian, Michaël Abrouk, Jan Bartoš, Marián Hajdúch, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards, Jaroslav Doležel, Hana Šimková
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for a significant part of the world's population. The growing demand on its production can be satisfied by improving yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Knowledge of the genome sequence would aid in discovering genes and QTLs underlying these traits and provide a basis for genomics-assisted breeding. Physical maps and BAC clones associated with them have been valuable resources from which to generate a reference genome of bread wheat and to assist map-based gene cloning...
March 8, 2018: New Biotechnology
Darya Alizadeh, Ethan E White, Teresa C Sanchez, Shunan Liu, Leying Zhang, Behnam Badie, Jacob M Berlin
Even when treated with aggressive current therapies, patients with glioblastoma usually survive less than two years and exhibit a high rate of recurrence. CpG is an oligonucleotide that activates the innate immune system via TLR9 activation. Injection of CpG into glioblastoma tumors showed promise as an immunotherapy in mouse models but proved disappointing in human trials. One aspect of glioma that is not addressed by CpG therapy alone is the highly invasive nature of glioma cells, which is associated with resistance to radiation and chemotherapy...
March 10, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Julia Ketteler, Diana Klein
Resistance of solid tumors to chemo- and radiotherapy remains a major obstacle in anti-cancer treatment. Herein, the membrane protein Caveolin-1 (CAV1) came into focus as it is highly expressed in many tumors and high CAV1 levels were correlated with tumor progression, invasion and metastasis, and thus, a worse clinical outcome. Increasing evidence further indicates that the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment, also known as the tumor stroma, contributes to therapy resistance resulting in poor clinical outcome...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Antonin Dréan, Shai Rosenberg, François-Xavier Lejeune, Larissa Goli, Aravindan Arun Nadaradjane, Jérémy Guehennec, Charlotte Schmitt, Maïté Verreault, Franck Bielle, Karima Mokhtari, Sanson Marc, Alexandre Carpentier, Delattre Jean-Yves, Ahmed Idbaih
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) regulate traffic of multiple compounds, including chemotherapeutic agents, through biological membranes. They are expressed by multiple cell types and have been implicated in the drug resistance of some cancer cells. Despite significant research in ABC transporters in the context of many diseases, little is known about their expression and clinical value in glioblastoma (GBM). We analyzed expression of 49 ABC transporters in both commercial and patient-derived GBM cell lines as well as from 51 human GBM tumor biopsies...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
F M Nazmul Hassan, Radhey S Gupta
Deinococcus species display a high degree of resistance to radiation and desiccation due to their ability to protect critical proteome from oxidatively generated damage; however, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Comparative analysis of DNA repair proteins reported here has identified 22 conserved signature indels (CSIs) in the proteins UvrA1, UvrC, UvrD, UvsE, MutY, MutM, Nth, RecA, RecD, RecG, RecQ, RecR, RuvC, RadA, PolA, DnaE, LigA, GyrA and GyrB, that are uniquely shared by all/most Deinococcus homologs...
March 8, 2018: Genes
Zhongxia Shang, Jin Li, Cuncai Fan, Youxing Chen, Qiang Li, Tongde Shen, Haiyan Wang, Xinghang Zhang
Metallic materials subjected to heavy ion irradiation experience significant radiation damage. Free surface is a type of effective defect sinks to improve the radiation resistance in metallic materials. However, the radiation resistance of metallic nanowires is largely unknown. Here we show, via in situ Kr ion irradiations in a transmission electron microscope, Ag nanowires exhibited much better radiation resistance than coarse-grained Ag. Irradiation-induced prominent surface roughening in Ag nanowires provides direct evidence for interaction between defect clusters and free surface...
March 8, 2018: Nanotechnology
Xiaojing Chang, Xiaoying Xue, Yafang Zhang, Ge Zhang, Huandi Zhou, Yanling Yang, Yuge Ran, Zhiqing Xiao, Xiaohui Ge, Huizhi Liu
Background: Neurotrophin receptor-interacting MAGE homolog (NRAGE) has been considered as a tumor suppressor. In the previous study, we established human esophageal carcinoma resistance cell line TE13R120 and found the difference of NRAGE expression between TE13 and TE13R120 cells by gene microarray. Herein, we further discuss the possible molecular mechanism of NRAGE on participating the radiation sensitivity of esophageal carcinoma cells. Materials and Methods: We used colony formation assay to measure the surviving fraction and relevant radiobiological parameters...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Marilize Le Roes-Hill, Kim Durrell, Alaric Prins, Paul R Meyers
The actinobacterium, strain M26T , was isolated from garden soil that was pre-treated with microwave radiation. The soil sample was collected in Roodepoort, Gauteng Province, South Africa as part of an antibiotic-screening programme. The isolate produced branched vegetative mycelium with sporangiophores bearing small sporangia ranging from 3 to 6 μm in diameter. Rapid genus identification revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Streptosporangium. To confirm this result, the strain was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterisation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Eric Auchter, Justin Marquez, Garrison N Stevens, Rebecca Silva, Quinn Mcculloch, Quintessa Guengerich, Andrew Blair, Sebastian Litchfield, Nan Li, Chris Sheehan, Rebecca Chamberlin, Steven Yarbro, Enkeleda Dervishi
We present a methodology for developing ultra-thin and strong formvar-based membranes with controlled morphologies. Formvar is a thin hydrophilic and oleophilic polymer inert to most chemicals and resistant to radiation. The formvar-based membranes are viable materials as support structures in micro- and macro-scale systems depending on thinness and porosity control. Tunable sub-micron thick porous membranes with 20% to 65% porosity were synthesized by controlling the ratios of formvar, glycerol, and chloroform...
