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Acute isolate microglia

Nynke Oosterhof, Inge R Holtman, Laura E Kuil, Herma C van der Linde, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen, Tjakko J van Ham
Microglia are brain resident macrophages important for brain development, connectivity, homeostasis and disease. However, it is still largely unclear how microglia functions and their identity are regulated at the molecular level. Although recent transcriptomic studies have identified genes specifically expressed in microglia, the function of most of these genes in microglia is still unknown. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on microglia acutely isolated from healthy and neurodegenerative zebrafish brains...
October 19, 2016: Glia
Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Sarah Andry, Adam Brown, Sharon DeMorrow
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure is associated with numerous systemic consequences including neurological dysfunction, termed hepatic encephalopathy, which contributes to mortality and is a challenge to manage in the clinic. During hepatic encephalopathy, microglia activation and neuroinflammation occur due to dysregulated cell signaling and an increase of toxic metabolites in the brain. Fractalkine is a chemokine that is expressed primarily in neurons and through signaling with its receptor CX3CR1 on microglia, leads to microglia remaining in a quiescent state...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Stefan Wendt, Emile Wogram, Laura Korvers, Helmut Kettenmann
UNLABELLED: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a propagating event of neuronal depolarization, which is considered as the cellular correlate of the migraine aura. It is characterized by a change in the intrinsic optical signal and by a negative DC potential shift. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS and act as sensors for pathological changes. In the present study, we analyzed whether microglial cells might sense CSD by recording membrane currents from microglia in acutely isolated cortical mouse brain slices during an experimentally induced CSD...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gwenn A Garden, Brian M Campbell
There is a growing understanding that aberrant GLIA function is an underlying factor in psychiatric and neurological disorders. As drug discovery efforts begin to focus on glia-related targets, a key gap in knowledge includes the availability of validated biomarkers to help determine which patients suffer from dysfunction of glial cells or who may best respond by targeting glia-related drug mechanisms. Biomarkers are biological variables with a significant relationship to parameters of disease states and can be used as surrogate markers of disease pathology, progression, and/or responses to drug treatment...
October 2016: Glia
Jian-Cheng Zhang, Hang Xu, Yin Yuan, Jia-Yi Chen, Yu-Jing Zhang, Yun Lin, Shi-Ying Yuan
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3‑gallate (EGCG), the predominant constituent of green tea, has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective against acute ischemic stroke. However, the long-term actions of EGCG on neurogenesis and functional recovery after ischemic stroke have not been identified. In this study, C57BL/6 mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (60 min) followed by reperfusion for 28 days. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were isolated from ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) at 14 days post-ischemia (dpi)...
May 20, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Hsin-I Tong, Wen Kang, Philip M C Davy, Yingli Shi, Si Sun, Richard C Allsopp, Yuanan Lu
The ability of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) to travel towards chemotactic gradient, traverse tissue barriers, and accumulate precisely at diseased sites makes them attractive candidates as drug carriers and therapeutic gene delivery vehicles targeting the brain, where treatments are often hampered by the blockade of the blood brain barrier (BBB). This study was designed to fully establish an optimized cell-based delivery system using monocytes and MDM, by evaluating their homing efficiency, engraftment potential, as well as carriage and delivery ability to transport nano-scaled particles and exogenous genes into the brain, following the non-invasive intravenous (IV) cell adoptive transfer in an acute neuroinflammation mouse model induced by intracranial injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides...
2016: PloS One
A Grimaldi, G D'Alessandro, M T Golia, E M Grössinger, S Di Angelantonio, D Ragozzino, A Santoro, V Esposito, H Wulff, M Catalano, C Limatola
Among the strategies adopted by glioma to successfully invade the brain parenchyma is turning the infiltrating microglia/macrophages (M/MΦ) into allies, by shifting them toward an anti-inflammatory, pro-tumor phenotype. Both glioma and infiltrating M/MΦ cells express the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (KCa3.1), and the inhibition of KCa3.1 activity on glioma cells reduces tumor infiltration in the healthy brain parenchyma. We wondered whether KCa3.1 inhibition could prevent the acquisition of a pro-tumor phenotype by M/MΦ cells, thus contributing to reduce glioma development...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Laura K Fonken, Michael D Weber, Rachel A Daut, Meagan M Kitt, Matthew G Frank, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier
Circadian rhythms are endogenous cycles of physiology and behavior that align with the daily rotation of the planet and resulting light-dark cycle. The circadian system ensures homeostatic balance and regulates many aspects of physiology, including the stress response and susceptibility to and/or severity of stress-related sequelae. Both acute and chronic stressors amplify neuroinflammatory responses to a subsequent immune challenge, however it is not known whether circadian timing of the stressor regulates the priming response...
