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Suman Mishra, Jinny Willis, Juliet Ansell, John Alexander Monro
Kiwifruit is a carbohydrate food of low glycaemic potency which could potentially be exchanged for starch-based foods in management of postprandial glycaemia. The effect of equicarbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit varieties 'Hayward' green (GR) and 'Zesy002' (SunGold; SG) for a starchy wheat-based breakfast cereal (WB) on the characteristics of the postprandial glycaemic response and satiety was therefore determined. A total of twenty non-diabetic subjects (mean age 36 years; mean BMI 24·5 kg/m(2)) consumed four meals, each containing 40 g available carbohydrate, in random order, after an overnight fast...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Marion G Priebe, Jolene R McMonagle
BACKGROUND: In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investigated as well as health promoting properties of RTEC. METHOD: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL have been searched up till 16th of June 2015...
2016: PloS One
Soichi Takeishi, Akihiro Mori, Miyuka Kawai, Yohei Yoshida, Hiroki Hachiya, Takayuki Yumura, Shun Ito, Takashi Shibuya, Nobutoshi Fushimi, Noritsugu Ohashi, Hiromi Kawai
Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether nocturnal hypoglycemia may be predicted according to morning glucose levels. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 106 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent continuous glucose monitoring during admission. The pre-breakfast glucose level (Pre-breakfast level), highest postprandial glucose level within 3 hours after breakfast (Highest level), time from the start of breakfast to the highest postprandial glucose level (Highest time), difference between the pre-breakfast and highest postprandial breakfast glucose levels (Increase), area under the glucose curve (≥180 mg/dL) within 3 hours after breakfast (Morning AUC), post-breakfast glucose gradient (Gradient), and the increase-to-pre-breakfast ratio (Increase/Pre-breakfast) were calculated...
2016: Internal Medicine
Meghan R Longacre, Keith M Drake, Linda J Titus, Jennifer Harris, Lauren P Cleveland, Gail Langeloh, Kristy Hendricks, Madeline A Dalton
Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013...
October 13, 2016: Appetite
Heidi P Fransen, Jolanda M A Boer, Joline W J Beulens, G Ardine de Wit, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jeljer Hoekstra, Anne M May, Petra H M Peeters
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy dietary patterns have been associated with other unhealthy lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical inactivity. Whether these associations are similar in high- and low-educated individuals is currently unknown. METHODS: We used information of the EPIC-NL cohort, a prospective cohort of 39 393 men and women, aged 20-70 years at recruitment. A lifestyle questionnaire and a validated food frequency questionnaire were administered at recruitment (1993-97)...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Jessica L Bachman, Ronald W Deitrick, Angela R Hillman
The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Ji Hee Kim, Su Kyung Lee, Min Cheol Joo
Objective. To investigate the effects and safety of the aqueous extract of the dried, immature fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., known as Poncirus fructus (PF), in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with neurogenic bowel. Methods. Thirty-one SCI patients with neurogenic bowel were recruited. Patients were evaluated based on clinical information, constipation score, Bristol Stool Form Scale, stool retention score using plain abdominal radiograph, and colon transit time. PF was administered in dosages of 800 mg each prior to breakfast and lunch for 14 days...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Eva Pedersen, Kylie Lange, Peter Clifton
BACKGROUND: People with type 2 diabetes are advised to consume an even meal distribution of carbohydrate. Whether this distribution is optimal is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to show that omitting carbohydrate in the first meal after a fast would lead to an augmented lunch response. DESIGN: Two diets of 1-d duration that differed only in the breakfast-meal composition (carbohydrate or no carbohydrate) were consumed on sequential days in a randomized crossover study...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Juraj Koska, Marlies K Ozias, James Deer, Julie Kurtz, Arline D Salbe, S Mitchell Harman, Peter D Reaven
BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. METHODS: High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT)...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Naohisa Tomosugi, Shoko Yamamoto, Masayoshi Takeuchi, Hideto Yonekura, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Noriaki Numata, Shogo Katsuda, Yasuo Sakai
AIM: Collagen tripeptide (CTP) is a functional food with a high content of Gly-X-Y tripeptides derived from collagen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CTP administration on the development of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals. METHODS: The present study was conducted in the form of an open-label, single-dose trial for 6 months. All subjects ingested CTP twice daily: at breakfast and supper (total intake per day: 16 g). The effect of CTP on atherosclerosis was verified by measuring several indices, including serum lipid levels, toxic advanced glycation end-products (TAGE), and the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), at baseline and 6 months...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Uku Vainik, Kenn Konstabel, Evelin Lätt, Jarek Mäestu, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe
Subjective energy intake (sEI) is often misreported, providing unreliable estimates of energy consumed. Therefore, relating sEI data to health outcomes is difficult. Recently, Börnhorst et al. compared various methods to correct sEI-based energy intake estimates. They criticised approaches that categorise participants as under-reporters, plausible reporters and over-reporters based on the sEI:total energy expenditure (TEE) ratio, and thereafter use these categories as statistical covariates or exclusion criteria...
