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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811361/chemoradiotherapy-resistance-in-colorectal-cancer-cells-is-mediated-by-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#1
Georg Emons, Melanie Spitzner, Sebastian Reineke, Janneke Möller, Noam Auslander, Frank Kramer, Yue Hu, Tim Beissbarth, Hendrik A Wolff, Margret Rave-Fränk, Elisabeth Heßmann, Jochen Gaedcke, B Michael Ghadimi, Steven Johnsen, Thomas Ried, Marian Grade
Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). The Wnt-transcription factor, TCF7L2, is overexpressed in primary rectal cancers that are resistant to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and TCF7L2 mediates resistance to CRT. However, it is unclear whether the resistance is mediated by a TCF7L2 inherent mechanism or Wnt/β-catenin signaling in general. Here, inhibition of β-catenin by siRNAs or a small molecule inhibitor (XAV-939) resulted in sensitization of CRC cells to CRT...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810535/curcumin-enhances-the-radiosensitivity-of-renal-cancer-cells-by-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#2
Gang Li, Ziming Wang, Tie Chong, Jie Yang, Hongliang Li, Haiwen Chen
The radiation resistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains the primary obstacle to improve patient survival. This study aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin on the radiosensitivity of RCC cells. Human RCC cell (ACHN) was exposed to irradiation (IR) and/or curcumin treatment. Cell viability, DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis, were evaluated by MTT, immunofluoresence staining and flow cytometry. Moreover, ACHN cells were xenografted into nude mice and subjected to IR and/or curcumin treatment...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809883/noninvasive-measurement-of-tissue-blood-oxygenation-with-cerenkov-imaging-during-therapeutic-radiation-delivery
#3
Xiaofeng Zhang, Sai Kit Lam, Gregory Palmer, Shiva Das, Mark Oldham, Mark Dewhirst
Tumor tissue oxygenation significantly affects the outcome of radiotherapy. Real-time monitoring of tumor hypoxia is highly desirable for effective radiotherapy, and is the basis for improved treatment because hypoxic tumor cells are more resistant to radiation damage than fully oxygenated cells. We propose to use Cerenkov imaging to monitor tumor hypoxia by means of tissue blood oxygenation without the need for any exogenous contrast agent. Using a rodent hypoxia model, we demonstrate that Cerenkov imaging can be used as a noninvasive and noncontact method to measure tissue blood oxygenation level during radiation delivery...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803687/predictors-of-asymptomatic-radiation-induced-abdominal-atherosclerosis
#4
L Cella, R Liuzzi, P Romanelli, M Conson, V D'Avino, M Ottaviano, V Damiano, G Palmieri, R Pacelli, M Mancini
AIMS: To identify predictors of asymptomatic radiation-induced abdominal atherosclerosis in patients treated with radiotherapy and evaluated by abdominal vascular ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two testicular classic seminoma patients (median age 34 years, range 16-56) undergoing radical inguinal orchiectomy were analysed. Twenty-six patients underwent post-surgery radiotherapy (median total dose 25 Gy, range 25-43), two of them also received chemotherapy (CHT) and 16 patients were treated with surgery alone or by surgery followed by CHT (control group)...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802252/exploiting-radiation-induced-signaling-to-increase-the-susceptibility-of-resistant-cancer-cells-to-targeted-drugs-akt-and-mtor-inhibitors-as-an-example
#5
Iris Eke, Adeola Y Makinde, Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Veit Sandfort, Sanjeewani T Palayoor, Barbara H Rath, Lance Liotta, Mariaelena Pierobon, Emanuel F Petricoin, Matthew F Brown, Jayne M Stommel, Mansoor M Ahmed, C Norman Coleman
Implementing targeted drug therapy in radio-oncologic treatment regimens has greatly improved the outcome of cancer patients. However, the efficacy of molecular targeted drugs such as inhibitory antibodies or small molecule inhibitors essentially depends on target expression and activity, which both can change during the course of treatment. Radiotherapy has previously been shown to activate pro-survival pathways which can help tumor cells to adapt and thereby survive treatment. Therefore, we aimed to identify changes in signaling induced by radiation and evaluate the potential of targeting these changes with small molecules to increase the therapeutic efficacy on cancer cell survival...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802102/pnipaam-co-jeffamine-%C3%A2-pnj-scaffolds-as-in%C3%A2-vitro-models-for-niche-enrichment-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells
#6
John M Heffernan, James B McNamara, Sabine Borwege, Brent L Vernon, Nader Sanai, Shwetal Mehta, Rachael W Sirianni
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor, and the 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. GBM malignancy is driven in part by a population of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that exhibit indefinite self-renewal capacity, multipotent differentiation, expression of neural stem cell markers, and resistance to conventional treatments. GSCs are enriched in specialized niche microenvironments that regulate stem phenotypes and support GSC radioresistance. Therefore, identifying GSC-niche interactions that regulate stem phenotypes may present a unique target for disrupting the maintenance and persistence of this treatment resistant population...
