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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349494/light-scattering-on-pha-granules-protects-bacterial-cells-against-the-harmful-effects-of-uv-radiation
#1
Eva Slaninova, Petr Sedlacek, Filip Mravec, Lucie Mullerova, Ota Samek, Martin Koller, Ondrej Hesko, Dan Kucera, Ivana Marova, Stanislav Obruca
Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form of intracellular granules. The primary function of PHA is the storage of carbon and energy. Nevertheless, there are numerous reports that the presence of PHA granules in microbial cells enhances their stress resistance and fitness when exposed to various stress factors. In this work, we studied the protective mechanism of PHA granules against UV irradiation employing Cupriavidus necator as a model bacterial strain. The PHA-accumulating wild type strain showed substantially higher UV radiation resistance than the PHA non-accumulating mutant...
January 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348495/preclinical-evaluation-of-antitumor-activity-of-the-proteasome-inhibitor-mln2238-ixazomib-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#2
Giuseppa Augello, Martina Modica, Antonina Azzolina, Roberto Puleio, Giovanni Cassata, Maria Rita Emma, Caterina Di Sano, Antonella Cusimano, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common malignancies and is an increasingly important cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy extend the 5-year survival limit in HCC patients by only 6%. Therefore, there is a need to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this disease. The orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor MLN2238 (ixazomib) has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical therapeutic efficacy of MLN2238 in HCC cells through in vitro and in vivo models, and examined its molecular mechanisms of action...
January 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348487/h1-phgfk1-nanoparticles-exert-anti-tumoural-and-radiosensitising-effects-by-inhibition-of-met-in-glioblastoma
#3
Wenyan Zhang, Rui Duan, Jian Zhang, William K C Cheung, Xiaoge Gao, Raymond Zhang, Qing Zhang, Mengxue Wei, Gang Wang, Qian Zhang, Peng-Jin Mei, Hong-Lin Chen, Hsiangfu Kung, Marie C Lin, Zan Shen, Junnian Zheng, Longzhen Zhang, Hong Yao
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic resistance to ionising radiation (IR) and anti-angiogenesis mainly impair the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma. The primary and secondary MET aberrant activation is one crucial factor for these resistances. The kringle 1 domain of hepatocyte growth factor (HGFK1), an angiogenic inhibitor, contains a high-affinity binding domain of MET; however, its effects on glioblastoma remain elusive. METHODS: We formed the nanoparticles consisting of a folate receptor-targeted nanoparticle-mediated HGFK1 gene (H1/pHGFK1) and studied its anti-tumoural and radiosensitive activities in both subcutaneous and orthotopic human glioma cell-xenografted mouse models...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348101/effects-of-gamma-irradiation-on-the-physico-chemical-and-biological-properties-of-levofloxacin
#4
Saleem Raza, Yousaf Iqbal, Ihsan Ullah, Mohammad S Mubarak, Muhammad Usman Hameed, Muslim Raza
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gamma radiation on levofloxacin. Powder form of levofloxacin was subjected to different radiation doses (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125kGy) of Cobalt-60 source in a Gammacell-220 at a rate of 8.5 Gray/hr. The effect of radiation has been investigated with the aid of different spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by antibacterial activities. UV data did not reveal significant changes in the structure of levofloxacin which is supported by scanning electron microscopy...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344488/intravitreal-aflibercept-as-rescue-therapy-for-post-radiation-cystoid-macular-edema-resistant-to-intravitreal-bevacizumab-outcomes-at-1-year
#5
Mohammed Ali Khan, Arman Mashayekhi, Jerry A Shields, Carol L Shields
Background/Aims: To investigate the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept as rescue therapy for post-radiation cystoid macular edema (CME) resistant to prior treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). Methods: Retrospective, interventional, case-controlled series. Eyes with persistent post-radiation CME were treated with intravitreal aflibercept (2 mg/0.05 mL). Central macular thickness (CMT) and visual acuity were compared to a matched control group treated with only IVB at 1 year...
