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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714768/macronutrient-composition-of-a-morning-meal-and-the-maintenance-of-attention-throughout-the-morning
#1
Tommy J Wilson, Michael J Gray, Jan-Willem Van Klinken, Melissa Kaczmarczyk, John J Foxe
BACKGROUND: At present, the impact of macronutrient composition and nutrient intake on sustained attention in adults is unclear, although some prior work suggests that nutritive interventions that engender slow, steady glucose availability support sustained attention after consumption. A separate line of evidence suggests that nutrient consumption may alter electroencephalographic markers of neurophysiological activity, including neural oscillations in the alpha-band (8-14 Hz), which are known to be richly interconnected with the allocation of attention...
July 17, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712186/glycaemic-control-of-type-2-diabetic-patients-during-ramazan-fasting
#2
Uzma Malik, Nasir Mahmood, Khurshid Ahmed Khan, Maliha Hameed, Fawad Ahmed Randhawa, Sadia Salman, Amna Riaz, Khadija Waheed, Aqeela Rasheed
BACKGROUND: Among five main pillars of Islam Fasting is one of the key elements, all healthy adult Muslims have to observe fast from dawn till dusk during the holy month of Ramadan. According to a 2009 demographic study, Islam has 1.57 billion believers, making up 23% of the world population of 6.8 billion, and is growing by 3% per year. EPIDIAR (epidemiology of diabetes and Ramadan) study showed that 43% patients with type 1 and 79% patients with type2 diabetes observe fast during the month of Ramadan...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706955/effect-of-sugar-versus-mixed-breakfast-on-metabolic-and-neurofunctional-responses-in-healthy-individuals
#3
Roberto Codella, Stefano Benedini, Stefano Paini, Andrea Caumo, Michela Adamo, Ileana Terruzzi, Anna Ferrulli, Concetta Macrì, Luca Andreoni, Michele Sterlicchio, Livio Luzi
We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m(2); 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706615/novel-effects-of-traditional-wooden-toothbrush-on-bowel-motility-symptoms-in-spinal-cord-injury-patients-findings-from-a-pilot-quasi-experimental-study
#4
Ebrahim Esfandiari, Awat Feizi, Zahra Heidari, Seyed Reza Tabibian, Pooria Shaabani, Bijan Iraj, Payman Adibi, Amrollah Ebrahimi Varzaneh
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional wooden toothbrush usage on most severe constipation, which usually occurs in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. METHODS: In a quasi-experimental study, 61 SCI patients were selected who had injuries in different spinal levels (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar), and severe constipation from one defection in a few days to 3 weeks. They were recommended to use traditional wooden toothbrush for 5 min twice a day, after breakfast and dinner, over a 6 weeks period...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702211/skipping-breakfast-and-5-year-changes-in-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-in-japanese-men-and-women
#5
M Sakurai, K Yoshita, K Nakamura, K Miura, T Takamura, S Y Nagasawa, Y Morikawa, T Kido, Y Naruse, K Nogawa, Y Suwazono, S Sasaki, M Ishizaki, H Nakagawa
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between frequency of skipping breakfast and annual changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: The participants were 4,430 factory employees. BMI and WC were measured repeatedly at annual medical examinations over a 5-year period. The association between frequency of skipping breakfast at the baseline examination and annual changes in anthropometric indices was evaluated using the generalized estimating equation method...
June 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701389/meal-frequency-and-timing-are-associated-with-changes-in-body-mass-index-in-adventist-health-study-2
#6
Hana Kahleova, Jan Irene Lloren, Andrew Mashchak, Martin Hill, Gary E Fraser
Background: Scientific evidence for the optimal number, timing, and size of meals is lacking.Objective: We investigated the relation between meal frequency and timing and changes in body mass index (BMI) in the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a relatively healthy North American cohort.Methods: The analysis used data from 50,660 adult members aged ≥30 y of Seventh-day Adventist churches in the United States and Canada (mean ± SD follow-up: 7.42 ± 1.23 y). The number of meals per day, length of overnight fast, consumption of breakfast, and timing of the largest meal were exposure variables...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701300/duodenal-and-ileal-glucose-infusions-differentially-alter-gastrointestinal-peptides-appetite-response-and-food-intake-a-tube-feeding-study
#7
Sally D Poppitt, Hyun Sang Shin, Anne-Thea McGill, Stephanie C Budgett, Kim Lo, Malcolm Pahl, Janice Duxfield, Mark Lane, John R Ingram
Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides.Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701162/does-the-ingestion-of-a-24%C3%A2-hour-low-glycaemic-index-asian-mixed-meal-diet-improve-glycaemic-response-and-promote-fat-oxidation-a-controlled-randomized-cross-over-study
#8
Stefan Gerardus Camps, Bhupinder Kaur, Rina Yu Chin Quek, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
BACKGROUND: The health benefits of consuming a low glycaemic index (GI) diet to reduce the risk of type 2 Diabetes are well recognized. In recent years the GI values of various foods have been determined. Their efficacy in constructing and consuming a low GI diet over 24 h in modulating glycaemic response has not been fully documented. The translation of using single-point GI values of foods to develop a 24 h mixed meal diet can provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians to optimize food choice for glycaemic control...
