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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101872/properties-of-engineered-and-fabricated-silks
#1
Gregor Lang, Heike Herold, Thomas Scheibel
Silk is a protein-based material which is predominantly produced by insects and spiders. Hundreds of millions of years of evolution have enabled these animals to utilize different, highly adapted silk types in a broad variety of applications. Silk occurs in several morphologies, such as sticky glue or in the shape of fibers and can, depending on the application by the respective animal, dissipate a high mechanical energy, resist heat and radiation, maintain functionality when submerged in water and withstand microbial settling...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100096/targeting-therapy-resistant-cancer-stem-cells-by-hyperthermia
#2
A L Oei, L E M Vriend, P M Krawczyk, M R Horsman, N A P Franken, J Crezee
Eradication of all malignant cells is the ultimate but challenging goal of anti-cancer treatment; most traditional clinically-available approaches fail because there are cells in a tumor that either escape therapy or become therapy-resistant. A subpopulation of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs), is considered to be of particular significance for tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. CSCs are considered in particular to be therapy-resistant and may drive disease recurrence, which positions CSCs in the focus of anti-cancer research, but successful CSC-targeting therapies are limited...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099939/type-5-phosphodiesterase-regulates-glioblastoma-multiforme-aggressiveness-and-clinical-outcome
#3
Valeriana Cesarini, Maurizio Martini, Lucia Ricci Vitiani, Giovanni Luca Gravina, Silvia Di Agostino, Grazia Graziani, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Roberto Pallini, Luigi M Larocca, Pellegrino Rossi, Emmanuele A Jannini, Susanna Dolci
Expression of type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5), a cGMP-specific hydrolytic enzyme, is frequently altered in human cancer, but its specific role in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Herein, by analyzing a cohort of 69 patients affected by glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who underwent chemo- and radiotherapy after surgical resection of the tumor, we found that PDE5 was strongly expressed in cancer cells in about 50% of the patients. Retrospective analysis indicated that high PDE5 expression in GBM cells significantly correlated with longer overall survival of patients...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098061/prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-particularly-in-combination-with-androgen-deprivation-or-radiation-treatment-customized-pharmacogenomic-approaches-to-overcome-immunotherapy-cancer-resistance
#4
REVIEW
C Alberti
Conventional therapeutic approaches for advanced prostate cancer - such as androgen deprivation, chemotherapy, radiation - come up often against lack of effectiveness because of possible arising of correlative cancer cell resistance and/or inadequate anti-tumor immune conditions. Whence the timeliness of resorting to immune-based treatment strategies including either therapeutic vaccination-based active immunotherapy or anti-tumor monoclonal antibody-mediated passive immunotherapy. Particularly attractive, as for research studies and clinical applications, results to be the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte check point blockade by the use of anti-CTLA-4 and PD-1 monoclonal antibodies, particularly when combined with androgen deprivation therapy or radiation...
September 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097317/surrogate-end-points-for-all-cause-mortality-in-men-with-localized-unfavorable-risk-prostate-cancer-treated-with-radiation-therapy-vs-radiation-therapy-plus-androgen-deprivation-therapy-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Trevor J Royce, Ming-Hui Chen, Jing Wu, Marian Loffredo, Andrew A Renshaw, Philip W Kantoff, Anthony V D'Amico
Importance: Several surrogates for prostate cancer-specific mortality satisfying the Prentice criteria exist, but whether these are surrogates for all-cause mortality, and how their performance compares, is unknown. Objective: To ascertain and compare the performance of 4 candidate surrogates (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] failure, PSA nadir >0.5 ng/mL, PSA doubling time <9 months, and interval to PSA failure <30 months) for all-cause mortality using the proportion of treatment-effect metric...
