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Therapeutic drug monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101614/-dermatological-topical-and-systemic-therapy-during-pregnancy
#1
REVIEW
S Grunewald, P Staubach
During pregnancy, a successful and safe therapeutic management of patients is possible to lower the burden of disease. Often topical therapy in combination with intensive basic skin care is sufficient. Drug therapies may also be used, most often for systemic diseases such as autoimmune diseases or psoriasis. An early change in therapy is also key during planned pregnancies so that treatments can be switched, adjusted, reduced or closely monitored. Another point to consider is to keep drug dosing as low as possible (without occlusion in local therapy) or short termed (with the exception of autoimmune or malignant diseases)...
January 18, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100922/the-effects-of-missed-doses-of-amlodipine-and-losartan-on-blood-pressure-in-older-hypertensive-patients
#2
Peter W de Leeuw, Robert Fagard, Abraham A Kroon
This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study compared the efficacy of amlodipine and losartan in an older hypertensive population, focusing on therapeutic coverage in the case of missed doses. Following a 4-week, single-blind, placebo washout period, 211 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 5 mg of amlodipine once daily or 50 mg of losartan once daily. Doses were doubled after 6 weeks of treatment if the diastolic blood pressure exceeded 90 mm Hg. After the 12-week treatment period, patients received the placebo for 2 days (drug holiday) to simulate two missed doses of antihypertensive medication...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098629/right-dose-right-now-customized-drug-dosing-in-the-critically-ill
#3
Jason A Roberts, Anand Kumar, Jeffrey Lipman
Drugs are key weapons that clinicians have to battle against the profound pathologies encountered in critically ill patients. Antibiotics in particular are commonly used and can improve patient outcomes dramatically. Despite this, there are strong opportunities for further reducing the persisting poor outcomes for infected critically ill patients. However, taking these next steps for improving patient care requires a new approach to antibiotic therapy. Giving the right dose is highly likely to increase the probability of clinical cure from infection and suppress the emergence of resistant pathogens...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095311/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-key-to-personalized-pharmacotherapy
#4
Michael Oellerich, Philipp Kanzow, Philip D Walson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094206/hepatocyte-growth-factor-in-physiology-and-infectious-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Ryu Imamura, Kunio Matsumoto
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine composed of an α-chain and a β-chain, and these chains contain four kringle domains and a serine protease-like structure, respectively. The receptor for HGF was identified as the c-met proto-oncogene product of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. HGF-induced signaling through the receptor Met provokes dynamic biological responses that support morphogenesis, regeneration, and the survival of various cells and tissues, which includes hepatocytes, renal tubular cells, and neurons...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090641/in-vivo-quantitative-assessment-of-the-therapeutic-response-in-a-mouse-model-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-using-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography
#6
Anupam Mitra, Smriti Kundu-Raychaudhuri, Christine Abria, Angelica Rona, Abhijit J Chaudhari, Siba P Raychaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Mouse collagen induced arthritis (CIA) is the most commonly used animal model to investigate underlying pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis and to demonstrate therapeutic efficacy of novel drugs in autoimmune arthritis. The conventional read out of CIA are clinical score and histopathology, which have several limitations including (i) subjected to observer bias; (ii) longitudinal therapeutic efficacy of a new drug cannot be determined. Thus a robust, non-invasive, in vivo drug screening tool is currently an unmet need...
