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Ret signaling

Silvia Martina Ferrari, Guido Bocci, Teresa Di Desidero, Ilaria Ruffilli, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Anna Fioravanti, Paola Orlandi, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Armando Patrizio, Simona Piaggi, Concettina La Motta, Salvatore Ulisse, Enke Baldini, Gabriele Materazzi, Paolo Miccoli, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi
The antitumor activity of vandetanib [a multiple signal transduction inhibitor including the RET tyrosine kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR), ERK and with antiangiogenic activity], in primary anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells, in the human cell line 8305C [undifferentiated thyroid cancer (TC)] and in an ATC‑cell line (AF), was investigated in the present study. Vandetanib (1 and 100 nM; 1, 10, 25 and 50 µM) was tested by WST‑1, apoptosis, migration and invasion assays: in primary ATC cells, in the 8305C continuous cell line, and in AF cells; and in 8305C cells in CD nu/nu mice...
March 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
Silvia Martina Ferrari, Guido Bocci, Teresa Di Desidero, Giusy Elia, Ilaria Ruffilli, Francesca Ragusa, Paola Orlandi, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Armando Patrizio, Simona Piaggi, Concettina La Motta, Salvatore Ulisse, Enke Baldini, Gabriele Materazzi, Paolo Miccoli, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi
Lenvatinib is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of VEGFR1-VEGFR3, FGFR1-FGFR4, PDGFRα, RET and v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) signaling networks involved in tumor angiogenesis. We have evaluated the antitumor activity of lenvatinib in primary anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells, in the human cell line 8305C (undifferentiated thyroid cancer) and in an ATC-cell line (AF). The AF cell line was obtained from the primary ATC cultures and was the one that grew over 50 passages...
March 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
Silvia Martina Ferrari, Ilaria Ruffilli, Marco Centanni, Camilla Virili, Gabriele Materazzi, Magdalini Alexopoulou, Mario Miccoli, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lenvatinib is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR1-VEGFR3), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1-FGFR4), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)α, rearranged during transfection (RET), and v-kit (KIT) signaling networks implicated in tumor angiogenesis. METHOD: Here we review the scientific literature about lenvatinib in the treatment of thyroid cancer...
February 19, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Aniello Cerrato, Roberta Visconti, Angela Celetti
Gene fusions occur in up to 17% of solid tumours. Oncogenic kinases are often involved in such fusions. In lung cancer, almost 30% of patients carrying an activated oncogene show the fusion of a tyrosine kinase to an heterologous gene. Several genes are partner in the fusion with the three kinases ALK, ROS1 and RET in lung. The impaired function of the partner gene, in combination with the activation of the kinase, may alter the cell signaling and promote the cancer cell addiction to the oncogene. Moreover, the gene that is partner in the fusion to the kinase may affect the response to therapeutics and/or promote resistance in the cancer cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
S Honma, K Kouno, S Takasaka, S Mitazaki, S Abe, H Kikuchi, Y Oshima, M Yoshida
Malignant gliomas are highly resistant to chemotherapy and radiation and more effective options for treatment are urgently needed. We reported previously that the aromatic amide brefelamide, which is isolated from methanolic extracts of the cellular slime molds Dictyostelium giganteum and D. brefeldianum, hinders cellular proliferation in a glioma model utilizing 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we examined the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of 1321N1 cell proliferation by brefelamide. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was found to enhance the rate of proliferation of serum-free cultured 1321N1 cells, but did not affect proliferation in PC12 cells...
January 2, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Charlotte Lussey-Lepoutre, Alexandre Buffet, Aurélie Morin, Judith Goncalves, Judith Favier
Paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors characterized by a large spectrum of hereditary predisposition. Based on gene expression profiling classification, they can be classically assigned to either a hypoxic/angiogenic cluster (cluster 1 including tumors with mutations in SDHx, VHL and FH genes) or a kinase-signaling cluster (cluster 2 consisting in tumors related to RET, NF1, TMEM127 and MAX genes mutations, as well as most of the sporadic tumors). The past 15 years have seen the emergence of an increasing number of genetically engineered and grafted models to investigate tumorigenesis and develop new therapeutic strategies...
