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Jose F Moruno-Manchon, Ndidi-Ese Uzor, Maria P Blasco, Sishira Mannuru, Nagireddy Putluri, Erin E Furr-Stimming, Andrey S Tsvetkov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Satoshi Hamada, Hirofumi Yamaguchi, Hiroyoshi Hara
Acute stroke patients with dysphagia are at risk of developing pulmonary infection, which increases the risk of death. Therefore, optimal management of dysphagia is essential; however, available evidence supporting the effectiveness of dysphagia treatments is limited. Surface electrical stimulation (e-stim) has been developed as a new treatment modality for dysphagia. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of surface sensory e-stim therapy in preventing pulmonary infection in 53 acute stroke patients with dysphagia...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Kehua Zhou, Ronald Schenk, Michael S Brogan
BACKGROUND: Electric stimulation (E-stim) has been found to be an effective treatment in improving wound healing rates. However, the wound healing trajectory and its related predictors for complete wound closure (CWC) have not been reported with E-stim treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Data on 159 patients treated at an outpatient wound clinic utilizing combined intervention of E-stim and conventional care were included. The Kaplan-Meier healing curve together with linear regression models depicted the percentage of patients with CWC against time...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Susana Cubillos, Johannes Norgauer
Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease with or without joint involvement. In this disease, the thickened epidermis and impaired barrier are associated with altered calcium gradients. Calcium and vitamin D are known to play important roles in keratinocyte differentiation and bone metabolism. Intracellular calcium is regulated by calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), calcium release-activated calcium modulator (ORAI) and stromal interaction molecule (STIM). Other proteins modulated by vitamin D play important roles in calcium regulation e...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Francesco Moccia, Estella Zuccolo, Valentina Poletto, Ilaria Turin, Germano Guerra, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Vittorio Rosti, Camillo Porta, Daniela Montagna
An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration plays a key role in the establishment of many cancer hallmarks, including aberrant proliferation, migration, invasion, resistance to apoptosis and angiogenesis. The dysregulation of Ca2+ entry is one of the most subtle mechanisms by which cancer cells overwhelm their normal counterparts and gain the adaptive advantages that result in tumour growth, vascularisation and dissemination throughout the organism. Both constitutive and agonist-induced Ca2+ influx may be mediated by store-dependent as well as store-independent Ca2+ entry routes...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Taylor J Woehl, Ryan M White, Robert R Keller
A microchannel plate was used as an ion sensitive detector in a commercial helium ion microscope (HIM) for dark-field transmission imaging of nanomaterials, i.e. scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). In contrast to previous transmission HIM approaches that used secondary electron conversion holders, our new approach detects forward-scattered helium ions on a dedicated annular shaped ion sensitive detector. Minimum collection angles between 125 mrad and 325 mrad were obtained by varying the distance of the sample from the microchannel plate detector during imaging...
June 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Daniel E Callan, Brian Falcone, Atsushi Wada, Raja Parasuraman
This study uses simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate tDCS modulation of resting state activity and connectivity that underlies enhancement in behavioral performance. The experiment consisted of three sessions within the fMRI scanner in which participants conducted a visual search task: Session 1: Pre-training (no performance feedback), Session 2: Training (performance feedback given), Session 3: Post-training (no performance feedback). Resting state activity was recorded during the last 5 min of each session...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tünde Molnár, Oleg Yarishkin, Anthony Iuso, Peter Barabas, Bryan Jones, Robert E Marc, Tam T T Phuong, David Križaj
UNLABELLED: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is at the epicenter of astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling. We sought to identify the molecular mechanism underlying store-operated calcium entry that replenishes ER stores in mouse Müller cells. Store depletion, induced through blockade of sequestration transporters in Ca(2+)-free saline, induced synergistic activation of canonical transient receptor potential 1 (TRPC1) and Orai channels. Store-operated TRPC1 channels were identified by their electrophysiological properties, pharmacological blockers, and ablation of the Trpc1 gene...
