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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454267/necrotizing-infection-of-the-heart
#1
David H Ballard, George Patton Pennington, George P Pennington, Joe Johnson, Sanjeev Bhalla, Constantine Raptis
A case of necrotizing infection of the heart is presented. A 70-year-old woman presented with vague chest and abdominal pain. CT of the abdomen and pelvis was initially obtained, which demonstrated gas in the myocardium of the left ventricle. Subsequent chest CT, endoscopy, and abdominal surgical exploration did not reveal perforated viscus or diaphragm compromise. At median sternotomy, the inferior wall of the heart was found to be necrotic. Culture of the excised tissue grew E. coli. The patient expired shortly after surgical exploration...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453853/role-of-bi-weekly-serum-galactomannan-screening-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-hematologic-cancer-patients
#2
Jade Couchepin, Anne-Sophie Brunel, Katia Jaton, Pascal Meylan, Pierre-Yves Bochud, Frédéric Lamoth
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection affecting hematologic cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The diagnosis of IA often relies on the detection of galactomannan (GM) in serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Bi-weekly serum GM screening has been proposed for a preemptive therapeutic approach of IA in patients not receiving mold-active prophylaxis. We have analyzed all IA cases among patients with hematologic malignancies and prolonged chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (>14 days) in our institution over a 10-year period (2007-2017)...
February 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453681/-18-f-fpybf-2-a-new-f-18-labelled-amyloid-imaging-pet-tracer-biodistribution-and-radiation-dosimetry-assessment-of-first-in-man-18-f-fpybf-2-pet-imaging
#3
Ryuichi Nishii, Tatsuya Higashi, Shinya Kagawa, Chio Okuyama, Yoshihiko Kishibe, Masaaki Takahashi, Tomoko Okina, Norio Suzuki, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Yasuhiro Nagahama, Koichi Ishizu, Naoya Oishi, Hiroyuki Kimura, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Masahiro Ono, Hideo Saji, Hiroshi Yamauchi
OBJECTIVE: Recently, a benzofuran derivative for the imaging of β-amyloid plaques, 5-(5-(2-(2-(2- 18 F-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)benzofuran-2-yl)- N-methylpyridin-2-amine ( 18 F-FPYBF-2) has been validated as a tracer for amyloid imaging and it was found that 18 F-FPYBF-2 PET/CT is a useful and reliable diagnostic tool for the evaluation of AD (Higashi et al. Ann Nucl Med, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12149-018-1236-1 , 2018). The aim of this study was to assess the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of diagnostic dosages of 18 F-FPYBF-2 in normal healthy volunteers as a first-in-man study...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452867/deep-inspiration-breath-hold-level-variability-and-deformation-in-locoregional-breast-irradiation
#4
Leigh Conroy, Sarah Quirk, Elizabeth Watt, Gillian Ecclestone, Jessica L Conway, Ivo A Olivotto, Tien Phan, Wendy L Smith
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric effect of breath hold level variability and deformation on breast, chest wall, internal mammary chain (IMC) nodes, and heart. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Left-sided post-lumpectomy (n = 12) and postmastectomy (n = 3) patients underwent deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) and exhale breath hold (EBH) computed tomography (CT) scans. Forward-planned locoregional breast plans were created on the DIBH scan...
February 13, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452098/features-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-as-predictors-of-lung-cancer
#5
Laurie L Carr, Sean Jacobson, David A Lynch, Marilyn G Foreman, Eric L Flenaugh, Craig P Hersh, Frank C Sciurba, David O Wilson, Jessica C Sieren, Patrick Mulhall, Victor Kim, C Matthew Kinsey, Russell P Bowler
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of death and hospitalization for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, (COPD); a detailed understanding of which clinical features of COPD increase risk is needed. METHODS: To identify clinical and imaging features of smokers, with and without COPD, that are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, we performed a nested case-control study of COPDGene subjects with and without lung cancer, age 45-80, who smoked at least 10-pack years...