May 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801914/blockade-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-enhances-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-efficacy-in-patient-derived-recurrent-glioblastoma-models
#7
Shinichi Esaki, Fares Nigim, Esther Moon, Samantha Luk, Juri Kiyokawa, William Curry, Daniel P Cahill, Andrew S Chi, A John Iafrate, Robert L Martuza, Samuel D Rabkin, Hiroaki Wakimoto
Despite the current standard of multimodal management, glioblastoma (GBM) inevitably recurs and effective therapy is not available for recurrent disease. A subset of tumor cells with stem-like properties, termed GBM stem-like cells (GSCs), are considered to play a role in tumor relapse. Although oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) is a promising therapeutic for GBM, its efficacy against recurrent GBM is incompletely characterized. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays vital roles in maintaining GSC stemness and GBM pathogenesis...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801308/egfr-mutations-compromise-hypoxia-associated-radiation-resistance-through-impaired-replication-fork-associated-dna-damage-repair
#8
Mohammad Saki, Haruhiko Makino, Prashanthi Javvadi, Nozomi Tomimatsu, Lianghao Ding, Jennifer E Clark, Elaine Gavin, Kenichi Takeda, Joel Andrews, Debabrata Saha, Michael D Story, Sandeep Burma, Chaitanya Nirodi
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling has been implicated in hypoxia-associated resistance to radiation or chemotherapy. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) with activating L858R or ΔE746-E750 EGFR mutations exhibit elevated EGFR activity and downstream signaling. Here, relative to wild type (WT) EGFR, mutant (MT) EGFR expression significantly increases radiosensitivity in hypoxic cells. Gene expression profiling in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) revealed that MT-EGFR expression elevated transcripts related to cell cycle and replication in aerobic and hypoxic conditions and down-regulated RAD50, a critical component of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathways...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801178/impact-of-head-and-neck-radiotherapy-on-the-mechanical-behavior-of-composite-resins-and-adhesive-systems-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Cristhian Camilo Madrid Troconis, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Thaís Bianca Brandão, Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Mario Fernando de Goes
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the evidence regarding the impact of head and neck radiotherapy (HNRT) on the mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems. METHODS: Searches were conducted on PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases using "Radiotherapy", "Composite resins" and "Adhesive systems" as keywords. Selected studies were written in English and assessed the mechanical behavior of composite resins and/or adhesive systems when bonding procedure was conducted before and/or after a maximum radiation dose ≥50Gy, applied under in vitro or in vivo conditions...
August 8, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800787/mir-449a-suppresses-ldha-mediated-glycolysis-to-enhance-the-sensitivity-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-to-ionizing-radiation
#10
Liang Li, Huijuan Liu, Lianjiang Du, Pan Xi, Qian Wang, Yanqin Li, Di Liu
MicroRNA dysregulation contributes to malignant progression, dissemination and profound treatment resistance in multiple cancers. MiR-449a is recognized as a tumor suppresser. However, roles of miR-449a in lung cancers initiation and progression are largely unrevealed. Our study aims to investigate roles and the underlying mechanism of miR-449a in modulating sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Lung cancer cells were transfected with miR-449a mimics or negative control and exposed to IR, levels of target protein, glycolysis, cell viability, apoptosis and DNA damage were examined...
