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Cardiac fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138835/mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-adrenomedullin-improve-heart-function-through-antifibrotic-action-in-rats-experiencing-heart-failure
#1
Li Li Li, Cheng Peng, Meiling Zhang, Yumei Liu, Hefei Li, Huibo Chen, Yu Sun, Chunjun Zhu, Yao Zhang
Previous studies of the authors have indicated that the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can attenuate cardiac fibrosis through the secretion of antifibrotic factors, such as adrenomedullin (ADM). Therefore, the authors addressed the hypothesis that ADM overexpression could enhance the antifibrotic effect of MSCs transplantation in a rat model of heart failure. The results of the present study demonstrated that, compared with the group that received the GFP‑MSCs, the transplantation of ADM‑MSCs significantly improved heart function and decreased the percentage of fibrotic area and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138820/matrine-suppresses-cardiac-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-the-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-smad-pathway-in-experimental-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#2
Yong Zhang, Lei Cui, Gongchang Guan, Junkui Wang, Chuan Qiu, Tielin Yang, Yan Guo, Zhongwei Liu
Cardiac fibrosis is one of the pathological characteristics of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM). Matrine treatment has proven to be effective in cases of organ fibrosis and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the anti-fibrosis-associated cardioprotective effects of matrine on DbCM were investigated. Rats with experimental DbCM were administered matrine orally. Cardiac functions were evaluated using invasive hemodynamic examinations. Cardiac compliance was assessed in isolated hearts. Using Sirius Red and fluorescence staining, the collagen in diabetic hearts was visualized...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136124/what-is-the-clinical-significance-of-ventricular-mural-antagonism
#3
Paul P Lunkenheimer, Peter Niederer, Robert S Stephenson, Klaus Redmann, Randas V Batista, Morten Smerup, Robert H Anderson
Recent morphological studies provide evidence that the ventricular walls are arranged as a 3D meshwork of aggregated cardiomyocyte chains, exhibiting marked local structural variations. In contrary to previous findings, up to two-fifths of the chains are found to have a partially transmural alignment, thus deviating from the prevailing tangential orientation. Upon contraction, they produce, in addition to a tangential force, a radial force component that counteracts ventricular constriction and aids widening of the ventricular cavity...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135673/myocardial-cobalt-levels-are-elevated-in-the-setting-of-total-hip-arthroplasty
#4
Cody C Wyles, T Carson Wright, Melanie C Bois, Md Shahrier Amin, Ahmed Fayyaz, Sarah M Jenkins, Saranya P Wyles, Patrick L Day, David L Murray, Robert T Trousdale, Nandan S Anavekar, William D Edwards, Joseph J Maleszewski
BACKGROUND: Arthroplasty implants commonly contain elemental metal that may undergo wear-related release. Recently, cases of hip implant-associated myocardial injury have been reported. However, we are not aware of any previous study that has systematically measured myocardial metal levels or examined the relationship with total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Archives of our institution were queried for autopsies of individuals who had undergone THA between 1990 and 2013...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131444/native-t1-reference-values-for-nonischemic-cardiomyopathies-and-populations-with-increased-cardiovascular-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Maaike van den Boomen, Riemer H J A Slart, Enzo V Hulleman, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Birgitta K Velthuis, Pim van der Harst, David E Sosnovik, Ronald J H Borra, Niek H J Prakken
BACKGROUND: Although cardiac MR and T1 mapping are increasingly used to diagnose diffuse fibrosis based cardiac diseases, studies reporting T1 values in healthy and diseased myocardium, particular in nonischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) and populations with increased cardiovascular risk, seem contradictory. PURPOSE: To determine the range of native myocardial T1 value ranges in patients with NICM and populations with increased cardiovascular risk. STUDY TYPE: Systemic review and meta-analysis...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129988/effect-of-aldh2-on-high-glucose-induced-cardiac-fibroblast-oxidative-stress-apoptosis-and-fibrosis
#6
Xiaoyu Gu, Tingting Fang, Pinfang Kang, Junfeng Hu, Ying Yu, Zhenghong Li, Xiangyang Cheng, Qin Gao
