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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684613/low-or-excess-levels-of-dietary-cholesterol-impaired-immunity-and-aggravated-inflammation-response-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#1
Xiao-Zhong Wang, Wei-Dan Jiang, Lin Feng, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Yun-Yun Zeng, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The present study explored the effect of cholesterol on the immunity and inflammation response in the immune organs (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed graded levels of dietary cholesterol (0.041-1.526%) for 60 days and then infected with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results showed that low levels of cholesterol (1) depressed the innate immune components [lysozyme (LZ), acid phosphatase (ACP), complements and antimicrobial peptides] and adaptive immune component [immunoglobulin M (IgM)], (2) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15, IL-17D, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon γ2 (IFN-γ2)], partly due to the activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling, and (3) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines [IL-4/13B, IL-10, IL-11, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2], partly due to the suppression of target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling in the immune organs of young grass carp...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682351/comparative-analysis-of-cellular-and-growth-factor-composition-in-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-and-platelet-rich-plasma
#2
Hisashi Sugaya, Tomokazu Yoshioka, Toshiki Kato, Yu Taniguchi, Hiroshi Kumagai, Kojiro Hyodo, Osamu Ohneda, Masashi Yamazaki, Hajime Mishima
The purpose of this study was to quantify the stem cell and growth factor (GF) contents in the bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) prepared from whole blood using a protocol established in our laboratory. We examined 10 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head who were treated by autologous BMAC transplantation at our hospital between January 2015 and June 2015. We quantified CD34+ and CD31-CD45-CD90+CD105+ cells in BMAC and PRP by flow cytometry. Additionally, we measured various GFs, that is, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor- β 1 (TGF- β 1), and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in BMAC and PRP using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and statistical analyses...
2018: Bone Marrow Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673083/fine-particle-matter-disrupts-the-blood-testis-barrier-by-activating-tgf-%C3%AE-3-p38-mapk-pathway-and-decreasing-testosterone-secretion-in-rat
#3
Jianhui Liu, Lihua Ren, Jialiu Wei, Jin Zhang, Yupeng Zhu, Xiangyang Li, Li Jing, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Zhiwei Sun
Fine particle matter (PM) is correlated with male reproductive dysfunction in animals and humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To investigate the toxic mechanism of PM, 32 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to saline or PM2.5 with the doses of 1.8, 5.4, and 16.2 mg/kg.b.w. via intratracheal instillation, respectively, one time every 3 days, in total times for 30 days. Sperm concentration, hormone level, the expressions of BTB-associated protein and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, tumor necrosis factor α and transforming growth factor β3 levels were detected...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671652/effects-of-educated-monocytes-with-xenogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-conditioned-medium-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-asthma
#4
Hadi Esmaili Gourvarchin Galeh, Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani, Nahideh Afzale Ahangaran, Siamak Naji Hadai
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the potential of the monocytes educated with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived conditioned medium (MCM) in ameliorating animal model of asthma. METHODS: Chronic asthma was induced in the BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. The monocytes were isolated from blood of mice and supplemented with 50% MCM or negative control media. After 24 h, the cells were designated as "non-educated or educated"...
April 19, 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670673/pm2-5-induced-the-expression-of-fibrogenic-mediators-via-hmgb1-rage-signaling-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#5
Weifeng Zou, Fang He, Sha Liu, Jinding Pu, Jinxing Hu, Qing Sheng, Tao Zhu, Tianhua Zhu, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
Background: The aim of the present study was to test whether fine particulate matter (PM2.5) induces the expression of platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), PDGF-BB, and transforming growth factor- β 1 (TGF- β 1) in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro via high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to motor vehicle exhaust (MVE) or clean air. HBECs were either transfected with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HMGB1 or incubated with anti-RAGE antibodies and subsequently stimulated with PM2...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670207/homeostatic-proliferation-leads-to-telomere-attrition-and-increased-pd-1-expression-after-autologous-hematopoietic-sct-for-systemic-sclerosis
#6
Lucas C M Arruda, João R Lima-Júnior, Emmanuel Clave, Daniela A Moraes, Corinne Douay, Isabelle Fournier, Hélène Moins-Teisserenc, Dimas T Covas, Belinda P Simões, Dominique Farge, Antoine Toubert, Kelen C R Malmegrim, Maria Carolina Oliveira
In the months that follow autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), lymphopenia drives homeostatic proliferation, leading to oligoclonal expansion of residual cells. Here we evaluated how replicative senescent and exhausted cells associated with clinical outcomes of 25 systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients who underwent AHSCT. Patients were clinically monitored for skin (modified Rodnan's skin score, mRSS) and internal organ involvement and had blood samples collected before and semiannually, until 3 years post-AHSCT, for quantification of telomere length, CD8+ CD28- and PD-1+ cells, and serum cytokines...