April 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yi-Je Chen, Hai M Nguyen, Izumi Maezawa, Eva M Grössinger, April L Garing, Ralf Köhler, Lee-Way Jin, Heike Wulff
Activated microglia/macrophages significantly contribute to the secondary inflammatory damage in ischemic stroke. Cultured neonatal microglia express the K(+) channels Kv1.3 and KCa3.1, both of which have been reported to be involved in microglia-mediated neuronal killing, oxidative burst and cytokine production. However, it is questionable whether neonatal cultures accurately reflect the K(+) channel expression of activated microglia in the adult brain. We here subjected mice to middle cerebral artery occlusion with eight days of reperfusion and patch-clamped acutely isolated microglia/macrophages...
November 2, 2015: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Margaret A Hamner, Zucheng Ye, Richard V Lee, Jamie R Colman, Thu Le, Davin C Gong, Bruce R Ransom, Jonathan R Weinstein
UNLABELLED: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a robust neuroprotective phenomenon whereby brief ischemic exposure confers tolerance to a subsequent ischemic challenge. IPC has not been studied selectively in CNS white matter (WM), although stroke frequently involves WM. We determined whether IPC is present in WM and, if so, its mechanism. We delivered a brief in vivo preconditioning ischemic insult (unilateral common carotid artery ligation) to 12- to 14-week-old mice and determined WM ischemic vulnerability [oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)] 72 h later, using acutely isolated optic nerves (CNS WM tracts) from the preconditioned (ipsilateral) and control (contralateral) hemispheres...
November 25, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Daniel J Kota, Karthik S Prabhakara, Alexandra J van Brummen, Supinder Bedi, Hasen Xue, Bryan DiCarlo, Charles S Cox, Scott D Olson
UNLABELLED: More than 6.5 million patients are burdened by the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial deficits associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the U.S. Despite extensive efforts to develop neuroprotective therapies for this devastating disorder, there have been no successful outcomes in human clinical trials to date. Retrospective studies have shown that β-adrenergic receptor blockers, specifically propranolol, significantly decrease mortality of TBI through mechanisms not yet fully elucidated but are thought to counterbalance a hyperadrenergic state resulting from a TBI...
January 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Dennis Y Chuang, Agnes Simonyi, Paul T Kotzbauer, Zezong Gu, Grace Y Sun
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are important factors contributing to the pathophysiology of numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, acute stroke, and infections of the brain. There is well-established evidence that proinflammatory cytokines and glutamate, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), are produced upon microglia activation, and these are important factors contributing to inflammatory responses and cytotoxic damage to surrounding neurons and neighboring cells...
October 31, 2015: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Avital Luz, Nina Fainstein, Ofira Einstein, Tamir Ben-Hur
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed on immune cells in the periphery and the CNS and mediates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have implicated TLR2 in systemic pathogenesis of adaptive immunity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In addition, TLR2 is expressed on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and its activation inhibits their differentiation and myelination. We investigated the roles of CNS TLR2 activation in mediating neuro-inflammatory responses in intact versus EAE animals...
November 2015: Experimental Neurology
Michael K Walls, Nicholas Race, Lingxing Zheng, Sasha M Vega-Alvarez, Glen Acosta, Jonghyuck Park, Riyi Shi
OBJECTIVE: Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT), if not fatal, is nonetheless potentially crippling. It can produce a wide array of acute symptoms in moderate-to-severe exposures, but mild BINT (mBINT) is characterized by the distinct absence of acute clinical abnormalities. The lack of observable indications for mBINT is particularly alarming, as these injuries have been linked to severe long-term psychiatric and degenerative neurological dysfunction. Although the long-term sequelae of BINT are extensively documented, the underlying mechanisms of injury remain poorly understood, impeding the development of diagnostic and treatment strategies...