January 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090307/hemodynamic-response-to-treatment-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-longitudinal-insights-from-an-implantable-hemodynamic-monitor
#7
Muddassir Mehmood, Richa Agarwal, Amresh Raina, Priscilla Correa-Jaque, Raymond L Benza
Despite new therapeutic options, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a progressive disease associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. As such, additional strategies for monitoring and adjunctive management of this disease are important. A 59-year-old woman with scleroderma-associated PAH received an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) as part of a research protocol at our institution. Pulmonary artery pressures, heart rate, and cardiac output (sensor-based algorithm) were measured on a daily basis, and parameters of right ventricular (RV) performance and afterload were calculated...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088954/-experiences-of-rescuing-infective-arterial-hemorrhage-and-pseudoaneurysm-in-dcd-kidney-transplantation
#8
D D Zhao, L Q Hong, Z Y Huang, N Na, X F Hua, B Miao, H Li, Q Q Sun
Objective: To summarize experiences of rescuing arterial hemorrhage and pseudoaneurysm caused by infection in donation after cardiac death (DCD) kidney transplantation. Methods: A total of 198 consecutive DCD kidney transplantations between 1 June 2013 and 30 July 2016 in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively analyzed. The means of rescuing infective arterial hemorrhage and pseudoaneurysm after operation and their therapeutic effects were summarized. Results: A total of 5 infective arterial hemorrhage, 2 infective pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhage, and 1 infective pseudoaneurysm developed in 198 DCD kidney transplantation recipients with total morbidity of 4...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088881/an-industry-update-the-latest-developments-in-therapeutic-delivery
#9
Iain Simpson
This Industry Update covers the period from 1 October through to 31 October 2016, and is based on information sourced from company press releases, scientific literature, patents and various news websites. The month saw several news items covering drug-delivery devices, including a new sensor to monitor and support the use of inhalers; launch in the UK of a new autoinjector for Cimzia(®), UCB's rheumatoid arthritis drug; and approval of Roche's Lucentis(®) in a prefilled syringe. Research was also published to show the value of continuous blood pressure monitoring in dementia management...
February 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088213/glycine-alanine-dipeptide-repeat-protein-contributes-to-toxicity-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-c9orf72-associated-neurodegeneration
#10
Yu Ohki, Andrea Wenninger-Weinzierl, Alexander Hruscha, Kazuhide Asakawa, Koichi Kawakami, Christian Haass, Dieter Edbauer, Bettina Schmid
BACKGROUND: The most frequent genetic cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the expansion of a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in a non-coding region of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) locus. The pathological hallmarks observed in C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers are the formation of RNA foci and deposition of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins derived from repeat associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. Currently, it is unclear whether formation of RNA foci, DPR translation products, or partial loss of C9orf72 predominantly drive neurotoxicity in vivo...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087970/liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-high-resolution-for-the-determination-of-baclofen-and-its-metabolites-in-plasma-application-to-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#11
Laurence Labat, Antonio Goncalves, Ana Rita Marques, Bénédicte Duretz, Bernard Granger, Xavier Declèves
Baclofen is actually used to manage alcohol dependence. This study describes a simple method using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) developed in plasma samples. This method was optimized to allow quantification of baclofen and determination of metabolic ratio of its metabolites, an oxidative deaminated metabolite of baclofen (M1) and its glucuronide form (M2). The LC-HR-MS method on Exactive® apparatus is a new developed method with all the advantages of the high resolution in full scan mode for the quantification of baclofen and detection of its metabolites in plasma...
January 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087488/cathepsin-k-targeted-sub-micron-particles-for-regenerative-repair-of-vascular-elastic-matrix
#12
Brenton Jennewine, Jonathan Fox, Anand Ramamurthi
: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) involve slow dilation and weakening of the aortic wall due to breakdown of structural matrix components, such as elastic fibers by chronically overexpressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), primarily, MMPs-2 and -9. Auto-regenerative repair of disrupted elastic fibers by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the AAA site is intrinsically poor and together with chronic proteolysis prevents restoration of elastin homeostasis, necessary to enable AAA growth arrest or regression to a healthy state...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081533/eeg-monitoring-technique-influences-the-management-of-hypoxic-ischemic-seizures-in-neonates-undergoing-therapeutic-hypothermia
#13
Saber Jan, Frances J Northington, Charlamaine M Parkinson, Carl E Stafstrom
Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring techniques for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are evolving over time, and the specific type of EEG utilized could influence seizure diagnosis and management. We examined whether the type of EEG performed affected seizure treatment decisions (e.g., the choice and number of antiseizure drugs [ASDs]) in therapeutic hypothermia-treated neonates with HI from 2007 to 2015 in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. During this period, 3 different EEG monitoring protocols were utilized: Period 1 (2007-2009), single, brief conventional EEG (1 h duration) at a variable time during therapeutic hypothermia treatment, i...
