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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106815/social-dysfunction-and-diet-outcomes-in-people-with-psychosis
#1
Doreen Mucheru, Mary-Claire Hanlon, Linda E Campbell, Mark McEvoy, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks
This analysis aimed to examine the association of social dysfunction with food security status, fruit intake, vegetable intake, meal frequency and breakfast consumption in people with psychosis from the Hunter New England (HNE) catchment site of the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP). Social dysfunction and dietary information were collected using standardised tools. Independent binary logistic regressions were used to examine the association between social dysfunction and food security status, fruit intake, vegetable intake, meal frequency and breakfast consumption...
January 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106791/dietary-patterns-in-relation-to-cardiovascular-disease-incidence-and-risk-markers-in-a-middle-aged-british-male-population-data-from-the-caerphilly-prospective-study
#2
Elly Mertens, Oonagh Markey, Johanna M Geleijnse, David Ian Givens, Julie A Lovegrove
Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47-67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study at phase 2 (1984-1988) was undertaken. Principal component analysis identified three DPs at baseline, which explained 24.8% of the total variance of food intake. DP1, characterised by higher intakes of white bread, butter, lard, chips and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of wholegrain bread, was associated with higher CVD (HR 1...
January 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101653/effect-of-timing-of-collection-of-salivary-metabolomic-biomarkers-on-oral-cancer-detection
#3
Shigeo Ishikawa, Masahiro Sugimoto, Kenichiro Kitabatake, Micheal Tu, Ayako Sugano, Iku Yamamori, Asuka Iba, Kazuyuki Yusa, Miku Kaneko, Sana Ota, Kana Hiwatari, Ayame Enomoto, Tomita Masaru, Mitsuyoshi Iino
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of duration after meals for saliva collections for oral cancer detection using metabolomics. Saliva samples were collected from oral cancer patients (n = 22) and controls (n = 44). Saliva from cancer patients was collected 12 h after dinner, and 1.5 and 3.5 h after breakfast. Control subjects fasted >1.5 h prior to saliva collection. Hydrophilic metabolites were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. Levels of 51 metabolites differed significantly in controls vs...
January 18, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100325/-an-investigation-of-dietary-nutrition-in-kindergartens-of-chongqing-china
#4
Xia Liu, Xin Fan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of dietary nutrition in kindergartens of Chongqing, China. METHODS: A total of 295 kindergartens (47 first-class ones, 88 second-class ones, and 160 third-class ones) from the 11 districts or counties of Chongqing by stratified cluster random sampling were investigated. The dietary nutrition in each kindergarten was evaluated by weighing. The dietary qualification rates were compared between the three classes of kindergartens...
January 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100212/the-effects-of-breakfast-on-short-term-cognitive-function-among-chinese-white-collar-workers-protocol-for-a-three-phase-crossover-study
#5
Zhenchuang Tang, Na Zhang, Ailing Liu, Dechun Luan, Yong Zhao, Chao Song, Guansheng Ma
BACKGROUND: As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. METHODS: A total of 264 participants aged 25-45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, smoking habits, drinking habits, and breakfast behaviours...
January 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096143/methodological-challenges-in-studies-examining-the-effects-of-breakfast-on-cognitive-performance-and-appetite-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Katie Adolphus, Nick Bellissimo, Clare L Lawton, Nikki A Ford, Tia M Rains, Julia Totosy de Zepetnek, Louise Dye
Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092515/towards-a-run-to-run-adaptive-artificial-pancreas-in-silico-results
#7
Chiara Toffanin, Roberto Visentin, Mirko Messori, Federico Di Palma, Lalo Magni, Claudio Cobelli
: Contemporary and future outpatient long-term artificial pancreas (AP) studies need to cope with the well-known large intra- and inter-day glucose variability occurring in type 1 diabetic (T1D) subjects. Here we propose an adaptive Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to account for it and test it in silico. METHODS: A Run-to-Run (R2R) approach adapts the subcutaneous basal insulin delivery during the night and the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CR) during the day, based on some performance indices calculated from subcutaneous continuous glucose sensor data...