Our study aimed firstly to observe whether ALDH2 was expressed in neonate rat cardiac fibroblasts, then to investigate the effect of activation of ALDH2 on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis when cardiac fibroblasts were subjected to high glucose intervention. Cultured cardiac fibroblasts were randomly divided into normal (NG), NG + Alda-1, high glucose (HG), HG + Alda-1, HG + Alda-1 + daidzin, HG + daidzin, and hypertonic groups. Double-label immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, and Western blot revealed ALDH2 was expressed in cardiac fibroblasts...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129812/influence-of-lgals3-gene-polymorphisms-on-susceptibility-and-prognosis-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy-in-a-northern-han-chinese-population
#7
Yuhui Zhang, Yunhong Wang, Mei Zhai, Tianyi Gan, Xuemei Zhao, Rongcheng Zhang, Tao An, Yan Huang, Qiong Zhou, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 plays an important role in modulating cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. It also takes part in the pathways underlying cardiac remodeling. Therefore, LGALS3 gene, encoding galectin-3 protein, is a promising candidate for the genetic study of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). To date, there has been no research evaluating the association between LGALS3 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility and prognosis of DCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genotyping of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LGALS3 gene, which were reported to be functional in the literature, was performed in 279 unrelated clinically diagnosed DCM patients and 363 apparently healthy controls from Northern Han Chinese population using iPLEX SNP Genotyping analysis on a Sequenom MassARRAY System...
November 9, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127149/regnase-1-and-roquin-nonredundantly-regulate-th1-differentiation-causing-cardiac-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#8
Xiaotong Cui, Takashi Mino, Masanori Yoshinaga, Yoshinari Nakatsuka, Fabian Hia, Daichi Yamasoba, Tohru Tsujimura, Keizo Tomonaga, Yutaka Suzuki, Takuya Uehata, Osamu Takeuchi
Regnase-1 and Roquin are RNA binding proteins that are essential for degradation of inflammatory mRNAs and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Although deficiency of either of the proteins leads to enhanced T cell activation, their functional relationship in T cells has yet to be clarified because of lethality upon mutation of both Regnase-1 and Roquin. By using a Regnase-1 conditional allele, we show that mutations of both Regnase-1 and Roquin in T cells leads to massive lymphocyte activation. In contrast, mutation of either Regnase-1 or Roquin affected T cell activation to a lesser extent than the double mutation, indicating that Regnase-1 and Roquin function nonredundantly in T cells...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124057/radiation-induced-cardiovascular-disease-a-clinical-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Syed Wamique Yusuf, Bhanu Prasad Venkatesulu, Lakshmi Shree Mahadevan, Sunil Krishnan
Cancer survival has improved dramatically, and this has led to the manifestation of late side effects of multimodality therapy. Radiation (RT) to the thoracic malignancies results in unintentional irradiation of the cardiac chambers. RT-induced microvascular ischemia leads to disruption of capillary endothelial framework, and injury to differentiated myocytes results in deposition of collagen and fibrosis. Coexistence of risk factors of metabolic syndrome and preexisting atherosclerosis in addition to RT exposure results in accelerated occurrence of major coronary events...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122678/exosomes-and-cardioprotection-a-critical-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Sean M Davidson, Derek M Yellon
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by numerous cell types that appear to have diverse beneficial effects on the injured heart. Studies using exosomes from stem cells or from the blood have indicated that they are able to protect the heart both in models of acute ischaemia and reperfusion, and during chronic ischaemia. In addition to decreasing initial infarct size, they are able to stimulate angiogenesis, reduce fibrosis and remodelling, alter immune cell function and improve long-term cardiac contractile function...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122631/mitral-valve-prolapse-multimodality-imaging-and-genetic-insights
#11
REVIEW
Purvi Parwani, Jean-Francois Avierinos, Robert A Levine, Francesca Nesta Delling
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common heritable valvulopathy affecting approximately 2.4% of the population. It is the most important cause of primary mitral regurgitation (MR) requiring surgery. MVP is characterized by fibromyxomatous changes and displacement of one or both mitral leaflets into the left atrium. Echocardiography represents the primary diagnostic modality for assessment of MVP. Accurate quantitation of ventricular volumes and function for surgical planning in asymptomatic severe MR can be provided with both echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance ...