October 11, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Tom J Hazell, Hashim Islam, Jillian R Hallworth, Jennifer L Copeland
Exercise-induced changes in appetite-regulating hormones may be intensity-dependent, however a clear dose-response relationship has not been established. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in anorexigenic markers (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to rest or exercise at submaximal and supramaximal intensities. Ten active males completed four experimental sessions in randomized order: 1) Moderate intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min cycling at 65% VO2max); 2) High intensity continuous training (HICT; 30 min cycling at 85% VO2max); 3) Sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 s "all-out" cycling bouts with 4 min recovery periods); 4) Control (CTRL; no exercise)...
October 6, 2016: Appetite
Ane Andrade Santa Cecília Silva, Tássia do Vale Cardoso Lopes, Kely Raspante Teixeira, Jordane Amaral Mendes, Matheus Eduardo de Souza Borba, Maria Carliana Mota, Jim Waterhouse, Cibele Aparecida Crispim
Subjective responses to meals are altered by shortened sleep time and anxiety state, but this effect has been poorly studied in shift workers - who act as a typical model concerning sleep restriction and present high levels of anxiety. The objective of this study was to compare subjective perceptions of meals and the levels of anxiety in the same subjects after working night shifts and after taking a nocturnal sleep, and to investigate associations between the responses to meals and the levels of anxiety under these two conditions...
October 6, 2016: Appetite
Suzanne D Baxter, David B Hitchcock, Julie A Royer, Albert F Smith, Caroline H Guinn
BACKGROUND: Validation studies that have directly assessed reporting accuracy for amounts eaten have provided results in various ways. OBJECTIVE: To analyze amount categories of a reporting-error-sensitive approach for insight concerning reporting accuracy for amounts eaten. DESIGN: For a cross-sectional validation study, children were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and randomized to one of eight 24-hour recall conditions (two retention intervals [short and long] crossed with four prompts [forward, meal name, open, and reverse])...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Milena Monfort-Pires, Sandra Roberta G Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two interventions in breakfast with different fatty acid content on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in individuals at different cardiovascular risk levels. METHODS: This crossover clinical trial included 80 overweight participants who were grouped according to the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The participants received two isocaloric breakfast interventions for 4 wk, with a 2-wk washout...
August 9, 2016: Nutrition
E M Lepicard, M Maillot, F Vieux, M Viltard, F Bonnet
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to analyse the nutritional quality of childrens' breakfasts using data collected during a cross-sectional observational study on the prevalence of urinary osmolality in 529 French children aged 9-11 years. METHODS: Total nutrient intake, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), energy density and solid energy density were calculated from breakfast food and fluid nutritional composition. To identify the main qualitative breakfast patterns, each breakfast item was categorised into 15 solid and liquid food categories and a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis was performed...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Hieronymus J M Gijselaers, Paul A Kirschner, Renate H M de Groot
Consumption of breakfast, fish, or caffeine are each separately often investigated in relation to learning performance in traditional education, but not in distance education (DE). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the relations between the consumption of breakfast, fish, and/or caffeine on the one hand and learning performance on the other are also found in DE students. This population is different from traditional students and characterized by a different profile in terms of age, personal and work responsibilities as well as other demographics...
October 6, 2016: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Jenna B Gillen, Jorn Trommelen, Floris C Wardenaar, Naomi Y J Brinkmans, Joline J Versteegen, Kristin L Jonvik, Christoph Kapp, Jeanne de Vries, Joost J G C van den Borne, Martin J Gibala, Luc J C van Loon
Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific protein-containing food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various protein-containing food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Mary Caitlin Stevenson Wilcoxson, Samantha Louise Johnson, Veronika Pribyslavska, James Mathew Green, Eric Kyle O'Neal
Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200±300 mL of sweat loss (3.1±0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/post-breakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 mL (low; L), 2,065/2,593 mL (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Ursula Ferreira Julio, Felipe Hardt, Carolina Kurashima, Fábio Santos Lira, Monica Yuri Takito, Emerson Franchini
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of exercise intensity on appetite control: relative energy intake (energy intake minus the energy expenditure of exercise; REI), hunger scores, and appetite-regulating hormones in men and women. Eleven men and 9 women were submitted to 4 experimental sessions: high-intensity intermittent all-out exercise (HIIE-A) for 60 × 8 s interspersed by 12 s of passive recovery; high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) at 100% of maximal load attained in incremental test; steady-state exercise at 60% of maximal load, matched by work done; and a control session...
July 7, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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