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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102804/sensorimotor-training-alters-action-understanding
#1
Caroline Catmur, Emma L Thompson, Orianna Bairaktari, Frida Lind, Geoffrey Bird
The discovery of 'mirror' neurons stimulated intense interest in the role of motor processes in social interaction. A popular assumption is that observation-related motor activation, exemplified by mirror neurons' matching properties, evolved to subserve the 'understanding' of others' actions. Alternatively, such motor activation may result from sensorimotor learning. Sensorimotor training alters observation-related motor activation, but studies demonstrating training-dependent changes in motor activation have not addressed the functional role of such activation...
November 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077129/mirror-therapy-for-motor-function-of-the-upper-extremity-in-patients-with-stroke-a-meta-analysis
#2
Wen Zeng, Yonghong Guo, Guofeng Wu, Xueyan Liu, Qian Fang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mean treatment effect of mirror therapy on motor function of the upper extremity in patients with stroke. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and CNKSystematic, were searched for relevant studies published in English between 1 January 2007 and 22 June 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials and pilot randomized controlled trials that compared mirror therapy/mirror box therapy with other rehabilitation approaches were selected...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018928/tactile-localization-biases-are-modulated-by-gaze-direction
#3
Sonia Medina, Luigi Tamè, Matthew R Longo
Identifying the spatial location of touch on the skin surface is a fundamental function of our somatosensory system. Despite the fact that stimulation of even single mechanoreceptive afferent fibres is sufficient to produce clearly localised percepts, tactile localisation can be modulated also by higher level processes such as body posture. This suggests that tactile events are coded using multiple representations using different coordinate systems. Recent reports provide evidence for systematic biases on tactile localisation task, which are thought to result from a supramodal representation of the skin surface...
October 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978349/effects-of-action-observation-therapy-and-mirror-therapy-after-stroke-on-rehabilitation-outcomes-and-neural-mechanisms-by-meg-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Tsai-Yu Shih, Ching-Yi Wu, Keh-Chung Lin, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Yu-Wei Hsieh, Chia-Ling Chen, Chih-Jou Lai, Chih-Chi Chen
BACKGROUND: Loss of upper-extremity motor function is one of the most debilitating deficits following stroke. Two promising treatment approaches, action observation therapy (AOT) and mirror therapy (MT), aim to enhance motor learning and promote neural reorganization in patients through different afferent inputs and patterns of visual feedback. Both approaches involve different patterns of motor observation, imitation, and execution but share some similar neural bases of the mirror neuron system...
October 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837265/exposure-to-bmaa-mirrors-molecular-processes-linked-to-neurodegenerative-disease
#5
Joshua Beri, Tara Nash, Rubia M Martin, Michael S Bereman
The goal of this study is to investigate the molecular pathways perturbed by in vitro exposure of beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) to NSC-34 cells via contemporary proteomics. Our analysis of differentially regulated proteins reveals significant enrichment (p < 0.01) of pathways related to ER stress, protein ubiquitination, the unfolded protein response, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Upstream regulator analysis indicates that exposure to BMAA induces activation of transcription factors (X-box binding protein 1; nuclear factor 2 erythroid like 2; promyelocytic leukemia) involved in regulation of the UPR, oxidative stress, and cellular senescence...
September 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756389/sports-injury-and-illness-incidence-in-the-rio-de-janeiro-2016-olympic-summer-games-a-prospective-study-of-11274-athletes-from-207-countries
#6
Torbjørn Soligard, Kathrin Steffen, Debbie Palmer, Juan Manuel Alonso, Roald Bahr, Alexandre Dias Lopes, Jiri Dvorak, Marie-Elaine Grant, Willem Meeuwisse, Margo Mountjoy, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa, Natalia Salmina, Richard Budgett, Lars Engebretsen
OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of injuries and illnesses sustained during the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, hosted by Rio de Janeiro from 5 to 21 August 2016. METHODS: We recorded the daily incidence of athlete injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Rio 2016 medical staff. RESULTS: In total, 11 274 athletes (5089 women, 45%; 6185 men, 55%) from 207 NOCs participated in the study...