January 12, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092777/controlling-the-3d-architecture-of-self-lifting-auto-generated-tissue-equivalents-slates-for-optimized-corneal-graft-composition-and-stability
#6
Ricardo M Gouveia, Elena González-Andrades, Juan C Cardona, Carmen González-Gallardo, Ana M Ionescu, Ingrid Garzon, Miguel Alaminos, Miguel González-Andrades, Che J Connon
Ideally, biomaterials designed to play specific physical and physiological roles in vivo should comprise components and microarchitectures analogous to those of the native tissues they intend to replace. For that, implantable biomaterials need to be carefully designed to have the correct structural and compositional properties, which consequently impart their bio-function. In this study, we showed that the control of such properties can be defined from the bottom-up, using smart surface templates to modulate the structure, composition, and bio-mechanics of human transplantable tissues...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092670/neuropilin-1-is-upregulated-in-the-adaptive-response-of-prostate-tumors-to-androgen-targeted-therapies-and-is-prognostic-of-metastatic-progression-and-patient-mortality
#7
B W C Tse, M Volpert, E Ratther, N Stylianou, M Nouri, K McGowan, M L Lehman, S J McPherson, M Roshan-Moniri, M S Butler, J Caradec, C Y Gregory-Evans, J McGovern, R Das, M Takhar, N Erho, M Alshalafa, E Davicioni, E M Schaeffer, R B Jenkins, A E Ross, R J Karnes, R B Den, L Fazli, P A Gregory, M E Gleave, E D Williams, P S Rennie, R Buttyan, J H Gunter, L A Selth, P J Russell, C C Nelson, B G Hollier
Recent evidence has implicated the transmembrane co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1) in cancer progression. Primarily known as a regulator of neuronal guidance and angiogenesis, NRP1 is also expressed in multiple human malignancies, where it promotes tumor angiogenesis. However, non-angiogenic roles of NRP1 in tumor progression remain poorly characterized. In this study, we define NRP1 as an androgen-repressed gene whose expression is elevated during the adaptation of prostate tumors to androgen-targeted therapies (ATTs), and subsequent progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC)...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089416/strategies-to-overcome-therapeutic-resistance-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Peter J Siska, Kathryn E Beckermann, W Kimryn Rathmell, Scott M Haake
BACKGROUND: Renal cell cancer (RCC) is a prevalent and lethal disease. At time of diagnosis, most patients present with localized disease. For these patients, the standard of care includes nephrectomy with close monitoring thereafter. While many patients will be cured, 5-year recurrence rates range from 30% to 60%. Furthermore, nearly one-third of patients present with metastatic disease at time of diagnosis. Metastatic disease is rarely curable and typically lethal. Cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation alone are incapable of controlling the disease...
January 11, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088481/saxs-structural-studies-of-dps-from-deinococcus-radiodurans-highlights-the-conformation-of-the-mobile-n-terminal-extensions
#9
Sandra P Santos, Maxime G Cuypers, Adam Round, Stephanie Finet, Theyencheri Narayanan, Edward P Mitchell, Célia V Romão
The radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans contains two DNA binding proteins from starved cells (Dps): Dps1 (DR2263) and Dps2 (DRB0092). These are suggested to play a role in DNA interaction, manganese and iron storage. The proteins assemble as a conserved dodecameric structure with structurally uncharacterized N-terminal extensions. In the case of DrDps1 these extensions have been proposed to be involved in DNA interactions, while in DrDps2 their function has yet to be established. The reported data reveals the relative position of the N-terminal extensions to the dodecameric sphere in solution for both Dps...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088439/antimicrobial-activity-of-photodynamic-therapy-in-combination-with-colistin-against-a-pan-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-burn-patient
#10
Ebrahim Boluki, Hossein Kazemian, Hadi Peeridogaheh, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Sima Shahabi, Leili Beytollahi, Roghayeh Ghorbanzadeh
Nosocomially-acquired multi-, extensively-, and pandrug resistant (MDR, XDR, and PDR) strains of microorganisms such as Acinetobacter baumannii remain a serious cause of infection and septic mortality in burn patients. Treatment of patients with nosocomial burn wound infections is often complicated by drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii. Today, many researchers are focusing on the investigation of novel non-antibiotic strategies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report a new PDT strategy that suppresses colistin resistance in PDR A...
