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Therapeutic drug monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917289/imaging-of-convective-drug-delivery-in-the-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Russell R Lonser
Convection-enhanced delivery permits the direct homogeneous delivery of small- and large-molecular-weight putative therapeutics to the nervous system in a manner that bypasses the blood-nervous system barrier. The development of co-infused surrogate imaging tracers (for computed tomography and MRI) allows for the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of infusate distribution during convective delivery. Real-time image monitoring of convective distribution of therapeutic agents insures that targeted structures/nervous system regions are adequately perfused, enhances safety, informs efficacy (or lack thereof) of putative agents, and provides critical information regarding the properties of convection-enhanced delivery in normal and various pathologic tissue states...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916378/clinical-pharmacology-of-anti-angiogenic-drugs-in-oncology
#2
REVIEW
P Gougis, J Wassermann, J P Spano, N Keynan, C Funck-Brentano, J E Salem
Abnormal vasculature proliferation is one of the so-called hallmarks of cancer. Angiogenesis inhibitor therapies are one of the major breakthroughs in cancer treatment in the last two decades. Two types of anti-angiogenics have been approved: monoclonal antibodies and derivatives, which are injected and target the extracellular part of a receptor, and protein kinase inhibitors, which are orally taken small molecules targeting the intra-cellular Adenosine Triphosphate -pocket of different kinases. They have become an important part of some tumors' treatment, both in monotherapy or in combination...
September 1, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915410/aiegens-for-biological-process-monitoring-and-disease-theranostics
#3
REVIEW
Xinggui Gu, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910830/consensus-guidelines-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-neuropsychopharmacology-update-2017
#4
C Hiemke, N Bergemann, H W Clement, A Conca, J Deckert, K Domschke, G Eckermann, K Egberts, M Gerlach, C Greiner, G Gründer, E Haen, U Havemann-Reinecke, G Hefner, R Helmer, G Janssen, E Jaquenoud, G Laux, T Messer, R Mössner, M J Müller, M Paulzen, B Pfuhlmann, P Riederer, A Saria, B Schoppek, G Schoretsanitis, M Schwarz, M Silva Gracia, B Stegmann, W Steimer, J C Stingl, M Uhr, S Ulrich, S Unterecker, R Waschgler, G Zernig, G Zurek, P Baumann
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the quantification and interpretation of drug concentrations in blood to optimize pharmacotherapy. It considers the interindividual variability of pharmacokinetics and thus enables personalized pharmacotherapy. In psychiatry and neurology, patient populations that may particularly benefit from TDM are children and adolescents, pregnant women, elderly patients, individuals with intellectual disabilities, patients with substance abuse disorders, forensic psychiatric patients or patients with known or suspected pharmacokinetic abnormalities...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906558/effects-of-rolapitant-administered-intravenously-or-orally-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-digoxin-p-glycoprotein-substrate-and-sulfasalazine-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-substrate-in-healthy-volunteers
#5
Xiaodong Wang, Zhi-Yi Zhang, Sujata Arora, Lorraine Hughes, Jing Wang, Daniel Powers, Jennifer Christensen, Sharon Lu, Vikram Kansra
Rolapitant is a selective and long-acting neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist approved in an oral formulation in combination with other antiemetic agents for the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults. Four open-label phase 1 studies evaluated the safety and drug-drug interactions of a single dose of rolapitant given intravenously (166.5 mg) or orally (180 mg) with oral digoxin (0.5 mg) or sulfasalazine (500 mg), probe substrates for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), respectively...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903316/mdm2-antagonists-synergize-with-pi3k-mtor-inhibition-in-well-differentiated-dedifferentiated-liposarcomas
#6
Audrey Laroche, Vanessa Chaire, Marie-Paule Algeo, Marie Karanian, Benjamin Fourneaux, Antoine Italiano
BACKGROUND: Well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS/DDLPS) are characterized by a consistent amplification of the MDM2 gene. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been suggested to play also an important role in their tumorigenesis. Our goal was to determine whether combined MDM2 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR targeting is associated with higher anti-tumor activity than single agent alone in preclinical models of WDLPS/DDLPS. METHODS: WDLPS/DDLPS cells were exposed to RG7388 (MDM2 antagonist) and BEZ235 (PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor) after which apoptosis and signaling/survival pathway perturbations were monitored by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901966/mouse-models-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-for-investigating-mucosal-immunity-in-the-intestine
#7
Giorgos Bamias, Kristen O Arseneau, Fabio Cominelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently several mouse models are considered representative of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review presents recent developments regarding the role of animal models of intestinal inflammation as research tools in IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies in animal models of intestinal inflammation have generated novel findings in several areas of IBD research. The combination of chemical and genetically engineered models have revealed protective or harmful roles for various components of the innate immune system in response to acute injury and repair mechanisms for the intestinal mucosa...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901847/micrornas-to-monitor-pain-migraine-and-drug-treatment
#8
Luca Gallelli, Erika Cione, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Marco Carotenuto, Pasqualina Lagana, Antonio Siniscalchi, Vincenzo Guidetti
Migraine is a prevalent neurovascular disorders with a complex pathophysiology and therapeutic options characterized by important side effects or problems related to drug abuse. No specific biomarkers are recognized to be univocal for this subclinical condition, yet. In this concern microRNAs have been suggested as potentially useful screening/diagnostic tool, and research is underway to recognize the most effective candidate(s). microRNAs, able to regulate immune and neuronal processes are herein reported for both, mice models with multiple induced pain conditions and human subjects...