August 11, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799671/hydrophobic-flexible-and-lightweight-mxene-foams-for-high-performance-electromagnetic-interference-shielding
#11
Ji Liu, Hao-Bin Zhang, Renhui Sun, Yafeng Liu, Zhangshuo Liu, Aiguo Zhou, Zhong-Zhen Yu
Ultrathin, lightweight, and flexible electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding materials are urgently required to manage increasingly serious radiation pollution. 2D transition-metal carbides (MXenes) are considered promising alternatives to graphene for providing excellent EMI-shielding performance due to their outstanding metallic electrical conductivity. However, the hydrophilicity of MXene films may affect their stability and reliability when applied in moist or wet environments. Herein, for the first time, an efficient and facile approach is reported to fabricate freestanding, flexible, and hydrophobic MXene foam with reasonable strength by assembling MXene sheets into films followed by a hydrazine-induced foaming process...
August 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797699/the-novel-microtubule-targeting-agent-bal101553-in-combination-with-radiotherapy-in-treatment-refractory-tumor-models
#12
Ashish Sharma, Angela Broggini-Tenzer, Van Vuong, Alessandra Messikommer, Katarzyna J Nytko, Matthias Guckenberger, Felix Bachmann, Heidi A Lane, Martin Pruschy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Resistance to microtubule targeting agents (MTA) represents a major drawback in successful cancer therapy with MTAs. Here we investigated the combined treatment modality of the novel MTA BAL101553 in combination with radiotherapy in paclitaxel and epothilone-resistant tumor models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multiple regimens of BAL101553, or its active moiety BAL27862 for in vitro experiments, were probed in combination with radiotherapy in P-glycoprotein-overexpressing, human colon adenocarcinoma cells (SW480) and in tubulin-mutated human NSCLC cells (A549EpoB40) and tumors thereof...
August 7, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797568/the-combination-of-a-966492-and-topotecan-for-effective-radiosensitization-on-glioblastoma-spheroids
#13
Fereshteh Koosha, Ali Neshasteh-Riz, Abbas Takavar, Nazila Eyvazzadeh, Zohreh Mazaheri, Samira Eynali, Mehdi Mousavi
Radiotherapy is one of the modalities in the treatment of glioblastoma patients, but glioma tumors are resistant to radiation and also chemotherapy drugs. Thus, researchers are investigating drugs which have radiosensitization capabilities in order to improve radiotherapy. PARP enzymes and topoisomerase I enzymes have a critical role in repairing DNA damage in tumor cells. Thus, inhibiting activity of these enzymes helps stop DNA damage repair and increase DSB lethal damages. In the current study, we investigated the combination of TPT as a topoisomerase I inhibitor, and A-966492 as a novel PARP inhibitor for further radiosensitization...
August 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795217/animals-living-in-polluted-environments-are-a-potential-source-of-anti-tumor-molecule-s
#14
REVIEW
Shareni Jeyamogan, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Despite advances in therapeutic interventions and supportive care, the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer have remained significant. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful anti-tumor agents. The search for new anti-tumor compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in polluted environments are a potent source of anti-tumor agents. Under polluted milieus, species such as crocodiles, feed on rotten meat, are exposed to heavy metals, endure high levels of radiation, and are among the very few species to survive the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event with a prolonged lifespan...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791233/non-surgical-management-of-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections-in-women
#15
REVIEW
Paul A Bergamin, Anthony J Kiosoglous
One in three women will experience a clinically significant urinary tract infection (UTI) by age twenty-four and almost half will have at least one in their lifetime. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) are defined as having greater than two infections in a 6-month period, or three infections over twelve months, with complete resolution for at least two weeks. These may be due to relapse from incomplete treatment (persistence) or re-infection (new source). It may be difficult to distinguish between the two, where the same organism is cultured...