November 6, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122140/cardiac-tissue-characterization-and-imaging-in-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Petros P Sfikakis, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Genovefa Kolovou, George D Kitas
Inflammation, microvascular and macrovascular ischemia, valvular disease, and fibrosis are the main causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). The silent presentation and the high mortality and/or morbidity of CVD in ARDs necessitate a reliable tool for early diagnosis. Noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, including echocardiography, nuclear imaging, cardiovascular computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and hybrid imaging modalities, constitutes the main tool for monitoring of CVD in ARDs...
November 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121751/prognostic-implications-of-global-myocardial-mechanics-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-feature-tracking-relations-to-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis
#13
Rocio Hinojar, Covadonga Fernández-Golfín, Ariana González-Gómez, Luis Miguel Rincón, Maria Plaza-Martin, Eduardo Casas, Ana García-Martín, Mª Angeles Fernandez-Mendez, Amparo Esteban, Jose Julio Jimenez Nacher, Jose Luis Zamorano
BACKGROUND: Interstitial fibrosis, myocardial fiber disarray and non-uniform shortening are common histological features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The degree of LV hypertrophy and fibrosis are postulated to contribute to the impairment of myocardial shortening. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial (CMR) feature tracking (CMR-FT) has emerged as a robust method that provides quantitative measurements of myocardial deformation. Our aim was first to evaluate LV strain parameters in HCM by CMR-FT and their dependence on both functional parameters and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE); and secondly we sought to determine their association with major cardiovascular outcomes...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120957/deletion-of-protein-kinase-b2-preserves-cardiac-function-by-blocking-interleukin-6-mediated-injury-and-restores-blood-pressure-during-angiotensin-ii-high-salt-diet-induced-hypertension
#14
Shuai Yang, Dandan Chen, Fan Chen, Xinmei Zhao, Yubin Zhang, Zhe Li, Liang Jin, Yitao Xu, Daniel Sanchis, Junmei Ye
OBJECTIVE: Protein kinase B2 (AKT2) is implicated in cardiomyocyte survival during various stress conditions. However, the role of AKT2 in heart function, cardiac hypertrophy and blood pressure (BP) control during hypertension is not fully understood. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the deletion of AKT2 protects cardiac function during angiotensin II/high-salt-diet (AngII/HSD) treatment and find out the signaling pathway. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J (wild type), AKT2 knockout and interleukin (IL)-6 knockout mice were fed a 4% NaCl diet for 5 weeks...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119680/nicorandil-regulates-the-macrophage-skewing-and-ameliorates-myofibroblasts-by-inhibition-of-rhoa-rho-kinase-signalling-in-infarcted-rats
#15
Tsung-Ming Lee, Shinn-Zong Lin, Nen-Chung Chang
We have demonstrated that ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channel agonists attenuated fibrosis; however, the mechanism remained unclear. Since RhoA has been identified as a mediator of cardiac fibrosis, we sought to determine whether the anti-fibrotic effects of KATP channel agonists were mediated via regulating macrophage phenotype and fibroblast differentiation by a RhoA/RhoA-kinase-dependent pathway. Wistar male rats after induction of myocardial infarction were randomized to either vehicle, nicorandil, an antagonist of KATP channel glibenclamide, an antagonist of ROCK fasudil, or a combination of nicorandil and glibenclamide or fasudil and glibenclamide starting 24 hrs after infarction...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118818/folic-acid-prevents-cardiac-dysfunction-and-reduces-myocardial-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#16
Wei Li, Renqiao Tang, Shengrong Ouyang, Feifei Ma, Zhuo Liu, Jianxin Wu