April 18, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669342/nr4a1-is-involved-in-fibrogenesis-in-ovarian-endometriosis
#7
Xinliu Zeng, Zhang Yue, Ying Gao, Guosong Jiang, Fuqing Zeng, Ying Shao, Jiayu Huang, Minuo Yin, Yajie Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Excess fibrosis may lead to chronic pain, scarring, and infertility as endometriosis develops and progresses. The pathogenesis of endometriosis has been linked to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), the most potent promoter of fibrosis. METHODS: Levels of NR4A1 and P-NR4A1 protein in human endometrial and endometriotic tissue were assessed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of fibrotic markers in stromal cells were evaluated by real-time PCR...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668679/similarities-and-differences-between-helminth-parasites-and-cancer-cell-lines-in-shaping-human-monocytes-insights-into-parallel-mechanisms-of-immune-evasion
#8
Prakash Babu Narasimhan, Leor Akabas, Sameha Tariq, Naureen Huda, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Helen Sabzevari, Robert Hofmeister, Thomas B Nutman, Roshanak Tolouei Semnani
A number of features at the host-parasite interface are reminiscent of those that are also observed at the host-tumor interface. Both cancer cells and parasites establish a tissue microenvironment that allows for immune evasion and may reflect functional alterations of various innate cells. Here, we investigated how the phenotype and function of human monocytes is altered by exposure to cancer cell lines and if these functional and phenotypic alterations parallel those induced by exposure to helminth parasites...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667176/pre-diagnostic-blood-immune-markers-incidence-and-progression-of-b-cell-lymphoma-and-multiple-myeloma-univariate-and-functionally-informed-multivariate-analyses
#9
Roel Vermeulen, Fatemeh Saberi Hosnijeh, Barbara Bodinier, Lützen Portengen, Benoît Liquet, Javiera Garrido-Manriquez, Henk Lokhorst, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Ann-Sofie Johansson, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Beatrice Melin, Domenico Palli, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Carlotta Sacerdote, Rosario Tumino, Paolo Vineis, Raphaële Castagné, Marc Chadeau-Hyam
Recent prospective studies have shown that dysregulation of the immune system may precede the development of B-cell lymphomas (BCL) in immunocompetent individuals. However, to date, the studies were restricted to a few immune markers, which were considered separately. Using a nested case-control study within two European prospective cohorts, we measured plasma levels of 28 immune markers in samples collected a median of 6 years prior to diagnosis (range, 2.01-15.97) in 268 incident cases of BCL (including multiple myeloma) and matched controls...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665787/valproic-acid-sensitizes-metformin-resistant-human-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells-by-upregulating-h3-acetylation-and-emt-reversal
#10
Muyun Wei, Shaowei Mao, Guoliang Lu, Liang Li, Xiaopeng Lan, Zhongxian Huang, Yougen Chen, Miaoqing Zhao, Yueran Zhao, Qinghua Xia
BACKGROUND: Metformin (Met) is a widely available diabetic drug and shows suppressed effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metabolism and proliferation. Laboratory studies in RCC suggested that metformin has remarkable antitumor activities and seems to be a potential antitumor drug. But the facts that metformin may be not effective in reducing the risk of RCC in cancer clinical trials made it difficult to determine the benefits of metformin in RCC prevention and treatment. The mechanisms underlying the different conclusions between laboratory experiments and clinical analysis remains unclear...