February 13, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451037/esophageal-hiatal-hernia-risk-diagnosis-and-management
#6
Hai-Xiang Yu, Chun-Shan Han, Jin-Ru Xue, Zhi-Feng Han, Hua Xin
Esophageal hiatal hernia involves abnormal abdominal entry into thoracic cavity. It is classified based on orientation between esophageal junction and diaphragm. Sliding hiatal hernia (Type-I) comprises the most frequent category, emanating from right crus of diaphragm. Type-II esophageal hernia engages both left and right muscular crura. Type-III and IV additionally include the left crus. Age and increased body mass index are key risk factors, and congenital skeletal aberrations trigger pathogenesis through intestinal malrotations...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447895/total-congenital-sternal-cleft-isolated-in-a-newborn-of-20-days-rare-case
#7
Dounia Basraoui, Badia Bannar, Mohamed Ouladsaiad, Hicham Jalal
Sternal clefts are rare malformations, especially in their complete form, which results from a lack of fusion of the sternal bars, which is normally done at the 9th week of intra uterine life. The incomplete form is often associated with other malformations of the chest wall, or falling within the framework of a polymalformative syndrome, the diagnosis is easy, being done with the inspection and the palpation, the paraclinical examinations are useful for confirming the diagnosis. We report the case of a total congenital sternal cleft isolated in an asymptomatic 20-day-old newborn...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446681/coronary-ct-angiography-use-in-patients-with-chest-pain-presenting-to-emergency-departments
#8
David C Levin, Laurence Parker, Ethan J Halpern, Vijay M Rao
OBJECTIVE: Previously published reports have shown that coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a more efficient method of diagnosis than myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and stress echocardiography for patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with acute chest pain. In light of this evidence, the objective of this study was to examine recent trends in the use of these techniques in EDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The nationwide Medicare Part B databases for 2006-2015 were the data source...
February 15, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446668/improved-opacification-of-a-suboptimally-enhanced-pulmonary-artery-in-chest-ct-experience-using-a-dual-layer-detector-spectral-ct
#9
Kyungsoo Bae, Kyung Nyeo Jeon, Soo Buem Cho, Sung Eun Park, Jin Il Moon, Hye Jin Baek, Bo Hwa Choi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the quality of virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI) from dual-layer detector spectral CT and the effect of virtual monoenergetic images obtained at low energies on the detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with a suboptimally enhanced pulmonary artery on chest CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 1552 consecutive chest CT examinations performed with dual-layer detector spectral CT using a routine protocol with a tube voltage of 120 kVp, 79 examinations with suboptimal enhancement of the pulmonary artery (i...
February 15, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444586/sex-differences-in-pericardial-adipose-tissue-assessed-by-pet-ct-and-association-with-cardiometabolic-risk
#10
Corey M Gill, Debora C Azevedo, Adriana L Oliveira, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Martin Torriani, Miriam A Bredella
Background Recent studies suggest that pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is associated with whole body adiposity and insulin resistance. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) differs between men and women. Although CVD is more prevalent in men, women suffering from CVD have a higher mortality compared to men. Differences in PAT may account for some of the observed sex differences in manifestations of CVD. Purpose To assess pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) as a biomarker for cardiometabolic risk and to assess potential sex differences...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442347/f-18-fdg-pet-ct-in-pulmonary-artery-sarcoma-clinical-vignette
#11
Stjepan Hmelik, Margareta Dobrenić, Dražen Huić
Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS's) are extremely rare malignant tumors that arise from the endothelial lining of the pulmonary arteries. On CT scans PAS's appear as intraluminal filling defects in the pulmonary arteries, mimicking pulmonary embolism (PE). Due to the similarities in radiographic features as well as in clinical presentation, PAS's are usually misdiagnosed as pulmonary embolism. Since PASs are F-18 FDG avid, F-18 FDG PET/CT scan is a useful imaging tool for differentiating between these two conditions, as shown in this case report...
2018: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441326/a-rare-case-of-primary-intrapulmonary-neurilemmoma-diagnosed-in-a-43-year-old-asymptomatic-man-with-a-well-defined-intrapulmonary-mass
#12
Serafeim Chrysikos, Maria Kaponi, Christina Triantafillidou, Theodoros Karampitsakos, Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Maria Anyfanti, Konstantinos Marossis, Marios Konstantinou, Rodoula Tringidou, Demosthenes Bouros, Katerina Dimakou
Neurilemmoma (NL), also termed schwannoma, presents as a well-circumscribed and encapsulated mass in the human body and is almost always solitary. CT scan of a patient with NL shows a round, ovoid, or lobulated well-demarcated solid mass of soft tissue density. Primary intrathoracic neurogenic tumors location varies. However, the development of such tumors is by far more common in the costovertebral angle of the posterior mediastinum. Here, we report a rare case of a 43-year-old patient, never smoker and previously healthy, who presented with a mass adjacent to the right pulmonary hilum...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437848/new-decision-formulas-for-predicting-endotracheal-tube-depth-in-children-analysis-of-neck-ct-images
#13
Se Uk Lee, Jae Yun Jung, Do Kyun Kim, Young Ho Kwak, Hyuksool Kwon, Jun Hwi Cho, Joong Wan Park, Yoo Jin Choi
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to construct a prediction model for endotracheal tube depth using neck CT images. METHODS: A retrospective image review was conducted that included patients who had undergone neck CT. Using sagittal neck CT images, we calculated the length between upper incisor and mid-trachea and then derived the model via regression analysis. The model was validated externally using chest radiographs of patients who had undergone endotracheal intubation...