November 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343957/codelivery-of-doxorubicin-and-mdr1-sirna-by-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-polymerpolyethylenimine-to-improve-oral-squamous-carcinoma-treatment
#6
Dandan Wang, Xiaowei Xu, Kai Zhang, Bin Sun, Lu Wang, Lin Meng, Qilin Liu, Changyu Zheng, Bai Yang, Hongchen Sun
Oral cancer is a type of head and neck cancer that is the seventh most frequent cancer and the ninth most frequent cause of death globally. About 90% of oral cancer is of squamous cell carcinoma type. Surgery and radiation with and without chemotherapy are the major treatments for oral cancer. Better advanced treatment is still needed. Multidrug resistance plays an important role in failure of oral cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we tried to fabricate a novel nanoparticle that could carry both MDR1-siRNA to block MDR1 expression and doxorubicin (DOX), a chemotherapy drug, into cancer cells in order to directly kill the cells with little or no effect of multidrug resistance...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343635/combining-radiation-with-hyperthermia-a-multiscale-model-informed-by-in-vitro-experiments
#7
S Brüningk, G Powathil, P Ziegenhein, J Ijaz, I Rivens, S Nill, M Chaplain, U Oelfke, G Ter Haar
Combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia offer great potential for the successful treatment of radio-resistant tumours through thermo-radiosensitization. Tumour response heterogeneity, due to intrinsic, or micro-environmentally induced factors, may greatly influence treatment outcome, but is difficult to account for using traditional treatment planning approaches. Systems oncology simulation, using mathematical models designed to predict tumour growth and treatment response, provides a powerful tool for analysis and optimization of combined treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341150/effect-of-akt-activation-and-experimental-pharmacological-inhibition-on-responses-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer
#8
F C Koyama, C M Lopes Ramos, F Ledesma, V A F Alves, J M Fernandes, B B Vailati, G P São Julião, A Habr-Gama, J Gama-Rodrigues, R O Perez, A A Camargo
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is one of the preferred initial treatment strategies for locally advanced rectal cancer. Responses are variable, and most patients still require surgery. The aim of this study was to identify molecular mechanisms determining poor response to CRT. METHODS: Global gene expression and pathway enrichment were assessed in pretreatment biopsies from patients with non-metastatic cT2-4 N0-2 rectal cancer within 7 cm of the anal verge...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340160/stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-oligoprogression-on-androgen-receptor-targeted-therapy-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#9
Thu-Cuc Nguyen, Ravneet Bajwa, Shahla Bari, Azka Ali, William Paul Skelton, Roland-Austin Federico, Rohit Bishnoi, Justin W Wray, Robert A Zlotecki, Long H Dang, Jameel Muzaffar
Castration-resistant prostate cancer is an incurable disease. To date, six agents-abiraterone, enzalutamide, docetaxel, cabazitaxel, radium-223 and sipuleucel-T- have shown clinical efficacy in phase III clinical trials, leading to their FDA approval. Patients are typically sequenced through most or all of these agents, and then eventually succumb to their disease. Development of new treatments remains an unmet need. We report a case of a patient who progressed on enzalutamide with a single enlarging metastatic lesion, was treated with ablative stereotactic body radiation therapy while maintaining the same systemic treatment, who then had durable complete remission...
January 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339540/radio-resistant-cervical-cancers-are-sensitive-to-inhibition-of-glycolysis-and-redox-metabolism
#10
Ramachandran Rashmi, Xiaojing Huang, John M Floberg, Adnan Elhammali, Michael L McCormick, Gary J Patti, Douglas R Spitz, Julie K Schwarz
Highly glycolytic cervical cancers largely resist treatment by cisplatin and co-administered pelvic irradiation as the present standard of care. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhibiting glycolysis and thiol redox metabolism to evaluate them as alternate treatment strategies in these cancers. In a panel of multiple cervical cancer cell lines, we evaluated sensitivity to inhibition of glycolysis (2-DG) with or without simultaneous inhibition of glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism (BSO/AUR)...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336374/radiotherapy-for-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Emine Elif Ozkan
OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, which frequently cause intraabdominal metastases. The current standard of care is surgery for localized cases, and adjuvant imatinib is recommended for tumors with a high risk of recurrence. To date, radiotherapy has not been commonly accepted as a part of multimodality treatment approach other than palliation. However, recently published case reports and some small series suggest that radiotherapy is a valuable option for controlling locally progressive, drug-resistant disease...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335601/loss-of-cd14-leads-to-disturbed-epithelial-b-cell-crosstalk-and-impairment-of-the-intestinal-barrier-after-e-coli-nissle-monoassociation
#12
Marijana Basic, Manuela Buettner, Lydia M Keubler, Anna Smoczek, Inga Bruesch, Stephanie Buchheister, André Bleich
The TLR4 co-receptor CD14 was identified as an IBD candidate gene. Here, its influence on the intestinal barrier was addressed utilizing E. coli Nissle (EcN), which induces severe inflammation in germfree TLR4-/- mice. After monoassociation, EcN was detected in spleens and livers of TLR4-/- and CD14-/- but not wildtype mice. Barrier impairment was characterized by increased apoptosis and decreased epithelial junction (EJ) expression and was reversed by TLR2 stimulation in CD14-/- mice. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation revealed contribution of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells towards intestinal homeostasis...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334937/perspectives-on-setting-limits-for-rf-contact-currents-a-commentary
#13
REVIEW
Richard A Tell, Christopher A Tell
BACKGROUND: Limits for exposure to radiofrequency (RF) contact currents are specified in the two dominant RF safety standards and guidelines developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These limits are intended to prevent RF burns when contacting RF energized objects caused by high local tissue current densities. We explain what contact currents are and review some history of the relevant limits with an emphasis on so-called "touch" contacts, i...