March 7, 2018: Nanotechnology
Miri Park, Jaeho Song, Gi Gyun Nam, Yochan Joung, Lei Zhao, Min-Kyu Kim, Jang-Cheon Cho
A Gram-stain-negative, pink-coloured, non-motile and gamma radiation-resistant bacterium, designated strain IMCC1711T , was isolated from a freshwater sample collected from an artificial pond (Inkyong Pond). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain IMCC1711T was most closely related to Deinococcus piscis 3axT (94.2 %) and formed a robust phylogenetic clade with other species of the genus Deinococcus. Optimal growth of strain MCC1711T was observed at 25 °C and pH 7.0 without NaCl. Strain IMCC1711T exhibited high resistance to gamma radiation...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jan Van Impe, Cindy Smet, Brijesh Tiwari, Ralf Greiner, Shikha Ojha, Višnja Stulić, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak
Despite of the constant development of novel thermal and non-thermal technologies, knowledge on the mechanisms of microbial inactivation is still very limited. Technologies such as high pressure, ultraviolet light, pulsed light, ozone, power ultrasound and cold plasma (advanced oxidation processes) have shown promising results for inactivation of microorganisms. The efficacy of inactivation is greatly enhanced by combination of conventional (thermal) with non-thermal, or non-thermal with another non-thermal technique...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
C Daniel De Magalhaes Filho, Brian Henriquez, Nicole E Seah, Ronald M Evans, Louis R Lapierre, Andrew Dillin
The transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can sense UV and blue-violet light to alter behavior. Because high-dose UV and blue-violet light are not a common feature outside of the laboratory setting, we asked what role, if any, could low-intensity visible light play in C. elegans physiology and longevity. Here, we show that C. elegans lifespan is inversely correlated to the time worms were exposed to visible light. While circadian control, lite-1 and tax-2 do not contribute to the lifespan reduction, we demonstrate that visible light creates photooxidative stress along with a general unfolded-protein response that decreases the lifespan...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Katharina Batzke, Gabriele Büchel, Wiebke Hansen, Alexander Schramm
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has been described to promote tumour growth by inducing angiogenesis and to contribute to the tumour immune escape. We had previously identified up-regulation of Gal-1 in preclinical models of aggressive neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial tumour of childhood. While Gal-1 did not confer a survival advantage in the absence of exogenous stressors, Gal-1 contributed to enhanced cell migratory and invasive properties. Here, we review these findings and extend them by analyzing Gal-1 mediated effects on immune cell regulation and radiation resistance...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jitao Li, Xinghua Zhu, Dingyu Yang, Peng Gu, Haihua Wu
Amorphous selenium (a-Se) thin films with a thickness of 1200 nm were successfully fabricated by thermal evaporation at a low vacuum degree of 10-2 Pa. The structural properties involving phase and morphology showed that a-Se thin films could be resistant to 60 °C in air. Also, a transformation to polycrystalline Selenium (p-Se) was shown as the annealing temperature rose to 62 °C and 65 °C, with obvious changes in color and surface morphology. Moreover, as the a-Se transformed to p-Se, the samples' transmittance decreased significantly, and the band gap declined dramatically from 2...
March 2, 2018: Materials
Hanaa M Ibrahim, Abeer M AbdElbary, Salem Y Mohamed, Amira Elwan, Mohamed I Abdelhamid, Amr Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, gastric carcinoma (GC) is the 5th most common malignancies in both sexes representing 6.8% of the total fatalities and is the 3rd leading cause of cancer death representing 8.8% of total fatalities. In Egypt, GC considers the 12th leading cause of cancer death representing 2.2% of the total cancer mortality. A growing body of evidence supports that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to chemotherapy or radiation, and the cell adhesion molecule CD44 has been identified as a cell surface marker associated with cancer stem cell in several types of tumors including gastric cancer...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Katsuya Satoh, Hiroki Arai, Toshihiko Sanzen, Yuko Kawaguchi, Hidenori Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Yokobori, Akihiko Yamagishi, Yutaka Oono, Issay Narumi
Deinococcus aerius strain TR0125 is a bacterium isolated from the high atmosphere above Japan that shows strong resistance to desiccation, UV-C, and gamma radiation. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of D. aerius (4.5 Mb), which may provide useful genetic information supporting its biochemical features.
March 1, 2018: Genome Announcements
Alexander Liu, Rohan S Wijesurendra, Joanna M Liu, Andreas Greiser, Michael Jerosch-Herold, John C Forfar, Keith M Channon, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Vanessa M Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Novel cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) stress T1 mapping can detect ischemia and myocardial blood volume changes without contrast agents and may be a more comprehensive ischemia biomarker than myocardial blood flow. OBJECTIVES: This study describes the performance of the first prospective validation of stress T1 mapping against invasive coronary measurements for detecting obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD), defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR <0...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Song Qu, Ya Guo, Shi-Ting Huang, Xiao-Dong Zhu
Radioresistance remains a major obstacle for clinicians in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Others and we have reported that signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) may be as an important gene for resistance to radiation. However, the relationship between STAT1 and radioresistance is still elusive. In this study, by constitutive silencing STAT1 in human radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2R cell line, we showed that inhibition of STAT1 enhanced radiosensitivity of CNE-2R...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Miki Young, Darren Rodenhizer, Teresa Dean, Elisa D'Arcangelo, Bin Xu, Laurie Ailles, Alison P McGuigan
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a key component of the tumour microenvironment and have been shown to play an important role in the progression of cancer. To probe these tumour-stroma interactions, we incorporated CAFs derived from head and neck cancer patients and squamous carcinoma cells of the hypopharynx (FaDu) into the Tissue Roll for the Analysis of Cellular Environment and Response (TRACER) platform to establish a co-culture platform that simulates the CAF-tumour microenvironmental interactions in head and neck tumours...
February 19, 2018: Biomaterials
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