September 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738319/meeting-report-intercellular-interactions-in-context-towards-a-mechanistic-understanding-of-cells-in-organs
#7
David Bryant, Aaron Johnson
The Company of Biologists held the workshop 'Intercellular interactions in context: towards a mechanistic understanding of cells in organs' at historic Wiston House in West Sussex, UK, 5-8 February 2017. The meeting brought together around 30 scientists from disparate backgrounds - yet with a common interest of how tissue morphogenesis occurs and its dysregulation leads to pathologies - to intensively discuss their latest research, the current state of the field, as well as any challenges for the future. This report summarises the concepts and challenges that arose as key questions for the fields of cell, cancer and developmental biology...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698615/influence-of-the-body-schema-on-multisensory-integration-evidence-from-the-mirror-box-illusion
#8
Yuqi Liu, Jared Medina
When placing one hand on each side of a mirror and making synchronous bimanual movements, the mirror-reflected hand feels like one's own hand that is hidden behind the mirror. We developed a novel mirror box illusion to investigate whether motoric, but not spatial, visuomotor congruence is sufficient for inducing multisensory integration, and importantly, if biomechanical constraints encoded in the body schema influence multisensory integration. Participants placed their hands in a mirror box in opposite postures (palm up, palm down), creating a conflict between visual and proprioceptive feedback for the hand behind the mirror...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650145/the-dead-box-protein-cyt-19-uses-arginine-residues-in-its-c-tail-to-tether-rna-substrates
#9
Veronica F Busa, Maxwell J Rector, Rick Russell
DEAD-box proteins are nonprocessive RNA helicases that play diverse roles in cellular processes. The Neurospora crassa DEAD-box protein CYT-19 promotes mitochondrial group I intron splicing and functions as a general RNA chaperone. CYT-19 includes a disordered, arginine-rich "C-tail" that binds RNA, positioning the helicase core to capture and unwind nearby RNA helices. Here we probed the C-tail further by varying the number and positions of arginines within it. We found that removing sets of as few as four of the 11 arginines reduced RNA unwinding activity (kcat/KM) to a degree equivalent to that seen upon removal of the C-tail, suggesting that a minimum or "threshold" number of arginines is required...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532877/task-based-mirror-therapy-enhances-ipsilesional-motor-functions-in-stroke-a-pilot-study
#10
Kamal Narayan Arya, Shanta Pandian, Dharmendra Kumar
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of Mirror therapy (MT) on dexterity, coordination, and muscle strength of the less-affected upper limb in stroke. DESIGN: Pre-test post-test, single group, experimental design. SETTING: Rehabilitation institute. PARTICIPANTS: Post-stroke hemiparetic chronic subjects (N = 21). INTERVENTIONS: Forty sessions of MT using various tasks in addition to the conventional rehabilitation...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479315/quantum-field-theory-and-coalgebraic-logic-in-theoretical-computer-science
#11
REVIEW
Gianfranco Basti, Antonio Capolupo, Giuseppe Vitiello
We suggest that in the framework of the Category Theory it is possible to demonstrate the mathematical and logical dual equivalence between the category of the q-deformed Hopf Coalgebras and the category of the q-deformed Hopf Algebras in quantum field theory (QFT), interpreted as a thermal field theory. Each pair algebra-coalgebra characterizes a QFT system and its mirroring thermal bath, respectively, so to model dissipative quantum systems in far-from-equilibrium conditions, with an evident significance also for biological sciences...