January 11, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088075/development-of-a-hypoxia-triggered-and-hypoxic-radiosensitized-liposome-as-a-doxorubicin-carrier-to-promote-synergetic-chemo-radio-therapy-for-glioma
#11
Hongmei Liu, Yandong Xie, Yafei Zhang, Yifan Cai, Baiyang Li, Honglin Mao, Yingguo Liu, Jun Lu, Longzhen Zhang, Rutong Yu
The treatment of malignant primary brain tumors is challenging. Concomitant radiochemotherapy has become the standard clinical treatment for malignant glioma, but there are two critical challenges to overcome in order to increase efficacy. First, glioma is known to have increased resistant to radiation due to its intra-tumoral hypoxia. In addition, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the distribution of the chemotherapeutic agent to the brain. Therefore, we developed a hypoxic radiosensitizer-prodrug liposome (MLP), in order to deliver DOX to the tumor and to overcome the above challenges, achieving a synergistic chemo-/radiotherapy treatment of malignant glioma...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087741/14-3-3sigma-contributes-to-radioresistance-by-regulating-dna-repair-and-cell-cycle-via-parp1-and-chk2
#12
Yifan Chen, Zhaomin Li, Zizheng Dong, Jenny Beebe, Ke Yang, Liwu Fu, Jian-Ting Zhang
: 14-3-3sigma has been implicated in the development of chemo and radiation resistance and in poor prognosis of multiple human cancers. While it has been postulated that 14-3-3sigma contributes to these resistances via inhibiting apoptosis and arresting cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle, the molecular basis of this regulation is currently unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 14-3-3sigma causes resistance to DNA-damaging treatments by enhancing DNA repair in cells arrested in G2/M phase following DNA-damaging treatments...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081176/radiation-induced-apoptosis-of-murine-bone-marrow-cells-is-independent-of-early-growth-response-1-egr1
#13
Karine Z Oben, Beth W Gachuki, Sara S Alhakeem, Mary K McKenna, Ying Liang, Daret K St Clair, Vivek M Rangnekar, Subbarao Bondada
An understanding of how each individual 5q chromosome critical deleted region (CDR) gene contributes to malignant transformation would foster the development of much needed targeted therapies for the treatment of therapy related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs). Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) is a key transcriptional regulator of myeloid differentiation located within the 5q chromosome CDR that has been shown to regulate HSC (hematopoietic stem cell) quiescence as well as the master regulator of apoptosis-p53. Since resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant transformation, we investigated the role of EGR1 in apoptosis of bone marrow cells; a cell population from which myeloid malignancies arise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081144/digital-health-tracking-physiomes-and-activity-using-wearable-biosensors-reveals-useful-health-related-information
#14
Xiao Li, Jessilyn Dunn, Denis Salins, Gao Zhou, Wenyu Zhou, Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Dalia Perelman, Elizabeth Colbert, Ryan Runge, Shannon Rego, Ria Sonecha, Somalee Datta, Tracey McLaughlin, Michael P Snyder
A new wave of portable biosensors allows frequent measurement of health-related physiology. We investigated the use of these devices to monitor human physiological changes during various activities and their role in managing health and diagnosing and analyzing disease. By recording over 250,000 daily measurements for up to 43 individuals, we found personalized circadian differences in physiological parameters, replicating previous physiological findings. Interestingly, we found striking changes in particular environments, such as airline flights (decreased peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2] and increased radiation exposure)...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079191/enhanced-radiation-tolerant-oxide-dispersion-strengthened-steel-and-its-microstructure-evolution-under-helium-implantation-and-heavy-ion-irradiation
#15
Chenyang Lu, Zheng Lu, Xu Wang, Rui Xie, Zhengyuan Li, Michael Higgins, Chunming Liu, Fei Gao, Lumin Wang
The world eagerly needs cleanly-generated electricity in the future. Fusion reactor is one of the most ideal energy resources to defeat the environmental degradation caused by the consumption of traditional fossil energy. To meet the design requirements of fusion reactor, the development of the structural materials which can sustain the elevated temperature, high helium concentration and extreme radiation environments is the biggest challenge for the entire material society. Oxide dispersion strengthened steel is one of the most popular candidate materials for the first wall/blanket applications in fusion reactor...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078078/radiotherapy-in-the-management-of-gist-state-of-the-art-and-new-potential-scenarios