April 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659051/psa-alpha-2-macroglobulin-complex-is-enzymatically-active-in-the-serum-of-patients-with-advanced-prostate-cancer-and-can-degrade-circulating-peptide-hormones
#11
Maya B Kostova, William Nathaniel Brennen, David Lopez, Lizamma Anthony, Hao Wang, Elizabeth Platz, Samuel R Denmeade
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer cells produce high levels of the serine protease Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). PSA is enzymatically active in the tumor microenvironment but is presumed to be enzymatically inactive in the blood due to complex formation with serum protease inhibitors α-1-antichymotrypsin and α-2-macroglobulin (A2M). PSA-A2M complexes cannot be measured by standard ELISA assays and are also rapidly cleared from the circulation. Thus the exact magnitude of PSA production by prostate cancer cells is not easily measured...
April 16, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656414/add-on-memantine-treatment-for-bipolar-ii-disorder-comorbid-with-alcohol-dependence-a-12-week-follow-up-study
#12
Sheng-Yu Lee, Tzu-Yun Wang, Shiou-Lan Chen, Yun-Hsuan Chang, Po-See Chen, San-Yuan Huang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Liang-Jen Wang, I Hui Lee, Kao Ching Chen, Yen Kuang Yang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Ru-Band Lu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD), especially BD-II, is frequently comorbid with alcohol dependence. Because BD-II and alcohol dependence are neurodegenerative disorders, agents with anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects might provide effective therapy. We investigated whether add-on memantine to regular valproate (VPA) treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms, reduced alcohol use and cytokine levels, and increased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in BD-II patients with comorbid alcohol dependence...
April 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625025/ltbp3-pathogenic-variants-predispose-individuals-to-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-and-dissections
#13
Dong-Chuan Guo, Ellen S Regalado, Amelie Pinard, Jiyuan Chen, Kwanghyuk Lee, Christina Rigelsky, Lior Zilberberg, Ellen M Hostetler, Micheala Aldred, Stephanie E Wallace, Siddharth K Prakash, Suzanne M Leal, Michael J Bamshad, Deborah A Nickerson, Marvin Natowicz, Daniel B Rifkin, Dianna M Milewicz
The major diseases affecting the thoracic aorta are aneurysms and acute dissections, and pathogenic variants in 11 genes are confirmed to lead to heritable thoracic aortic disease. However, many families in which multiple members have thoracic aortic disease do not have alterations in the known aortopathy genes. Genes highly expressed in the aorta were assessed for rare variants in exome sequencing data from such families, and compound rare heterozygous variants (p.Pro45Argfs∗ 25 and p.Glu750∗ ) in LTBP3 were identified in affected members of one family...
April 5, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621540/tgf-beta-inhibits-expression-of-sp-a-sp-b-sp-c-but-not-sp-d-in-human-alveolar-type-ii-cells
#14
Kelly A Correll, Karen E Edeen, Rachel L Zemans, Elizabeth F Redente, Amanda Mikels-Vigdal, Robert J Mason
TGF beta is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates alveolar epithelial cells as well as immune cells and fibroblasts. TGF beta inhibits surfactant protein A, B and C expression in fetal human lung and can inhibit type II cell proliferation induced by FGF7 (KGF). However, little is known about direct effects of TGF beta on adult human type II cells. We cultured alveolar type II cells under air/liquid interface conditions to maintain their state of differentiation with or without TGF beta. TGF beta markedly decreased expression of SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, fatty acid synthase, and the phospholipid transporter ABCA3...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620271/mir%C3%A2-152-regulates-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-induced-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-by-targeting-hpip-in-tubular-epithelial-cells
#15
Ya-Xian Ning, Xiao-Yuan Wang, Jian-Qin Wang, Rong Zeng, Gou-Qin Wang
Renal fibrosis is a common pathological feature of chronic kidney diseases, and their development and progression are influenced by epigenetic modifications including aberrant microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression. miRNAs have been demonstrated to modulate the aggressiveness of various cancers and have emerged as possible therapeutic agents for the management of renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF‑β1)‑induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular epithelial cells serves a role in the initiation and progression of renal fibrosis...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620207/calotropin-regulates-the-apoptosis-of-non%C3%A2-small-cell-cancer-by-regulating-the-cytotoxic-t%C3%A2-lymphocyte-associated-antigen-4%C3%A2-mediated-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-erk-signaling-pathway