September 12, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901297/metabolic-effects-of-inhaled-salbutamol-determined-by-exhaled-breath-analysis
#9
Martin T Gaugg, Anna Engler, Yvonne Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Lukas Bregy, Anna S Stöberl, Thomas Gaisl, Tobias Bruderer, Renato Zenobi, Malcolm Kohler, Pablo Martinez-Lozano Sinues
We explore whether real-time breath analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry is suitable to monitor changes at the metabolic level due to inhaling bronchodilator medication. We compared the breath levels of metabolites in a group of patients (n = 50) at baseline and 10 and 30 min after inhalation of 200 μg salbutamol. The same procedure was performed with a group of controls (n = 48) inhaling a placebo spray. A total of 131 mass spectral features were significantly altered as a result of inhaling medication, but not after inhaling placebo...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901267/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pediatric-ibd-current-application-and-future-perspectives
#10
Sara Lega, Matteo Bramuzzo, Marla Dubinsky
As the paradigm for IBD management is evolving from symptom control to the more ambitious goal of complete deep remission, the concept of personalized medicine, as a mean to deliver individualized treatment with the best effectiveness and safety profile, is becoming paramount. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an essential part of personalized medicine wherein serum drug concentrations are used to guide drug dosing on an individual basis. The concept of TDM has been introduced in the field of IBD along with thiopurines, over a decade ago, and evolved around anti-TNFs therapies...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899967/circulating-cell-free-dna-for-metastatic-cervical-cancer-detection-genotyping-and-monitoring
#11
Zhigang Kang, Sanja Stevanović, Christian S Hinrichs, Liang Cao
PURPOSE: Circulating cell-free (ccf) human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA may serve as a unique tumor marker for HPV-associated malignancies, including cervical cancer. We developed a method to genotype and quantify circulating HPV DNA in patients with HPV16- or HPV18-positive metastatic cervical cancer for potential disease monitoring and treatment-related decision making. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, HPV ccfDNA was measured in serum samples from 19 metastatic cervical cancer patients by duplex digital droplet (dd) PCR...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895370/eosinophilic-esophagitis-current-evidence-based-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-children-and-adults
#12
Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disease caused by an immune response to food antigens in contact with the esophageal mucosa that has arisen as a common disorder in current clinical practice. Its diagnosis is defined by the combination of symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and inflammation of the esophageal mucosa predominantly by eosinophils. Its chronic course and frequent progression to subepithelial fibrosis leading to strictures and narrow-caliber esophagus indicate the need for treatment. Information provided by recent clinical trials and systematic reviews allowed for the development of new clinical guidelines, endorsed by several European scientific societies...