November 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448029/gain-compensation-methodology-for-a-sinusoidal-scan-of-a-galvanometer-mirror-in-proportional-integral-differential-control-using-pre-emphasis-techniques
#12
Tomohiko Hayakawa, Takanoshin Watanabe, Taku Senoo, Masatoshi Ishikawa
Galvanometer mirrors are used for optical applications such as target tracking, drawing, and scanning control because of their high speed and accuracy. However, the responsiveness of a galvanometer mirror is limited by its inertia; hence, the gain of a galvanometer mirror is reduced when the control path is steep. In this research, we propose a method to extend the corresponding frequency using a pre-emphasis technique to compensate for the gain reduction of galvanometer mirrors in sine-wave path tracking using proportional-integral-differential (PID) control...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322427/the-neuronal-correlates-of-mirror-illusion-in-children-with-spastic-hemiparesis-a-study-with-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Christian Weisstanner, Stefanie Saxer, Roland Wiest, Alain Kaelin-Lang, Christopher J Newman, Maja Steinlin, Sebastian Grunt
AIM: To investigate the neuronal activation pattern underlying the effects of mirror illusion in children/adolescents with normal motor development and in children/adolescents with hemiparesis and preserved contralateral corticospinal organisation. METHOD: The type of cortical reorganisation was classified according to results of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Only subjects with congenital lesions and physiological contralateral cortical reorganisation were included...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203604/effect-of-mirrored-views-on-endoscopic-and-arthroscopic-skill-performance
#14
Emanuel Benninger, Christoph Meier, Stefan Wirth, Peter Philipp Koch, Dominik Meyer
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic procedures may be technically challenging because of impaired vision, limited space, and the 2-dimensional vision of a 3-dimensional structure. Spatial orientation may get more complicated when the camera is pointing toward the surgeon. HYPOTHESIS: Spatial orientation and arthroscopic performance may be improved by simply mirroring the image on the monitor in different configurations regarding the position and orientation of camera and instrument...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148231/cancer-mortality-in-former-east-and-west-germany-a-story-of-unification
#15
Daniel Medenwald, Dirk Vordermark, Christian T Dietzel
BACKGROUND: Health and social conditions vary between West and East Germany. METHODS: We analyzed annual mortality data of all recorded deaths caused by lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer in Germany as they are published by the Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) encompassing the period 1980-2014 for former West Germany (WG) and 1990-2014 for former East Germany (EG). To compare East and West Germany we computed the ratio of the mortality rates in both parts (mortality rate ratio, MRR, <1 indicates a lower mortality in EG)...
February 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130960/fetal-face-as-important-indicator-of-fetal-brain-function
#16
REVIEW
Mohamed Ahmed Mostafa AboEllail, Toshiyuki Hata
Fetuses show various facial expressions, such as blinking, yawning, sucking, mouthing, tongue expulsion, scowling, and smiling, assessed by four-dimensional ultrasound from the early second trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, some fetuses demonstrate emotion-like behaviors as noted in infants, children, and adults. Selective fetal responses to stimuli indicate a high degree of brain development, which is reflected in the facial reactions. The fetal face with its movements and expressions can mirror the fetal brain function and development during different stages of the fetus in utero...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982637/magnetorotational-turbulence-and-dynamo-in-a-collisionless-plasma
#17
Matthew W Kunz, James M Stone, Eliot Quataert
We present results from the first 3D kinetic numerical simulation of magnetorotational turbulence and dynamo, using the local shearing-box model of a collisionless accretion disk. The kinetic magnetorotational instability grows from a subthermal magnetic field having zero net flux over the computational domain to generate self-sustained turbulence and outward angular-momentum transport. Significant Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are accompanied by comparable viscous stresses produced by field-aligned ion pressure anisotropy, which is regulated primarily by the mirror and ion-cyclotron instabilities through particle trapping and pitch-angle scattering...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826529/exosomes-genetic-cargo-in-lung-cancer-a-truly-pandora-s-box
#18
REVIEW
Pablo Reclusa, Rafael Sirera, Antonio Araujo, Marco Giallombardo, Anna Valentino, Laure Sorber, Ignacio Gil Bazo, Patrick Pauwels, Christian Rolfo
Lung cancer is a highly lethal disease. Targeted therapies have been developed in last years, however survival rates are not improving due to the delay in the diagnosis, making biomarkers one of the most interesting fields of study in cancer. Liquid biopsy has raised as an alternative to tissue biopsy due to improvements in analytical techniques for circulating tumor cells (CTCs), cell free DNA and exosomes. Among all, exosomes have raised as one of the most promising tools to understand the tumor due to their stability in the blood and their similarity to the cells of origin...
October 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676810/complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-i-crps-i-and-self-rehabilitation-a-health-related-quality-of-life-study
#19
Nicolas Winisdoerffer, Marie-Madeleine Leclercq, Aurélie Muller, Myriam Martin, Myriam Pierrat
OBJECTIVE: A rehabilitation program, with successive types of exercises, including limb laterality recognition, imagined movements and mirror therapy, can be conducted in patients with CRPS I1. This graded motor imagery program, developed by Moseley, needs patients' participation, is educative, and improves edema, pain, and functional capacities. We want to investigate whether this program would improve health-related quality of life of patients with CRPS I. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with upper or lower limb CRPS I are included...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642526/mirror-visual-feedback-training-improves-intermanual-transfer-in-a-sport-specific-task-a-comparison-between-different-skill-levels
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Fabian Steinberg, Nils Henrik Pixa, Michael Doppelmayr
Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF) could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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