February 6, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437738/an-unusual-presentation-of-pulmonary-embolism-leading-to-infarction-cavitation-abscess-formation-and-bronchopleural-fistulation
#14
Eva Teng, Luke Bennett, Tommaso Morelli, Anindo Banerjee
We report an unusual presentation of pulmonary embolism (PE) where a 58-year-old man first developed symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia. Despite antibiotic therapy, he remained unwell with rising inflammatory markers, general malaise and persistent cough. He developed stony dull percussion and absent breath sounds to his left mid to lower zones. Serial chest x-rays showed progression from lobar consolidation to a large loculated left-sided pleural collection. CT chest showed left-sided lung abscess, empyema and bronchopleural fistulation...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437733/cough-as-the-sole-manifestation-of-pericardial-effusion
#15
Hee Kong Fong, Obai Abdullah, Sandeep Gautam
A 59-year-old woman with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) presented with severe non-productive cough, malaise, low-grade fever and AF flare-up 3 weeks following pulmonary vein isolation with radiofrequency catheter ablation. She denied chest pain or dyspnoea. Patient was haemodynamically stable. There was no pulsus paradoxus. Laboratories showed leucocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein. ECG showed sinus tachycardia. CT abdomen and pelvis showed a large pericardial effusion (PE). Shortly after admission, she developed AF with rapid ventricular response, responsive to intravenous amiodarone...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437732/fatal-air-embolism-following-local-anaesthetisation-does-needle-size-matter
#16
Faiza Khalid, Sofiya Rehman, Rania AbdulRahman, Shikha Gupta
A 76--year--old male cigarette smoker presented with a 2-week history of cough and haemoptysis. Chest CT on admission revealed multiple new lung nodules concerning for malignancy. CT--guided biopsy of the nodule in left lower lobe was attempted in prone oblique position for tissue diagnosis. Local anaesthetic (lidocaine) was administered using a 25--gauge (1.5-inch) needle to anaesthetise the skin and subcutaneous tissue. This was followed by insertion of a 25-gauge (3.5-inch) Whitacre needle to anaesthetise deeper tissues and parietal pleura...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437731/massive-thoracic-ganglioneuroma-with-significant-mass-effect-on-left-hemithorax
#17
Jacob T Lambdin, Kyongjune B Lee, Gregory Trachiotis, Carlose Picone
A 42-year-old, otherwise healthy, woman presented with persistent left-sided chest pain. A chest X-ray revealed a large opacity in the left hemithorax which prompted further investigation with an MRI. MRI revealed a large left apical mass occupying approximately two-thirds of the left hemithorax. The mass was investigated further with a CT with contrast which did not reveal any vascular involvement or invasion into adjacent structures. The patient successfully underwent tumour resection via left thoracotomy...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437071/does-a-less-intensive-surveillance-protocol-affect-the-survival-of-patients-after-treatment-of-a-sarcoma-of-the-limb-updated-results-of-the-randomized-toss-study
#18
A Puri, P Ranganathan, A Gulia, S Crasto, R Hawaldar, R A Badwe
AIMS: A single-centre prospective randomized trial was conducted to investigate whether a less intensive follow-up protocol would not be inferior to a conventional follow-up protocol, in terms of overall survival, in patients who have undergone surgery for sarcoma of the limb. Initial short-term results were published in 2014. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of a chest radiograph (CXR) group compared with a CT scan group, and of a less frequent (six-monthly) group than a more frequent (three-monthly) group, in two-by-two comparison...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435630/ct-assessment-of-axillary-lymphadenopathy-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-association-with-disease-activity-and-severity
#19
Mizue Hasegawa, Fumikazu Sakai, Naoko Konda, Asako Okabayashi, Hideki Katsura, Yohei Seto
BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) are often seen on chest computed tomography (CT) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Early reports described lymphadenopathy as one of the systemic manifestations rather than regional lymphadenopathy secondary to drainage from the affected joints. Subsequently, the importance of the immunological events occurring in draining lymph nodes in the development of arthritis was documented. OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationships of local disease activity and background characteristics, including systemic disease activity, systemic disease activity, with axillary lymphadenopathy (AL) in RA using CT...
February 12, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435620/diagnosis-of-vertebral-deformities-on-chest-ct-and-dxa-compared-to-routine-lateral-thoracic-spine-x-ray
#20
M J van Dort, E A P M Romme, F W J M Smeenk, P P P M Geusens, E F M Wouters, J P van den Bergh
X-ray, CT and DXA enable diagnosis of vertebral deformities. For this study, level of agreement of vertebral deformity diagnosis was analysed. We showed that especially on subject level, these imaging techniques could be used for opportunistic screening of vertebral deformities in COPD patients. INTRODUCTION: X-ray and CT are frequently used for pulmonary evaluation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and also enable to diagnose vertebral deformities together with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging...
February 12, 2018: Osteoporosis International
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