#16
Lu Tian, Xiao-Hong Xie, Ze-Hao Zhu
Non‑small‑cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common malignancies that is responsible for a high level of cancer‑associated mortalities worldwide. Previous evidence has shown that Calotropin is an upstream activator of protein kinase B, which can further inhibit the growth and promote the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. In the present study, the efficacy of Calotropin on growth, aggressiveness and apoptosis of NSCLC cells was investigated, as well as the potential underlying mechanism. The results demonstrated that Calotropin inhibited H358 cell growth, migration and invasion...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619069/-piper-retrofractum-vahl-extract-as-a-ppar-%C3%AE-and-ampk-activator-suppresses-uvb-induced-photoaging-through-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-mmps-inhibition-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts-and-hairless-mice
#17
Jungon Yun, Changhee Kim, Mi-Bo Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang
Photoaging occurs by UVB-irradiation and involves production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to extracellular matrix damage. Piper retrofractum Vahl. is used as a traditional medicine for antiflatulence, expectorant, sedative, and anti-irritant; however, its antiphotoaging effect has not yet been studied. The current study investigated the antiphotoaging effect of standardized Piper retrofractum extract (PRE) on UVB-damaged human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mouse skin...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618665/b-lymphocytes-confer-immune-tolerance-via-cell-surface-garp-tgf-%C3%AE-complex
#18
Caroline H Wallace, Bill X Wu, Mohammad Salem, Ephraim A Ansa-Addo, Alessandra Metelli, Shaoli Sun, Gary Gilkeson, Mark J Shlomchik, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
GARP, a cell surface docking receptor for binding and activating latent TGF-β, is highly expressed by platelets and activated Tregs. While GARP is implicated in immune invasion in cancer, the roles of the GARP-TGF-β axis in systemic autoimmune diseases are unknown. Although B cells do not express GARP at baseline, we found that the GARP-TGF-β complex is induced on activated human and mouse B cells by ligands for multiple TLRs, including TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9. GARP overexpression on B cells inhibited their proliferation, induced IgA class-switching, and dampened T cell-independent antibody production...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615416/the-drosophila-tgf-beta-activin-like-ligands-dawdle-and-myoglianin-appear-to-modulate-adult-lifespan-through-regulation-of-26s-proteasome-function-in-adult-muscle
#19
Shaughna Langerak, Myung-Jun Kim, Hannah Lamberg, Michael Godinez, Mackenzie Main, Lindsey Winslow, Michael B O'Connor, Changqi C Zhu
The Drosophila Activin signaling pathway employs at least three separate ligands, Activin-β (Actβ), Dawdle (Daw), and Myoglianin (Myo), to regulate several general aspects of fruit fly larval development including cell proliferation, neuronal remodeling, and metabolism. Here we provide experimental evidence indicating that both Daw and Myo are anti-ageing factors in adult fruit flies. Knockdown of Myo or Daw in adult fruit flies reduced mean lifespan, while overexpression of either ligand in adult muscle tissues but not in adipose tissues enhanced mean lifespan...
April 3, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615404/the-tumor-suppressive-tgf-%C3%AE-smad1-s1pr2-signaling-axis-is-recurrently-inactivated-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#20
Anna Stelling, Hind Hashwah, Katrin Bertram, Markus G Manz, Alexandar Tzankov, Anne Müller
The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1PR2 and its downstream signaling pathway is commonly silenced in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), either by mutational inactivation or through negative regulation by the oncogenic transcription factor FOXP1. In this study, we have examined the upstream regulators of S1PR2 expression and have newly identified the TGF-β/TGF-βR2/SMAD1 axis as critically involved in S1PR2 transcriptional activation. Phosphorylated SMAD1 directly binds to regulatory elements in the S1PR2 locus as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and the CRISPR-mediated genomic editing of S1PR2 , SMAD1 or TGFBR2 in DLBCL cell lines renders cells unresponsive to TGF-β-induced apoptosis...
April 3, 2018: Blood
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