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Acute isolate microglia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340071/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-regulates-microglial-functions-affecting-neuronal-survival-in-the-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#1
Seoyeon Bok, Young-Eun Kim, Youngsik Woo, Soeun Kim, Suk-Jo Kang, Yoontae Lee, Sang Ki Park, Irving L Weissman, G-One Ahn
Cells universally adapt to ischemic conditions by turning on a transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), in which its role is known to differ widely across many different types of cells. Given that microglia have been reported as an essential mediator of neuroinflammation in many brain diseases, we examined the role of HIF in microglia in the progression of an acute phase of ischemic stroke by challenging our novel strains of myeloid-specific Hif-1α or Hif-2α knockout (KO) mice created by Cre-loxP system via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323194/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-modify-microglial-response-and-improve-clinical-outcomes-in-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Katherine A Ruppert, Tin T Nguyen, Karthik S Prabhakara, Naama E Toledano Furman, Amit K Srivastava, Matthew T Harting, Charles S Cox, Scott D Olson
No current clinical intervention can alter the course of acute spinal cord injury (SCI), or appreciably improve neurological outcome. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to modulate the injury sequelae of SCI largely via paracrine effects, although the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. One potential modality is through secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs). In this study, we investigate whether systemic administration of EVs isolated from human MSCs (MSCEv) has the potential to be efficacious as an alternative to cell-based therapy for SCI...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207498/steppogenin-isolated-from-cudrania-tricuspidata-shows-antineuroinflammatory-effects-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways-in-lps-stimulated-bv2-and-primary-rat-microglial-cells
#3
Dong-Cheol Kim, Tran Hong Quang, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim
Excessive microglial stimulation has been recognized in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), HIV-associated dementia (HAD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and stroke. When microglia are stimulated, they produce proinflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) derived from cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
December 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187851/modulation-of-p2x7-receptor-during-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Susanna Amadio, Chiara Parisi, Eleonora Piras, Paola Fabbrizio, Savina Apolloni, Cinzia Montilli, Sabina Luchetti, Serena Ruggieri, Claudio Gasperini, Franco Laghi-Pasini, Luca Battistini, Cinzia Volonté
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by macrophage accumulation and inflammatory infiltrates into the CNS contributing to demyelination. Because purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is known to be abundantly expressed on cells of the hematopoietic lineage and of the nervous system, we further investigated its phenotypic expression in MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis conditions. By quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, we analyzed the P2X7R expression in human mononuclear cells of peripheral blood from stable and acute relapsing-remitting MS phases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126430/lack-of-chronic-neuroinflammation-in-the-absence-of-focal-hemorrhage-in-a-rat-model-of-low-energy-blast-induced-tbi
#5
Miguel A Gama Sosa, Rita De Gasperi, Georgina S Perez Garcia, Heidi Sosa, Courtney Searcy, Danielle Vargas, Pierce L Janssen, Gissel M Perez, Anna E Tschiffely, William G Janssen, Richard M McCarron, Patrick R Hof, Fatemeh G Haghighi, Stephen T Ahlers, Gregory A Elder
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a common cause of injury in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Blast waves can damage blood vessels, neurons, and glial cells within the brain. Acutely, depending on the blast energy, blast wave duration, and number of exposures, blast waves disrupt the blood-brain barrier, triggering microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Recently, there has been much interest in the role that ongoing neuroinflammation may play in the chronic effects of TBI...