March 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kemal Aydın, Murat Demirer, Coşkun Bayrak
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of labor is currently one of the most difficult problems encountered by obstetrical healthcare providers. A major health problem is the increase in the rate of preterm delivery, which is responsible for 75% of all deaths in newborns. In addition, preterm delivery is associated with several cognitive and health problems in later life and enormous costs for the health system. A better understanding of myometrial activities could help to reduce preterm deliveries and the costs associated with prematurity in the following years...
2015: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Robert Kraft
Stromal interaction molecules (STIM) 1 and 2 are sensors of the calcium concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum. Depletion of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores activates STIM proteins which, in turn, bind and open calcium channels in the plasma membrane formed by the proteins ORAI1, ORAI2, and ORAI3. The resulting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), mostly controlled by the principal components STIM1 and ORAI1, has been particularly characterized in immune cells. In the nervous system, all STIM and ORAI homologs are expressed...
2015: Channels
Sang Jin Kim, Kaviraja Udupa, Zhen Ni, Elena Moro, Carolyn Gunraj, Filomena Mazzella, Andres M Lozano, Mojgan Hodaie, Anthony E Lang, Robert Chen
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) will improve long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in motor cortex in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 8 patients with PD treated with STN-DBS and 9 age-matched healthy controls. Patients with PD were studied in 4 sessions in medication (Med) OFF/stimulator (Stim) OFF, Med-OFF/Stim-ON, Med-ON/Stim-OFF, and Med-ON/Stim-ON states in random order. Motor evoked potential amplitude and cortical silent period duration were measured at baseline before paired associated stimulation (PAS) and at 3 different time intervals (T0, T30, T60) up to 60 minutes after PAS in the abductor pollicis brevis and abductor digiti minimi muscles...
August 4, 2015: Neurology
Hiroyuki Ito, Mitsuharu Kawamura, Nitish Badhwar, Vasanth Vedantham, Zian H Tseng, Byron K Lee, Randall J Lee, Gregory M Marcus, Edward P Gerstenfeld, Melvin M Scheinman
INTRODUCTION: There are several methods to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) during defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing. Delivering a shock at a critical time during the T wave (T-shock) is the conventional approach, while delivering a constant direct current voltage (DC stim) from the implantable cardioverter defibrillator is an alternative method. Only a few reports compare VF induction methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects and safety of DC stim versus T-shock...
October 2015: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Anshul Rana, Michelle Yen, Amir Masoud Sadaghiani, Seth Malmersjö, Chan Young Park, Ricardo E Dolmetsch, Richard S Lewis
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) regulates a wide variety of essential cellular functions. SOCE is mediated by STIM1 and STIM2, which sense depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores and activate Orai channels in the plasma membrane. Although the amplitude and dynamics of SOCE are considered important determinants of Ca(2+)-dependent responses, the underlying modulatory mechanisms are unclear. In this paper, we identify STIM2β, a highly conserved alternatively spliced isoform of STIM2, which, in contrast to all known STIM isoforms, is a potent inhibitor of SOCE...
June 8, 2015: Journal of Cell Biology
Kiera L Clayton, Matthew B Douglas-Vail, A K M Nur-ur Rahman, Karyn E Medcalf, Irene Y Xie, Glen M Chew, Ravi Tandon, Marion C Lanteri, Philip J Norris, Steven G Deeks, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Mario A Ostrowski
UNLABELLED: Chronic HIV infection results in a loss of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell effector function, termed "exhaustion," which is mediated, in part, by the membrane coinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (Tim-3). Like many other receptors, a soluble form of this protein has been described in human blood plasma. However, soluble Tim-3 (sTim-3) is poorly characterized, and its role in HIV disease is unknown. Here, we show that Tim-3 is shed from the surface of responding CD8(+) T cells by the matrix metalloproteinase ADAM10, producing a soluble form of the coinhibitory receptor...