July 12, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700249/simulation-based-evaluation-of-dose-titration-algorithms-for-rapid-acting-insulin-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-inadequately-controlled-on-basal-insulin-and-oral-antihyperglycemic-medications
#9
Xiaosu Ma, Jenny Y Chien, Jennal Johnson, James Malone, Vikram Sinha
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective, model-based simulation approach was to evaluate the impact of various rapid-acting mealtime insulin dose-titration algorithms on glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]). METHODS: Seven stepwise, glucose-driven insulin dose-titration algorithms were evaluated with a model-based simulation approach by using insulin lispro. Pre-meal blood glucose readings were used to adjust insulin lispro doses. Two control dosing algorithms were included for comparison: no insulin lispro (basal insulin+metformin only) or insulin lispro with fixed doses without titration...
July 12, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697617/dietary-habits-among-health-professionals-working-in-a-district-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#10
Siyabonga H Kunene, Nomathemba P Taukobong
INTRODUCTION: The burden of diseases associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours continues to increase in the low- and middle-income countries including South Africa. Among the affected population are the health professionals who are assumed to be knowledgeable about healthy eating. AIM: This study aimed to determine the dietary habits of health professionals in a public district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among 109 randomly selected health professionals...
June 28, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692687/exercise-before-breakfast-increases-24-h-fat-oxidation-in-female-subjects
#11
Kaito Iwayama, Ryosuke Kawabuchi, Yoshiharu Nabekura, Reiko Kurihara, Insung Park, Masashi Kobayashi, Hitomi Ogata, Momoko Kayaba, Naomi Omi, Makoto Satoh, Kumpei Tokuyama
BACKGROUND: Exercise performed in a postprandial state does not increase 24-h fat oxidation of male and female subjects. Conversely, it has been shown in male subjects that exercise performed in a postabsorptive state increases 24-h fat oxidation compared with that in sedentary control and that with exercise trials performed after breakfast, lunch, or dinner. There is a paucity of study evaluating the effect of exercise performed in a postabsorptive state in female subjects. METHOD: Nine young female subjects participated in indirect calorimetry measurement over 24-h using a room-size metabolic chamber in which subjects remained sedentary or performed 60 min exercise before breakfast at 50% of [Formula: see text]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692632/high-habitual-physical-activity-improves-acute-energy-compensation-in-nonobese-adults
#12
Kristine Beaulieu, Mark Hopkins, Cecilia Long, John Blundell, Graham Finlayson
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signalling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively-measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP) and control preloads...
July 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691842/response-in-taste-circuitry-is-not-modulated-by-hunger-and-satiety-in-women-remitted-from-bulimia-nervosa
#13
Alice V Ely, Christina E Wierenga, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Ursula F Bailer, Laura A Berner, Julie L Fudge, Martin P Paulus, Walter H Kaye
Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) engage in episodes of binge eating, marked by loss of control and eating despite fullness. Does altered reward and metabolic state contribute to BN pathophysiology? Normally, hunger increases (and satiety decreases) reward salience to regulate eating. We investigated whether BN is associated with an abnormal response in a neural circuit involved in translating taste signals into motivated behavior, when hungry and fed. Twenty-six women remitted from BN (RBN) and 22 control women (CW) were administered water and sucrose during 2 counterbalanced fMRI visits, following a 16-hr fast or a standardized breakfast...