November 10, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104062/stress-disinhibits-microglia-via-down-regulation-of-cd200r-a-mechanism-of-neuroinflammatory-priming
#6
Matthew G Frank, Laura K Fonken, Jessica L Annis, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier
Exposure to stressors primes the neuroinflammatory and microglial proinflammatory response to subsequent immune challenges, suggesting that stress might attenuate immunoregulatory mechanisms in the CNS microenvironment. CD200:CD200R is a key immunoregulatory signaling dyad that constrains microglial activation, and disruption of CD200:CD200R signaling primes microglia to subsequent immune challenges. Therefore, the present study examined the mediating role of CD200:CD200R signaling in stress-induced microglial priming...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924009/site-specific-regulation-of-p2x7-receptor-function-in-microglia-gates-morphine-analgesic-tolerance
#7
Heather Leduc-Pessah, Nicholas L Weilinger, Churmy Y Fan, Nicole E Burma, Roger J Thompson, Tuan Trang
Tolerance to the analgesic effects of opioids is a major problem in chronic pain management. Microglia are implicated in opioid tolerance, but the core mechanisms regulating their response to opioids remain obscure. By selectively ablating microglia in the spinal cord using a saporin-conjugated antibody to Mac1, we demonstrate a causal role for microglia in the development, but not maintenance, of morphine tolerance in male rats. Increased P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) activity is a cardinal feature of microglial activation, and in this study we found that morphine potentiates P2X7R-mediated Ca(2+) responses in resident spinal microglia acutely isolated from morphine tolerant rats...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911981/peripheral-immune-cells-infiltrate-into-sites-of-secondary-neurodegeneration-after-ischemic-stroke
#8
K A Jones, S Maltby, M W Plank, M Kluge, M Nilsson, P S Foster, F R Walker
Experimental stroke leads to microglia activation and progressive neuronal loss at sites of secondary neurodegeneration (SND). These lesions are remote from, but synaptically connected to, primary infarction sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that immune cells are present in sites of infarction in the first hours and days after stroke, and are associated with increased neurodegeneration in peri-infarct regions. However, it is not known whether immune cells are also present in more distal sites where SND occurs...
January 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668091/amplification-and-propagation-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-signaling-by-murine-brain-endothelial-and-glial-cells
#9
Stephanie M Krasnow, J Gabriel Knoll, Santhosh Chakkaramakkil Verghese, Peter R Levasseur, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: During acute infections and chronic illnesses, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) acts within the brain to elicit metabolic derangements and sickness behaviors. It is unknown which cells in the brain are the proximal targets for IL-1β with respect to the generation of these illness responses. We performed a series of in vitro experiments to (1) investigate which brain cell populations exhibit inflammatory responses to IL-1β and (2) examine the interactions between different IL-1β-responsive cell types in various co-culture combinations...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666870/a-novel-role-for-earthworm-peptide-lumbricusin-as-a-regulator-of-neuroinflammation
#10
Minchul Seo, Joon Ha Lee, Minhee Baek, Mi-Ae Kim, Mi-Young Ahn, Seong Hyun Kim, Eun-Young Yun, Jae-Sam Hwang
Recently, we reported that Lumbricusin, an antimicrobial peptide isolated from earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, enhanced neuronal proliferation and ameliorated motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Accumulating evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is the primary pathological feature of acute or chronic inflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage of the central nervous system. Therefore, microglial activation inhibitors may be useful as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#11
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427424/microglial-depletion-alters-the-brain-neuroimmune-response-to-acute-binge-ethanol-withdrawal
#12
T Jordan Walter, Fulton T Crews
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Indeed, post-mortem alcoholic brains show increased microglial markers and increased immune gene expression; however, the effects of ethanol on microglial functioning and how this impacts the brain remain unclear. In this present study, we investigate the effects of acute binge ethanol on microglia and how microglial depletion changes the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402228/complement-components-are-expressed-by-infiltrating-macrophages-activated-microglia-early-following-viral-infection
#13
Jane E Libbey, Matthew F Cusick, Daniel J Doty, Robert S Fujinami
The individual innate immune components, interleukin-6 and complement component C3, play a role in the development of acute seizures in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced seizure model. We examined the mRNA expression of various other complement components, cytokines, chemokines, and major histocompatibility complex antigens both within brain and in isolated ramified microglial and infiltrating macrophage/activated microglial cell populations over a time course covering the first 3 days postinfection...
June 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365473/pioglitazone-treatment-following-spinal-cord-injury-maintains-acute-mitochondrial-integrity-and-increases-chronic-tissue-sparing-and-functional-recovery
#14
Samir P Patel, David H Cox, Jenna L Gollihue, William M Bailey, Werner J Geldenhuys, John C Gensel, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Pioglitazone is an FDA-approved PPAR-γ agonist drug used to treat diabetes, and it has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in multiple models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Acute treatment after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats is reported to suppress neuroinflammation, rescue injured tissues, and improve locomotor recovery. In the current study, we additionally assessed the protective efficacy of pioglitazone treatment on acute mitochondrial respiration, as well as functional and anatomical recovery after contusion SCI in adult male C57BL/6 mice...