April 2015: Journal of Virology
Carlos M Castorena, Edward B Arias, Naveen Sharma, Jonathan S Bogan, Gregory D Cartee
To fully understand skeletal muscle at the cellular level, it is essential to evaluate single muscle fibers. Accordingly, the major goals of this study were to determine if there are fiber type-related differences in single fibers from rat skeletal muscle for: 1) contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and/or 2) the abundance of GLUT4 and other metabolically relevant proteins. Paired epitrochlearis muscles isolated from Wistar rats were either electrically stimulated to contract (E-Stim) or remained resting (No E-Stim)...
February 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Madlen Stimming, Christina M Mesch, Mathilde Kersting, Lars Libuda
PURPOSE: Fish and rapeseed oil are major sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in complementary food, but little is known about current consumption in Germany. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide consumer survey to assess the consumption habits of fish and rapeseed oil and their determining factors in 985 mother-child dyads in Germany. RESULTS: One-fourth of infants ate fish as often as recommended, i.e. at least once per week...
October 2015: European Journal of Nutrition
Madlen Stimming, Christina M Mesch, Mathilde Kersting, Hermann Kalhoff, Hans Demmelmair, Berthold Koletzko, Anne Schmidt, Volker Böhm, Lars Libuda
Many formulas (FM) for infants are nowadays supplemented with LC-PUFA. Due to the susceptibility of LC-PUFA to peroxidation, a potential risk of oxidative stress must be considered. We analyzed the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids to calculate an estimated vitamin E need and the concentration of vitamin E as an important lipophilic antioxidant in LC-PUFA enriched (FM(+), n = 31) and not enriched (FM(-), n = 29) formulas as well as in breast milk (BM, n = 118). No differences were observed in the ratios of vitamin E content to estimated vitamin E need between FM(+) and FM(-)...
October 15, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Anand Goswami, Christofer Marvin Jesse, Akila Chandrasekar, Eva Bushuven, Jan Tilmann Vollrath, Alice Dreser, Istvan Katona, Cordian Beyer, Sonja Johann, A C Feller, M Grond, S Wagner, Stefan Nikolin, Dirk Troost, Joachim Weis
AIM: Upon denervation, skeletal muscle fibres initiate complex changes in gene expression. Many of these genes are involved in muscle fibre remodelling and atrophy. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to progressive neurodegeneration and neurogenic muscular atrophy (NMA). Disturbed calcium homeostasis and misfolded protein aggregation both in motor neurones and muscle fibres are key elements of ALS pathogenesis that are mutually interdependent. Therefore, we hypothesized that the calcium sensor STIM1 might be abnormally modified and involved in muscle fibre degeneration in ALS and other types of NMA...
April 2015: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Ianessa A Humbert, Donald G McLaren
Abstract The insula is a highly integrated cortical region both anatomically and functionally. It has been shown to have cognitive, social-emotional, gustatory, and sensorimotor functions. Insular involvement in both normal and abnormal swallowing behavior is well established, yet its functional connectivity is unclear. Studies of context-dependent connectivity, or the connectivity during different task conditions, have the potential to reveal information about synaptic function of the insula. The goal of this study was to examine the functional connectivity of specific insular regions (ventral anterior, dorsal anterior, and posterior) with distant cortical regions during four swallowing conditions (water, sour, e-stim, and visual biofeedback) using generalized psychophysiological interactions (gPPI)...
2014: Physiological Reports
Shalene E Hardman, Derrick E Hall, Alyssa J Cabrera, Chad R Hancock, David M Thomson
Sarcopenia is characterized by increased skeletal muscle atrophy due in part to alterations in muscle metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of skeletal muscle metabolic pathways which regulate many cellular processes that are disrupted in old-age. Functional AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of α, β and γ subunits, and each subunit can be represented in the heterotrimer by one of two (α1/α2, β1/β2) or three (γ1/γ2/γ3) isoforms. Altered isoform composition affects AMPK localization and function...
July 2014: Experimental Gerontology
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