#16
L Gatto, M Nannini, M Saponara, V Di Scioscio, G Beltramo, G P Frezza, G Ercolani, A D Pinna, A Astolfi, M Urbini, G Brandi, G Biasco, M A Pantaleo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. The main treatment for localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors is surgical resection. Unresectable or advanced GIST are poorly responsive to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy but the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) marked a revolutionary step in the treatment of these patients, radically improving prognosis and clinical benefit. Historically GIST has been considered radiation-resistant, and the role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with GIST is currently restricted to symptomatic palliation in current treatment guidelines...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077434/transfer-of-allogeneic-cd4-t-cells-rescues-cd8-t-cells-in-anti-pd-l1-resistant-tumors-leading-to-tumor-eradication
#17
Ainhoa Arina, Theodore G Karrison, Eva Galka, Karin Schreiber, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Hans Schreiber
Adoptively transferred CD8(+) T cells can stabilize the size of solid tumors over long periods of time by exclusively recognizing antigen cross-presented on tumor stroma. However, these tumors eventually escape T cell-mediated growth control. The aim of this study was to eradicate such persistent cancers. In our model, the SIYRYYGL antigen is expressed by cancer cells that lack the MHC-I molecule K(b) needed for direct presentation, but the antigen is picked up and cross-presented by tumor stroma. A single injection of antigen-specific 2C CD8(+) T cells caused long-term inhibition of tumor growth, but without further intervention, tumors started to progress after approximately 3 months...
January 11, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076755/rad51-is-a-selective-dna-repair-target-to-radiosensitize-glioma-stem-cells
#18
Harry O King, Tim Brend, Helen L Payne, Alexander Wright, Thomas A Ward, Karan Patel, Teklu Egnuni, Lucy F Stead, Anjana Patel, Heiko Wurdak, Susan C Short
Patients with glioblastoma die from local relapse despite surgery and high-dose radiotherapy. Resistance to radiotherapy is thought to be due to efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in stem-like cells able to survive DNA damage and repopulate the tumor. We used clinical samples and patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) to confirm that the DSB repair protein RAD51 is highly expressed in GSCs, which are reliant on RAD51-dependent DSB repair after radiation. RAD51 expression and RAD51 foci numbers fall when these cells move toward astrocytic differentiation...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075341/a-non-invasive-multichannel-hybrid-fiber-optic-sensor-system-for-vital-sign-monitoring
#19
Marcel Fajkus, Jan Nedoma, Radek Martinek, Vladimir Vasinek, Homer Nazeran, Petr Siska
In this article, we briefly describe the design, construction, and functional verification of a hybrid multichannel fiber-optic sensor system for basic vital sign monitoring. This sensor uses a novel non-invasive measurement probe based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The probe is composed of two FBGs encapsulated inside a polydimethylsiloxane polymer (PDMS). The PDMS is non-reactive to human skin and resistant to electromagnetic waves, UV absorption, and radiation. We emphasize the construction of the probe to be specifically used for basic vital sign monitoring such as body temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate...
January 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069440/inter-and-intra-cellular-mechanism-of-nf-kb-dependent-survival-advantage-and-clonal-expansion-of-radio-resistant-cancer-cells
#20
Hui Yu, Natarajan Aravindan, Ji Xu, Mohan Natarajan
Understanding the underlying mechanism by which cancer cells acquire resistance to radiation and favorably selected for its clonal expansion will provide molecular insight into tumor recurrence at the treatment site. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms prompted in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in response to clinical radiation and the associated coordination of intra- and inter-cellular signaling that orchestrate radio-resistance and tumor relapse/recurrence. Our findings showed that 2 or 10Gy of (137)Cs γ-rays at a dose rate of 1...
January 6, 2017: Cellular Signalling
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