July 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317180/anti-acsa-2-defines-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-for-prospective-isolation-of-living-neonatal-and-adult-astrocytes
#15
Christina G Kantzer, Camille Boutin, Ina D Herzig, Carolina Wittwer, Sandy Reiß, Marie Catherine Tiveron, Jan Drewes, Thomas D Rockel, Stefanie Ohlig, Jovica Ninkovic, Harold Cremer, Sandra Pennartz, Melanie Jungblut, Andreas Bosio
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type of the central nervous system and cover a broad range of functionalities. We report here the generation of a novel monoclonal antibody, anti-astrocyte cell surface antigen-2 (Anti-ACSA-2). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry revealed that Anti-ACSA-2 reacted specifically with a not yet identified glycosylated surface molecule of murine astrocytes at all developmental stages. It did not show any labeling of non-astroglial cells such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, NG2(+) cells, microglia, endothelial cells, leukocytes, or erythrocytes...
June 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063055/isolation-of-microglia-and-immune-infiltrates-from-mouse-and-primate-central-nervous-system
#16
Thais F Galatro, Ilia D Vainchtein, Nieske Brouwer, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen
Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, providing neural support and neuroprotection. Microglia constantly survey their environment and quickly respond to homeostatic perturbations. Microglia are increasingly implicated in neuropathological and neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glioma progression. Here, we describe a detailed isolation protocol for microglia and immune infiltrates, optimized for large amounts of post mortem tissue from human and rhesus macaque, as well as smaller tissue amounts from mouse brain and spinal cord, that yield a highly purified microglia population (up to 98 % purity)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929069/th1-cells-downregulate-connexin-43-gap-junctions-in-astrocytes-via-microglial-activation
#17
Mitsuru Watanabe, Katsuhisa Masaki, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun Kawanokuchi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Takuya Matsushita, Akio Suzumura, Jun-Ichi Kira
We previously reported early and extensive loss of astrocytic connexin 43 (Cx43) in acute demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Because it is widely accepted that autoimmune T cells initiate MS lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating T cells affect Cx43 expression in astrocytes, which contributes to MS lesion formation. Primary mixed glial cell cultures were prepared from newborn mouse brains, and microglia were isolated by anti-CD11b antibody-conjugated magnetic beads. Next, we prepared astrocyte-rich cultures and astrocyte/microglia-mixed cultures...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757989/identification-of-a-conserved-and-acute-neurodegeneration-specific-microglial-transcriptome-in-the-zebrafish
#18
Nynke Oosterhof, Inge R Holtman, Laura E Kuil, Herma C van der Linde, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen, Tjakko J van Ham
Microglia are brain resident macrophages important for brain development, connectivity, homeostasis and disease. However, it is still largely unclear how microglia functions and their identity are regulated at the molecular level. Although recent transcriptomic studies have identified genes specifically expressed in microglia, the function of most of these genes in microglia is still unknown. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on microglia acutely isolated from healthy and neurodegenerative zebrafish brains...
January 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561705/fractalkine-suppression-during-hepatic-encephalopathy-promotes-neuroinflammation-in-mice
#19
Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Sarah Andry, Adam Brown, Sharon DeMorrow
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure is associated with numerous systemic consequences including neurological dysfunction, termed hepatic encephalopathy, which contributes to mortality and is a challenge to manage in the clinic. During hepatic encephalopathy, microglia activation and neuroinflammation occur due to dysregulated cell signaling and an increase of toxic metabolites in the brain. Fractalkine is a chemokine that is expressed primarily in neurons and through signaling with its receptor CX3CR1 on microglia, leads to microglia remaining in a quiescent state...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277795/experimental-cortical-spreading-depression-induces-nmda-receptor-dependent-potassium-currents-in-microglia
#20
Stefan Wendt, Emile Wogram, Laura Korvers, Helmut Kettenmann
UNLABELLED: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a propagating event of neuronal depolarization, which is considered as the cellular correlate of the migraine aura. It is characterized by a change in the intrinsic optical signal and by a negative DC potential shift. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS and act as sensors for pathological changes. In the present study, we analyzed whether microglial cells might sense CSD by recording membrane currents from microglia in acutely isolated cortical mouse brain slices during an experimentally induced CSD...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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