January 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332382/cu2i2se6-a-metal-inorganic-framework-wide-bandgap-semiconductor-for-photon-detection-at-room-temperature
#14
Wenwen Lin, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Oleg Y Kontsevoi, Zhifu Liu, Yihui He, Sanjib Das, Yadong Xu, Kyle M McCall, Bruce W Wessels, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
Cu2I2Se6 is a new wide-bandgap semiconductor with high stability and great potential towards hard radiation and photon detection. Cu2I2Se6 crystallizes in the rhombohedral R3 ̅m space group with a density of d = 5.287 g·cm-3 and a wide bandgap Eg of 1.95 eV. First-principles electronic band structure calculations at the density functional theory level indicate an indirect bandgap and a low electron effective mass me* of 0.32. The congruently melting compound was grown in centimeter-size Cu2I2Se6 single crystals using a vertical Bridgman method...
January 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332326/carcinogenic-potential-of-antitumor-therapies-is-the-risk-predictable
#15
Ivanka Nenova, Janet Grudeva-Popova
The growing number of successfully cured cancer patients has created a new field in oncogenesis. The life expectancy of such patients has increased, however this favorable event may create enough time for epigenetic events to occur which can cause a new carcinognic event, i.e. a secondary malignancy. The terms in use are second primary malignancies as well as therapy-related neoplasms in case the treatment of the first neoplasm is a direct cause. Second primary malignancies can be hematological neoplasms or solid tumors, with solid tumors having higher frequency...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331413/eef-2-kinase-targeted-mir-449b-confers-radiation-sensitivity-to-cancer-cells
#16
Cheng Ji, QiongHua Xu, LingChuan Guo, XiaoHui Wang, YiJie Ren, HongHan Zhang, WeiDong Zhu, ZhiJun Ming, YunSheng Yuan, XingCong Ren, JianXun Song, Yan Cheng, JinMing Yang, Yi Zhang
The roles of microRNA in regulation of various biological processes and in modulation of therapeutic effects have been widely appreciated. In this study, we found a positive correlation between miR-449 b expression and radiation sensitivity in cancer cells and in tumor specimens from patients. We showed that eEF-2 kinase, a negative regulator of global protein synthesis, is a target of miR-449 b. Introducing a miR-449 b mimic into cancer cells led to suppression of eEF-2 kinase expression, leading to increases of protein synthesis and depletion of cellular ATP...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328718/charge-catastrophe-and-dielectric-breakdown-during-exposure-of-organic-thin-films-to-low-energy-electron-radiation
#17
A Thete, D Geelen, S J van der Molen, R M Tromp
The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation are central in many areas of science and technology, including medicine and biology. Absorption of UV and soft-x-ray photons releases photoelectrons, followed by a cascade of lower energy secondary electrons with energies down to 0 eV. While these low energy electrons give rise to most chemical and physical changes, their interactions with soft materials are not well studied or understood. Here, we use a low energy electron microscope to expose thin organic resist films to electrons in the range 0-50 eV, and to analyze the energy distribution of electrons returned to the vacuum...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328462/serum-and-glucocorticoid-regulated-kinase-1-sgk1-is-a-predictor-of-poor-prognosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-its-dynamic-pattern-following-treatment-with-sgk1-inhibitor-and-%C3%AE-ray-irradiation-was-elucidated
#18
Zhiyuan Tang, Qin Shen, Hao Xie, Zhu Zhou, Guanglin Shi, Caixin Zhang, Anaz Mohammed, Yi Wu, Songshi Ni, Xiaoyu Zhou
The tumor suppressor gene p53 and its dynamic patterns have caused widespread attention in the field of cancer research. Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) with features of serine/threonine kinase activity, which also contributes to the structural and functional similarities with the AKT family of kinases, is a key enzyme in the regulation of immune responses in tumor cells, and SGK1 was noted to be expressed in close relation to p53 protein levels, and there exists a negative feedback pathway between intracellular SGK1 and p53...
January 3, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328365/nuclear-gsk3%C3%AE-induces-dna-double-strand-break-repair-by-phosphorylating-53bp1-in-glioblastoma
#19
Yong Yang, Tiantian Lei, Suya Du, Rongsheng Tong, Hailian Wang, Jiao Yang, Juan Huang, Minghan Sun, Yi Wang, Zhi Dong
Glioblastoma is the most malignant and lethal subtype brain tumors with high risk of recurrence and therapeutic resistance. Emerging evidence has indicated that glycogen synthesis kinase 3 (GSK3)β plays oncogenic roles in multiple tumor types; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. It has also been demonstrated that p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) plays a central role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. This study aimed to reveal the significance of GSK3β translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and to determine whether GSK3β induces DNA DSB repair in the nuclei of glioblastoma cells via phospho-53BP1...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325444/redox-paradox-a-novel-approach-to-therapeutics-resistant-cancer
#20
Luksana Chaiswing, William H St Clair, Daret K St Clair
Cancer cells that are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy are a major problem limiting the success of cancer therapy. Aggressive cancer cells depend on elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to proliferate, self-renew, and metastasize. As a result, these aggressive cancers maintain high basal levels of ROS compared to normal cells. The prominence of the redox state in cancer cells led us to consider whether increasing the redox state to the condition of oxidative stress could be used as a successful adjuvant therapy for aggressive cancers...
January 12, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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