January 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077732/high-protein-and-high-dietary-fiber-breakfasts-result-in-equal-feelings-of-fullness-and-better-diet-quality-in-low-income-preschoolers-compared-with-their-usual-breakfast
#8
Sibylle Kranz, Mary Brauchla, Wayne W Campbell, Rickard D Mattes, Amy J Schwichtenberg
BACKGROUND: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077281/does-acute-or-habitual-protein-deprivation-influence-liking-for-monosodium-glutamate
#9
Una Masic, Martin R Yeomans
The umami flavour generated by monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been proposed as the marker for the presence of protein in foods. As protein is the most closely regulated macronutrient in the diet, the present study addressed whether acute protein deprivation, habitual protein intake or a combination of the two influenced liking for the taste of MSG. 24 low-restraint male participants (mean age: 22; BMI: 23) consumed either their habitual breakfast (baseline), a low protein breakfast (breakfast meal with low protein milk and milkshake) or a high protein breakfast (breakfast meal with high protein milk and milkshake) on three different days, and then evaluated the acceptability of umami (MSG), salty (NaCl) or sweet (Acesulphame K) tastes at low or high concentrations in a soup context at lunchtime...
January 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071033/an-analysis-of-the-meal-pattern-at-the-nutrient-level-in-polish-women
#10
Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Marcin Mardas, Wojciech Warchoł, Paweł Bogdański
BACKGROUND: Before the 1990's, access to a variety of foods in Eastern Europe was limited, which could have influenced the currently analyzed dietary behaviors pertaining to overweight and obesity development. The aim of this study was to describe the daily profile of meal patterns in Polish women aged 50-70 at the nutrient level. METHODS: The anthropometrical parameters of four-hundred and fifty Polish women aged 50-70 were assessed. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and validated questionnaires regarding socio-demographic-economic status and meal frequency were applied...
July 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069076/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-porridge-with-added-inulin-and-wheat-gluten-on-appetite-gut-fermentation-and-postprandial-glucose-metabolism-a-randomised-cross-over-breakfast-study
#11
Isabella Lee, Lin Shi, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Ulf Risérus, Rikard Landberg
Whole-grain rye foods reduce appetite, insulin and sometimes glucose responses. Increased gut fermentation and plant protein may mediate the effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the appetite-suppressing effects of whole-grain rye porridge could be enhanced by replacing part of the rye with fermented dietary fibre and plant protein, and to explore the role of gut fermentation on appetite and metabolic responses over 8 h. We conducted a randomised, cross-over study using two rye porridges (40 and 55 g), three 40-g rye porridges with addition of inulin:gluten (9:3; 6:6; 3:9 g) and a refined wheat bread control (55 g), served as part of complete breakfasts...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068968/lifestyle-behaviours-associated-with-5-year-weight-gain-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-australian-adults-aged-26-36-years-at-baseline
#12
Kylie J Smith, Seana L Gall, Sarah A McNaughton, Verity J Cleland, Petr Otahal, Terence Dwyer, Alison J Venn
BACKGROUND: Whether not meeting common guidelines for lifestyle behaviours is associated with weight gain is uncertain. This study examined whether 5-year weight gain was predicted by not meeting guidelines for: breakfast consumption (eating between 6 and 9 am), takeaway food consumption (<2 times/week), television viewing (<2 h/day) and daily steps (≥10,000 steps/day). METHODS: One thousand one hundred and fifty-five Australian participants (43% men, 26-36 years) completed questionnaires and wore a pedometer at baseline (2004-06) and follow-up (2009-11)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063876/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-study-the-effects-of-breakfast-on-energy-intake-physical-activity-and-body-fat-in-women-who-are-nonhabitual-breakfast-eaters
#13
Gabrielle Marie LeCheminant, James D LeCheminant, Larry A Tucker, Bruce W Bailey
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of eating breakfast on energy intake, physical activity, body weight, and body fat in women who are nonhabitual breakfast eaters over a four-week period. METHODS: Forty-nine women who were nonhabitual breakfast-eaters were randomized to one of two conditions: breakfast or no breakfast. Breakfast eaters were required to eat at least 15% of their daily energy requirement before 8:30 a.m. Non-breakfast eaters did not consume any energy until after 11:30 a...