February 9, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Jenny Sandmark, Göran Dahl, Linda Öster, Bingze Xu, Patrik Johansson, Tomas Akerud, Anna Aagaard, Pia Davidsson, Janna M Bigalke, Maria Sörhede-Winzell, G Jonah Rainey, Robert G Roth
Neurturin (NRTN) provides trophic support to neurons and is considered a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. It binds to its co-receptor GFRa2 and the resulting NRTN:GFRa2 complex activates the transmembrane receptors RET or NCAM. We report the crystal structure of NRTN, alone and in complex with GFRa2. This is the first crystal structure of a GFRa with all three domains and shows that domain 1 does not interact directly with NRTN, but may support an interaction with RET and/or NCAM, via a highly conserved surface...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ben Lambert, Adam L MacLean, Alexander G Fletcher, Alexander N Combes, Melissa H Little, Helen M Byrne
The adult mammalian kidney has a complex, highly-branched collecting duct epithelium that arises as a ureteric bud sidebranch from an epithelial tube known as the nephric duct. Subsequent branching of the ureteric bud to form the collecting duct tree is regulated by subcellular interactions between the epithelium and a population of mesenchymal cells that surround the tips of outgrowing branches. The mesenchymal cells produce glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), that binds with RET receptors on the surface of the epithelial cells to stimulate several subcellular pathways in the epithelium...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Kaimin Zhang, Xijian Du, Kaihu Yu, Kaiyu Zhang, Yicheng Zhou
Gastric cancer is one of the most common human tumors worldwide. The biggest bottleneck is a lack of advanced and sensitive protocols for the diagnosis of patients with early-stage gastric cancer. Therefore, more sensitive methods of diagnosing gastric cancer are urgently required to improve survival rates. In this clinical study, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) with targeting nanoparticles contrast agent (CECT-TNCA) was used to diagnose early-stage gastric cancer. The specific-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors of gastric cancer, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, Ret and Kit, were used as TNCAs...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
João Fadista, Marie Lund, Line Skotte, Frank Geller, Priyanka Nandakumar, Sumantra Chatterjee, Hans Matsson, Anna Löf Granström, Tomas Wester, Perttu Salo, Valtter Virtanen, Lisbeth Carstensen, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, David Michael Hougaard, Mikko Pakarinen, Markus Perola, Agneta Nordenskjöld, Aravinda Chakravarti, Mads Melbye, Bjarke Feenstra
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder with a population incidence of ~1/5000 live births, defined by an absence of enteric ganglia along variable lengths of the colon. HSCR genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found common associated variants at RET, SEMA3, and NRG1, but they still fail to explain all of its heritability. To enhance gene discovery, we performed a GWAS of 170 cases identified from the Danish nationwide pathology registry with 4717 controls, based on 6.2 million variants imputed from the haplotype reference consortium panel...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Sara Redaelli, Ivan Plaza-Menacho, Luca Mologni
The rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene was recognized as the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) causing gene in 1993. Since then, much effort has been put into a clear understanding of its oncogenic signaling, its biochemical function and ways to block its aberrant activation in MEN2 and related cancers. Several small molecules have been designed, developed or redirected as RET inhibitors for the treatment of MEN2 and sporadic MTC. However, current drugs are mostly active against several other kinases, as they were not originally developed for RET...
February 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Masato Hoshi, Antoine Reginensi, Matthew S Joens, James A J Fitzpatrick, Helen McNeill, Sanjay Jain
The epithelial Wolffian duct (WD) inserts into the cloaca (primitive bladder) before metanephric kidney development, thereby establishing the initial plumbing for eventual joining of the ureters and bladder. Defects in this process cause common anomalies in the spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). However, developmental, cellular, and molecular mechanisms of WD-cloaca fusion are poorly understood. Through systematic analysis of early WD tip development in mice, we discovered that a novel process of spatiotemporally regulated apoptosis in WD and cloaca was necessary for WD-cloaca fusion...
January 11, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Han Zhang, Fumei Zuo, Xingrong Tan, Shenghao Xu, Ruo Yuan, Shihong Chen
An electrochemiluminescencent (ECL) biosensor was designed for the determination of insulin using a novel ECL resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) strategy. In this strategy, carboxyl poly(9,9-dioctyfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) dots (PFO dots) were worked as ECL donor and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracar-boxylic acid (PTCA) exploited as ECL acceptor, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) employed as the coreactant. The ECL donor and ECL acceptor were separately labeled with primary antibody (Ab1) and secondary antibody (Ab2), forming a sensing interface to the analyte target, insulin...