March 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Raasay S Jones, Aedín M Minogue, Orla Fitzpatrick, Marina A Lynch
There is a wealth of evidence indicating that macrophages adopt distinct phenotypes when exposed to specific stimuli and, in the past few years, accumulating data suggest that microglia behave somewhat similarly. Therefore, microglia can adopt the so-called M1 or M2 phenotypes in response to interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukin-4, respectively. Although it has yet to be unequivocally proven in the context of microglia, acutely activated M1 cells are probably protective, although a persistent M1 state is likely to be damaging, whereas M2 cells may be reparative and restorative...
October 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
Fan Li, Joel Faustino, Moon-Sook Woo, Nikita Derugin, Zinaida S Vexler
The stage of brain development at the time of stroke has a major impact on the pathophysiological mechanisms of ischemic damage, including the neuroinflammatory response. Microglial cells have been shown to contribute to acute and subchronic injury in adult stroke models, whereas in neonatal rodents we showed that microglial cells serve as endogenous neuroprotectants early following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, limiting neuroinflammation and injury. In the neonate, microglial depletion or lack of the scavenger receptor CD36 exacerbates injury...
November 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Megan E Peters, Rebecca S Kimyon, Gordon S Mitchell, Jyoti J Watters
Modest protocols of repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia (rAIH) enhance motor function in patients with chronic incomplete spinal injury. Since chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) elicits neuroinflammation, there is potential for rAIH to have similar effects. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that rAIH has minimal impact on microglial inflammatory gene expression, but up-regulates key neurotrophic factor expression in a CNS region-specific manner. Using real time PCR, we evaluated mRNA levels of inflammatory and neurotrophic factors in immunomagnetically-isolated microglia from rat frontal cortex, brainstem and upper and lower cervical spinal cord following rAIH (ten, 5-min episodes, thrice weekly, 4 weeks)...
November 2015: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Adrianne G Huxtable, Stephanie M C Smith, Timothy J Peterson, Jyoti J Watters, Gordon S Mitchell
Inflammation is characteristic of most clinical disorders that challenge the neural control of breathing. Since inflammation modulates neuroplasticity, we studied the impact of inflammation caused by prolonged intermittent hypoxia on an important form of respiratory plasticity, acute intermittent hypoxia (three, 5 min hypoxic episodes, 5 min normoxic intervals) induced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Because chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits neuroinflammation and pLTF is undermined by lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that one night of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1) elicits spinal inflammation, thereby impairing pLTF by a p38 MAP kinase-dependent mechanism...
April 29, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Simon Verheijden, Lien Beckers, Andrea Casazza, Oleg Butovsky, Massimiliano Mazzone, Myriam Baes
The functional diversity and molecular adaptations of reactive microglia in the chronically inflamed central nervous system (CNS) are poorly understood. We previously showed that mice lacking multifunctional protein 2 (MFP2), a pivotal enzyme in peroxisomal β-oxidation, persistently accumulate reactive myeloid cells in the gray matter of the CNS. Here, we show that the increased numbers of myeloid cells solely derive from the proliferation of resident microglia and not from infiltrating monocytes. We defined the signature of Mfp2(-/-) microglia by gene expression profiling after acute isolation, which was validated by quantitative polymerase reaction (qPCR), immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric analysis...
September 2015: Glia
W Schaafsma, X Zhang, K C van Zomeren, S Jacobs, P B Georgieva, S A Wolf, H Kettenmann, H Janova, N Saiepour, U-K Hanisch, P Meerlo, P J van den Elsen, N Brouwer, H W G M Boddeke, B J L Eggen
Microglia, the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), react to endotoxins like bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with a pronounced inflammatory response. To avoid excess damage to the CNS, the microglia inflammatory response needs to be tightly regulated. Here we report that a single LPS challenge results in a prolonged blunted pro-inflammatory response to a subsequent LPS stimulation, both in primary microglia cultures (100 ng/ml) and in vivo after intraperitoneal (0.25 and 1mg/kg) or intracerebroventricular (5 μg) LPS administration...
August 2015: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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