September 11, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895161/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-antitubercular-agents-for-disseminated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-during-intermittent-haemodialysis-and-continuous-venovenous-haemofiltration
#13
J H Sin, R H Elshaboury, R M Hurtado, A R Letourneau, R G Gandhi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of data regarding therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antitubercular agents in the setting of continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH). We describe TDM results of numerous antitubercular agents in a critically ill patient during CVVH and haemodialysis. CASE SUMMARY: A 49-year-old man was initiated on treatment for disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis. During hospital admission, the patient developed critical illness and required renal replacement therapy...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895028/prevalence-of-qt-interval-prolonging-drug-drug-interactions-qt-ddis-in-psychiatry-wards-of-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-pakistan-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study
#14
Qasim Khan, Mohammad Ismail, Iqbal Haider, Fahadullah Khan
Background QT prolongation and associated arrhythmias, torsades de pointes (TdP), are considerable negative outcomes of many antipsychotic and antidepressant agents frequently used by psychiatric patients. Objective To identify the prevalence, levels, and predictors of QT prolonging drug-drug interactions (QT-DDIs), and AZCERT (Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics) classification of drugs involved in QT-DDIs. Setting Psychiatry wards of three major tertiary care hospitals of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893647/coexistence-of-multidrug-resistance-mechanisms-and-virulence-genes-in-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-south-india
#15
Kalaiarasan Ellappan, Harish Belgode Narasimha, Saravana Kumar
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the multiple drug resistance mechanisms and various virulence genes in high level carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa (CARPA) isolates collected from patients hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital, South India. METHODOLOGY: A total of 156 CARPA isolates were included in this study. Multiplex PCR was optimized to detect carbapenemases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, respectively. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was optimized to evaluate OprD deficiency...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893246/voriconazole-and-posaconazole-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-a-retrospective-study
#16
Whitley M Yi, Kelly E Schoeppler, Jaclyn Jaeger, Scott W Mueller, Robert MacLaren, Douglas N Fish, Tyree H Kiser
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to minimize the clinical impact of posaconazole and voriconazole pharmacokinetic variability. However, its benefits on clinical outcomes are still being defined. Additionally, TDM data are limited for posaconazole IV and delayed-release tablet formulations among specific patient populations, including critically ill. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of therapeutic posaconazole and voriconazole drug levels across all formulations in a real-world clinical setting and elucidate factors affecting attainment of target concentrations...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887919/cassia-tora-linn-a-boon-to-alzheimer-s-disease-for-its-anti-amyloidogenic-and-cholinergic-activities
#17
K R Chethana, Fatma Sezer Senol, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, K R Anilakumar, Rangappa S Keri
BACKGROUND: Drug discovery from natural products as alternatives for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a current trend. For which plant is an alternative for searching potential molecule for treating AD. Availability of Cassia tora as weed and abundance in nature makes it as potential source. Many plants group under Leguminosae family has potential medicinal property of which Cassia tora is an appropriate choice, to know potency against AD. Etiology of AD is described by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles...
September 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885215/hyperspectral-imaging-as-a-novel-diagnostic-tool-in-microcirculation-of-wounds
#18
Georg Daeschlein, Inga Langner, Thomas Wild, Sebastian von Podewils, Claudia Sicher, Thomas Kiefer, Michael Jünger
Monitoring of perfusion is a cornerstone in surgery, phlebology and basic science to proof wound healing by interventions. In chronic wound management it is of utmost importance to realize and parametrize wound bed perfusion to verify actual, and plan further treatment by noninvasive diagnostics. Up to now monitoring is based on visual inspection of wounds as conventionally practiced over more than decades. The main problems of visual inspection are the lack of standardization and comparability because of interindividual variations...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882040/visualizing-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-for-assessing-drug-efficacy-with-a-fluorescent-nanoprobe
#19
Mingming Luan, Longhai Yu, Yanhua Li, Wei Pan, Xiaonan Gao, Xiuyan Wan, Na Li, Bo Tang
Hard-to-treat cancers are closely relative of uncontrolled cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Assessing proliferation and invasion properties of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo is especially important for acquiring reliable information for cancer pathogenesis, drug screening and therapeutic effect evaluation. Herein, we developed a multicolor fluorescent nanoprobe for simultaneously monitoring breast cancer cells' proliferation marker Ki-67 and invasion marker urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)...
September 8, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881638/the-oxido-metabolic-driver-atf4-enhances-temozolamide-chemo-resistance-in-human-gliomas
#20
Daishi Chen, Manfred Rauh, Michael Buchfelder, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai Savaskan
Malignant gliomas are devastating neoplasia with limited curative treatment options. Temozolomide (TMZ, Temcat(®), Temodal(®) or Temodar(®)) is a first-line treatment for malignant gliomas but the development of drug resistance remains a major concern. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical oxido-metabolic regulator in gliomas, and its role in the pathogenesis of TMZ-resistance remains elusive. We investigated the effect of TMZ on human glioma cells under conditions of enhanced ATF4 expression (ATF4(OE)) and ATF4 knock down (ATF4(KD))...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
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