December 27, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Lucille Lopez-Delisle, Cécile Pierre-Eugène, Caroline Louis-Brennetot, Didier Surdez, Virginie Raynal, Sylvain Baulande, Valentina Boeva, Sandrine Grossetête-Lalami, Valérie Combaret, Michel Peuchmaur, Olivier Delattre, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey
Activating mutations of the ALK receptor occur in a subset of neuroblastoma tumors. We previously demonstrated that Alk mutations cooperate with MYCN overexpression to induce neuroblastoma in mice and identified Ret as being strongly upregulated in MYCN/Alkmut tumors. By a genetic approach in vivo, we now document an oncogenic cooperation between activated Ret and MYCN overexpression in neuroblastoma formation. We show that MYCN/RetM919T tumors exhibit histological features and expression profiles close to MYCN/Alkmut tumors...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
Junhong Jiang, Xue Wu, Xiaoling Tong, Wangzhi Wei, Anan Chen, Xiaonan Wang, Yang W Shao, Jianan Huang
OBJECTIVES: ALK, RET and ROS1 fusions have been identified as treatable targets in 5%-15% of non-small-cell lung cancers, and thanks to the advanced sequencing technologies, their new partner genes have been steadily detected. Here we identified a rare fusion of ALK (GCC2-ALK) in a patient with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and monitored the treatment efficacy of ALK inhibitors on this patient. We further performed in vitro functional studies of this fusion protein for evaluating its oncogenic potential...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Christopher R Donnelly, Amol A Shah, Charlotte M Mistretta, Robert M Bradley, Brian A Pierchala
The development of the taste system relies on the coordinated regulation of cues that direct the simultaneous development of both peripheral taste organs and innervating sensory ganglia, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we describe a novel, biphasic function for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the development and subsequent diversification of chemosensory neurons within the geniculate ganglion (GG). GDNF, acting through the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret, regulates the expression of the chemosensory fate determinant Phox2b early in GG development...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nicolas Piton, Philippe Ruminy, Claire Gravet, Vinciane Marchand, Élodie Colasse, Aude Lamy, Cécile Le Naoures Mear, Fréderic Bibeau, Florent Marguet, Florian Guisier, Mathieu Salaün, Luc Thiberville, Fabrice Jardin, Jean-Christophe Sabourin
Detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1), and rearranged during transfection (RET) gene rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma is usually performed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) screening followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which is an expensive and difficult technique. Ligation-dependent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) multiplex technique can detect gene rearrangements using probes specifically hybridized to either side of the break point...
December 18, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Giorgia Acquaviva, Michela Visani, Andrea Repaci, Kerry J Rhoden, Dario de Biase, Annalisa Pession, Tallini Giovanni
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Knowledge of the molecular pathology of thyroid tumours originating from follicular cells has greatly advanced in the past several years. Common molecular alterations, such as BRAF p.V600E, RAS point mutations, and fusion oncogenes (RET-PTC being the prototypical example), have been, respectively, associated with conventional papillary carcinoma, follicular-patterned tumours (follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma/non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features), and with papillary carcinomas from young patients and arising after exposure to ionising radiation, respectively...
January 2018: Histopathology
Meihua Zhang, Yao Liu, Jie Fu, Ying Hu, Zheng Sun
BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplastic type 2 (MEN2) is an endocrine carcinoma syndrome which is caused by a germline activation mutation that occurs during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene transmission. MEN2A patients are affected by RET (C634Y, C634R) mutation; MEN2B patients are affected by RET (M918T) mutation. AIMS: We aim to identify RET mutations' (C634R and M918T) expression, location, and signaling activation during the disease's progression, which providing a theoretical basis for the study on etiology of multiple endocrine neoplasia...
2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Nadia Parmhans, Szilard Sajgo, Jingwen Niu, Wenqin Luo, Tudor Constantin Badea
We report the retinal expression pattern of Ret, a receptor tyrosine kinase for the glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs), during development and in the adult mouse. Ret is initially expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), followed by horizontal cells (HCs) and amacrine cells (ACs), beginning with the early stages of postmitotic development. Ret expression persists in all three classes of neurons in the adult. Using RNA sequencing, immunostaining and random sparse recombination, we show that Ret is expressed in at least three distinct types of ACs, and ten types of RGCs...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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