Background: Folic acid (FA) is an antioxidant that can reduce reactive oxygen species generation and can blunt cardiac dysfunction during ischemia. We hypothesized that FA supplementation prevents cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction induced by obesity. Methods: Six-week-old C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), normal diet (ND), or an HFD supplemented with folic acid (FAD) for 14 weeks. Cardiac function was measured using a transthoracic echocardiographic exam...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118563/cardiac-dysfunction-as-an-early-predictor-of-portal-hypertension-in-chronic-hepatitis-c
#17
Cecilia Marconi, Mattia Bellan, Paola Giarda, Rosalba Minisini, Serena Favretto, Michela Emma Burlone, Lisa Franzosi, Mario Pirisi
Background: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is characterized by a set of cardiovascular modifications observed in advanced chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiovascular alterations in chronic liver disease with different stages of fibrosis and to correlate cardiac involvement with endoscopic complications of portal hypertension. Methods: Seventy patients with chronic hepatitis C-related chronic liver disease and 20 sex- and age-matched controls underwent clinical evaluation, hepatic transient elastography, and echocardiography...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118031/neurohormonal-blockade-and-circulating-cardiovascular-biomarkers-during-anthracycline-therapy-in-breast-cancer-patients-results-from-the-prada-prevention-of-cardiac-dysfunction-during-adjuvant-breast-cancer-therapy-study
#18
Geeta Gulati, Siri L Heck, Helge Røsjø, Anne H Ree, Pavel Hoffmann, Tor-Arne Hagve, Jon Norseth, Berit Gravdehaug, Kjetil Steine, Jürgen Geisler, Torbjørn Omland
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines are associated with cardiotoxic effects. Cardiovascular biomarkers may reflect myocardial injury, dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis and may precede and predict the development of left ventricular impairment. The aim of this study was to assess: (1) longitudinal change in circulating cardiovascular biomarkers, (2) the effect of metoprolol succinate and candesartan cilexetil on the biomarker response, and (3) the associations between on-treatment changes in biomarker concentrations and subsequent left ventricular dysfunction in patients with early breast cancer receiving anthracyclines...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117575/self-assembling-peptide-hydrogel-enables-instant-epicardial-coating-of-the-heart-with-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#19
Yuki Ichihara, Masahiro Kaneko, Kenichi Yamahara, Marinos Koulouroudias, Nobuhiko Sato, Rakesh Uppal, Kenji Yamazaki, Satoshi Saito, Ken Suzuki
Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is an emerging therapy for the treatment of heart failure. However, the delivery method of MSC is currently suboptimal. The use of self-assembling peptide hydrogels, including PuraMatrix(®) (PM; 3-D Matrix, Ltd), has been reported for clinical hemostasis and in research models. This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of an advanced approach for MSC-therapy, that is coating of the epicardium with the instantly-produced PM hydrogel incorporating MSCs (epicardial PM-MSC therapy)...
October 31, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117535/rescuing-infusion-of-mirna-1-prevents-cardiac-remodeling-in-a-heart-selective-mirna-deficient-mouse
#20
Shuilian Luo, Yuhang Chen, Rui He, Yujun Shi, Li Su
OBJECTIVE: The decreased expression of muscle-specific microRNA-1 (miR-1) has been found in many cardiovascular diseases and is considered to contribute to heart failure (HF). Here we investigated the role of miR-1 in myocardium protection by infusion of miR-1 in a cardiac global miRNA-deficient mouse. METHODS: We generated a cardiac-selective miRNA-deficient mouse by crossing Dicer(flox/flox) mice with mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of a mouse αMHC promoter...
November 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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