January 17, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081041/a-systematic-literature-review-approach-to-estimate-the-therapeutic-index-of-selected-immunosuppressant-drugs-after-renal-transplantation
#14
Jessica E Ericson, Kanecia O Zimmerman, Daniel Gonzalez, Chiara Melloni, Jeffrey T Guptill, Kevin D Hill, Huali Wu, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
BACKGROUND: Drugs that exhibit close margins between therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index (NTI). The Food and Drug Administration has proposed that NTI drugs should have more stringent bioequivalence standards for approval of generic formulations. However, many immunosuppressant drugs do not have a well-defined therapeutic index (TI). METHODS: We sought to determine whether safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic data obtained from the medical literature through a comprehensive literature search could be used to estimate the TI of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus...
February 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080998/determination-of-oxycodone-and-its-major-metabolites-noroxycodone-and-oxymorphone-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-in-plasma-and-urine-application-to-real-cases
#15
Flaminia Pantano, Stefano Brauneis, Alexandre Forneris, Roberta Pacifici, Enrico Marinelli, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Simona Pichini, Francesco Paolo Busardò
BACKGROUND: Oxycodone is a narcotic drug widely used to alleviate moderate and severe acute and chronic pain. Variability in analgesic efficacy could be explained by inter-subject variations in plasma concentrations of parent drug and its active metabolite, oxymorphone. To evaluate patient compliance and to set up therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the parent drug and its major metabolites noroxycodone and oxymorphone...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080136/isoniazid-a-review-of-characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods
#16
Guilherme Felipe Dos Santos Fernandes, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Jean Leandro Dos Santos
Isoniazid is a synthetic antimicrobial and one of the most important first-line drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Since it was introduced in the therapy in 1952, the drug remains at the front line of the antituberculosis treatment mainly due to its potency and high selectivity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pharmaceutical analysis and therapeutic drug monitoring of isoniazid in both, pharmaceuticals and biological samples, plays an important role to comprehend aspects regarding to bioavailability, bioequivalence and therapeutic monitoring during patients following-up...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079601/infliximab-optimization-based-on-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pediatric-ibd
#17
Tatyana Hofmekler, Madeline Bertha, Courtney McCracken, Benadette Martineau, Elizabeth McKinnon, Bess T Schoen, Barbara O McElhanon, Gayathri Tenjarla, Subra Kugathasan, Cary Sauer
BACKGROUND: Infliximab (IFX) is an effective treatment for the management of moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Low serum IFX levels are associated with the development of antibodies to IFX (ATI) which subsequently associated with clinical relapse and increased morbidity. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between dose and interval to IFX level. Secondary goal is to evaluate the relationship between IFX level and ATI in a pediatric IBD population...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076316/changes-of-thyroid-hormonal-status-in-patients-receiving-ketogenic-diet-due-to-intractable-epilepsy
#18
Engin Kose, Orkide Guzel, Korcan Demir, Nur Arslan
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diet (KD), which is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, mimics the metabolic state of starvation and is used therapeutically for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. It is known that generation of triiodothyronine (T3) from thyroxine (T4) decreases during fasting periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid function of children receiving KD for at least 1 year due to drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: A total of 120 patients [63 males, 52...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076304/the-use-of-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-antibiotics-in-cancer-patients
#19
Nahed El-Najjar, Jonathan Jantsch, André Gessner
Cancer remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In addition to organ failure, the most frequent reasons for admission of cancer patients to intensive care units (ICU) are: infections and sepsis. As critically ill, the complexity of the health situation of cancer patients renders the standard antimicrobial regimen more complex and even inadequate which results in increased mortality rates. This is due to pathophysiological changes in the volume of distribution, increased clearance, as well as to organ dysfunction...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070879/a-review-of-pharmacogenetics-of-antimalarials-and-associated-clinical-implications
#20
REVIEW
Hazem Elewa, Kyle John Wilby
Genetic variability in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters is known to influence the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Antimalarial drugs are a class of agents known to utilize metabolic and elimination pathways prone to genetic variation. This paper aims to review the genetic variants affecting antimalarial medications and discuss their clinical implications. Data were identified for the genes coding for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, and the P-glycoprotein drug transporter...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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