July 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782644/dmapt-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-and-increases-sensitivity-of-prostate-cancer-cells-to-x-rays-in-vitro-and-in-tumor-xenografts-in-vivo
#16
Marc S Mendonca, William T Turchan, Melanie E Alpuche, Christopher N Watson, Neil C Estabrook, Helen Chin-Sinex, Jeremy B Shapiro, Imade E Imasuen-Williams, Gabriel Rangel, David P Gilley, Nazmul Huda, Peter A Crooks, Ronald H Shapiro
Constitutive activation of the pro-survival transcription factor NF-κB has been associated with resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy in many human cancers, including prostate cancer. Our lab and others have demonstrated that the natural product parthenolide can inhibit NF-κB activity and sensitize PC-3 prostate cancers cells to X-rays in vitro; however, parthenolide has poor bioavailability in vivo and therefore has little clinical utility in this regard. We show here that treatment of PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cells with dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT), a parthenolide derivative with increased bioavailability, inhibits constitutive and radiation-induced NF-κB binding activity and slows prostate cancer cell growth...
August 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779947/gadolinium-based-nanoparticles-as-sensitizing-agents-to-carbon-ions-in-head-and-neck-tumor-cells
#17
Anne-Sophie Wozny, Marie-Thérèse Aloy, Gersende Alphonse, Nicolas Magné, Marc Janier, Olivier Tillement, François Lux, Michael Beuve, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse
Hadrontherapy presents the major advantage of improving tumor sterilization while sparing surrounding healthy tissues because of the particular ballistic (Bragg peak) of carbon ions. However, its efficacy is still limited in the most resistant cancers, such as grade III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), in which the association of carbon ions with gadolinium-based nanoparticles (AGuIX®) could be used as a Trojan horse. We report for the first time the radioenhancing effect of AGuIX® when combined with carbon ion irradiation in human tumor cells...
August 2, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778062/dna-aptamer-functionalized-gold-nanostructures-for-molecular-recognition-and-photothermal-inactivation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Ismail Ocsoy, Sadi Yusufbeyoglu, Vedat Yılmaz, Eric S McLamore, Nilay Ildız, Ahmet Ülgen
In this work, we report the development of DNA aptamer-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Apt@Au NPs) and gold nanorods (Apt@Au NRs) for inactivation of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with targeted photothermal therapy (PTT). Although both Apt@Au NPs and Apt@Au NRs specifically bind to MRSA cells, Apt@Au NPs and Apt@Au NRs inactivated ∼5% and over 95% of the cells,respectively through PTT. This difference in inactivation was based on the relatively high longitudinal absorption of near-infrared (NIR) radiation and strong photothermal conversion capability for the Apt@Au NRs compared to the Apt@Au NPs...
July 25, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774987/draft-genome-sequence-of-deinococcus-indicus-dr1-a-novel-strain-isolated-from-a-freshwater-wetland
#19
Deepika Chauhan, Pulkit Anupam Srivastava, Ragothaman M Yennamalli, Richa Priyadarshini
Deinococcus indicus strain DR1, a red-pigmented, arsenic- and radiation-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a water sample of the Dadri wetland, Uttar Pradesh, India. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide useful information regarding the genes and pathways involved in heavy-metal bioremediation.
August 3, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772538/the-effects-of-uv-light-on-the-chemical-and-mechanical-properties-of-a-transparent-epoxy-diamine-system-in-the-presence-of-an-organic-uv-absorber
#20
Saeid Nikafshar, Omid Zabihi, Mojtaba Ahmadi, Abdolreza Mirmohseni, Mojtaba Taseidifar, Minoo Naebe
Despite several excellent properties including low shrinkage, good chemical resistance, curable at low temperatures and the absence of byproducts or volatiles, epoxy resins are susceptible to ultra violet (UV) damage and their durability is reduced substantially when exposed to outdoor environments. To overcome this drawback, UV absorbers have been usually used to decrease the rate of UV degradation. In this present study, the effects of UV light on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of cured epoxy structure, as well as the effect of an organic UV absorber, Tinuvin 1130, on the epoxy properties were investigated...
February 14, 2017: Materials
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