January 4, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062077/breakfast-and-behavior-in-morning-tasks-facts-or-fads
#14
REVIEW
Valeria Edefonti, Francesca Bravi, Monica Ferraroni
BACKGROUND: Most of the studies investigating the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance have compared performance in subjects who have or have not consumed this meal. However, characteristics of breakfast itself may influence mental abilities. Moreover, as far as the positive effects of having breakfast is more evident, research may focus on the specific characteristics of an adequate breakfast. METHODS: To update an existing systematic review, published at the beginning of 2014, on the role of nutrient composition and/or energy intake at breakfast on the accomplishment of school-related tasks and cognition, we carried out a systematic review of the literature through PUBMED database...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057550/pharmacokinetics-of-lbpt-and-its-primary-metabolites-as-well-as-tolerability-in-the-first-in-human-study
#15
Hongyun Wang, Hongzhong Liu, Ming Liu, Wenjie Wang, Liya Zhu, Haihong Huang, Pei Hu, Ji Jiang
BACKGROUND: LBPT is a novel platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist that is developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this first-in-human study was to evaluate the tolerability and safety of LBPT, to investigate the pharmacokinetics of LBPT and its primary metabolites, as well as to assess the food effect on the pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LBPT was evaluated in 2 clinical studies. The first study was a double blind, placebo-controlled and ascending dose study...
January 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055230/improved-postprandial-glycemic-control-with-faster-acting-insulin-aspart-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-using-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion
#16
Bruce W Bode, Joseph A Johnson, Liselotte Hyveled, Søren C Tamer, Marek Demissie
BACKGROUND: Faster aspart is insulin aspart (IAsp) in a new formulation, which in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in subjects with type 1 diabetes has shown a faster onset and offset of glucose-lowering effect than IAsp. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, crossover active-controlled trial compared 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) response, following 2 weeks of CSII with faster aspart or IAsp. Primary endpoint: mean change in PPG 2 h after a standardized meal test (ΔPGav,0-2h)...
January 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054966/postprandial-glycemic-and-insulinemic-responses-to-common-breakfast-beverages-consumed-with-a-standard-meal-in-adults-who-are-overweight-and-obese
#17
Jia Li, Elsa Janle, Wayne W Campbell
Breakfast beverages with different nutrient compositions may affect postprandial glycemic control differently. We assessed the effects of consuming (1) common breakfast beverages (water, sugar-sweetened coffee, reduced-energy orange juice (OJ), and low-fat milk (LFM)); and (2) fat-free, low-fat, and whole milk with breakfast on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in adults who were overweight/obese. Forty-six subjects (33F/13M, body mass index: 32.5 ± 0.7 kg/m², age: 50 ± 1 years, mean ± SEMs) consumed a standard sandwich with one of the six beverages on separate mornings in randomized order...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054938/evolution-of-gluten-content-in-cereal-based-gluten-free-products-an-overview-from-1998-to-2016
#18
María Ángeles Bustamante, María Pilar Fernández-Gil, Itziar Churruca, Jonatan Miranda, Arrate Lasa, Virginia Navarro, Edurne Simón
The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141) from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L) or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC)...
January 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049271/dietary-intake-physical-activity-and-time-management-are-associated-with-constipation-in-preschool-children-in-japan
#19
Keiko Asakura, Shizuko Masayasu, Satoshi Sasaki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a common complaint in children, which is not fatal but can affect quality of life. Several lifestyle-related risk factors for constipation have been reported, particularly dietary factors, but results have been inconsistent. Here, we examined the relationship of dietary and lifestyle factors with constipation in Japanese preschool children using data of a nationwide study. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were 5,309 children aged 5 to 6 years at 380 nursery schools in 44 of 47 prefectures in Japan...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045078/positive-association-between-physical-activity-and-per3-expression-in-older-adults
#20
Masaki Takahashi, Atsushi Haraguchi, Yu Tahara, Natsumi Aoki, Mayuko Fukazawa, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Takashi Nakaoka, Mitsuru Higuchi, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock regulates many physiological functions including physical activity and feeding patterns. In addition, scheduled exercise and feeding themselves can affect the circadian clock. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical/feeding activity and expression of clock genes in hair follicle cells in older adults. Twenty adult men (age, 68 ± 7 years, mean ± SE) were examined in this cross-sectional study. Prior to hair follicle cell collection, the participants were asked to wear a uniaxial accelerometer for one week...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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