July 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691640/design-of-the-fins-teens-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-assessing-the-impact-of-fatty-fish-on-cognitive-performance-in-adolescents
#14
Siv Skotheim, Lisbeth Dahl, Katina Handeland, Livar Frøyland, Øyvind Lie, Jannike Øyen, Marian Kjellevold, Kjell Morten Stormark, Ingvild Eide Graff
AIMS: To describe the rationale, study design, population and dietary compliance in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effect of fatty fish on cognitive performance and mental health in adolescents. METHOD: In the Fish Intervention Studies-TEENS (FINS-TEENS) study we individually randomized 478 adolescents (14-15-year-olds) from eight secondary schools in Norway to receive school meal lunches with fatty fish or meat or n-3 supplements three times a week for 12 weeks...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691541/effects-of-hazelnuts-and-cocoa-on-vascular-reactivity-in-healthy-subjects-a-randomised-study
#15
Michela Adamo, Antonio Maria Labate, Anna Ferrulli, Concetta Macrì, Ileana Terruzzi, Livio Luzi
Cocoa helps maintain endothelium-dependent vasodilation; consumption of hazelnuts has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. This study assesses the effects of hazelnuts and cocoa on vascular reactivity and metabolic profile. Sixty-one healthy volunteers, examined in a randomised, controlled, two-week intervention, received one of six breakfast integrations containing either hazelnuts, cocoa, both or none. Consumption of unpeeled hazelnuts improved HDL-cholesterol (+7.3%, p = .01 vs. baseline, p = ...
July 9, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691170/the-body-mass-index-of-adolescents-attending-seventh-day-adventist-schools-in-australia-2001-2012
#16
Bevan A Craig, Darren P Morton, Lillian M Kent, Terry L Butler, Paul M Rankin, Kevin R Price
BACKGROUND: We examined the body mass index (BMI) of students attending Seventh-day Adventist (Adventist) schools in Australia in 2001 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 3069 students attending Adventist schools in Australia responded to a health and lifestyle survey in 2001 (N = 1335) and 2012 (N = 1734). The survey captured self-reported height and weight, demographics (age, sex, year level, religion), and select health behaviors. RESULTS: Compared with national norms, lower rates of overweight and obesity were observed in the study cohort, but higher rates of underweight...
August 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689741/coconut-oil-has-less-satiating-properties-than-medium-chain-triglyceride-oil
#17
R Kinsella, T Maher, M E Clegg
It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days...
July 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689024/a-high-fat-breakfast-attenuates-the-suppression-of-appetite-and-acylated-ghrelin-during-exercise-at-simulated-altitude
#18
Jamie Matu, Kevin Deighton, Theocharis Ispoglou, Oliver M Shannon, Lauren Duckworth
High-altitude exposure induces a negative energy balance by increasing resting energy expenditure and decreasing energy intake. This diminished energy intake is likely caused by altitude-induced anorexia and can have detrimental effects for those travelling to high-altitude. We aimed to investigate whether altering the macronutrient composition of breakfast could attenuate altitude-induced anorexia and augment energy intake at high-altitude. Twelve healthy men (aged 26 (8) years, body mass index 23.9 (2.7) kg·m(-2)) completed two, 305min experimental trials at 4300m simulated altitude (~11...
July 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686199/postprandial-effects-of-breakfast-glycemic-index-on-vascular-function-among-young-healthy-adults-a-crossover-clinical-trial
#19
Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Maria C Patino-Alonso, Sara Mora-Simon, Manuel A Gomez-Marcos, Rosario Alonso-Dominguez, Benigna Sanchez-Salgado, Jose I Recio-Rodriguez, Luis Garcia-Ortiz
This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women), aged 20-40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1) control conditions (only water); (2) low GI (LGI) breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy); and (3) high GI (HGI) breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy)...
July 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683068/prediction-of-nocturnal-hypoglycemia-unawareness-by-fasting-glucose-levels-or-post-breakfast-glucose-fluctuations-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-receiving-insulin-degludec-a-pilot-study
#20
Hiroshi Takahashi, Rimei Nishimura, Yoshiko Onda, Kiyotaka Ando, Daisuke Tsujino, Kazunori Utsunomiya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia (NAH) can be predicted by fasting glucose levels or post-breakfast glucose fluctuations in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) receiving insulin degludec. METHODS: Patients with T1D receiving insulin degludec underwent at-home CGM assessments. Indices for glycemic variability before and after breakfast included fasting glucose levels and the range of post-breakfast glucose elevation. For comparison, the patients were classified into those with NAH and those without...
2017: PloS One
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