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Machine learning

Derek Wong, Stephen Yip
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Nature
Thomas Maier, Daniel Meister, Severin Trösch, Jon Peter Wehrlin
Shooting in biathlon competitions substantially influences final rankings, but the predictability of hits and misses is unknown. The aims of the current study were A) to explore factors influencing biathlon shooting performance and B) to predict future hits and misses. We explored data from 118,300 shots from 4 seasons and trained various machine learning models before predicting 34,340 future shots (in the subsequent season). A) Lower hit rates were discovered in the sprint and pursuit disciplines compared to individual and mass start (P < 0...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Yaxia Yuan, Fang Zheng, Chang-Guo Zhan
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of a compound determines whether the compound can effectively enter the brain. It is an essential property which must be accounted for in drug discovery with a target in the brain. Several computational methods have been used to predict the BBB permeability. In particular, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based machine learning method, has been used popularly in this field. For SVM training and prediction, the compounds are characterized by molecular descriptors...
March 21, 2018: AAPS Journal
Hesham El-Askary, Nick LaHaye, Erik Linstead, William A Sprigg, Magdi Yacoub
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a rare vascular disease that, if left untreated, can result in irreparable cardiac damage in children. While the symptoms of KD are well-known, as are best practices for treatment, the etiology of the disease and the factors contributing to KD outbreaks remain puzzling to both medical practitioners and scientists alike. Recently, a fungus known as Candida, originating in the farmlands of China, has been blamed for outbreaks in China and Japan, with the hypothesis that it can be transported over long ranges via different wind mechanisms...
October 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Murad Megjhani, Kalijah Terilli, Hans-Peter Frey, Angela G Velazquez, Kevin William Doyle, Edward Sander Connolly, David Jinou Roh, Sachin Agarwal, Jan Claassen, Noemie Elhadad, Soojin Park
Purpose: Accurate prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can be critical for planning interventions to prevent poor neurological outcome. This paper presents a model using convolution dictionary learning to extract features from physiological data available from bedside monitors. We develop and validate a prediction model for DCI after SAH, demonstrating improved precision over standard methods alone. Methods: 488 consecutive SAH admissions from 2006 to 2014 to a tertiary care hospital were included...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
L R Brewster, J J Dale, T L Guttridge, S H Gruber, A C Hansell, M Elliott, I G Cowx, N M Whitney, A C Gleiss
Discerning behaviours of free-ranging animals allows for quantification of their activity budget, providing important insight into ecology. Over recent years, accelerometers have been used to unveil the cryptic lives of animals. The increased ability of accelerometers to store large quantities of high resolution data has prompted a need for automated behavioural classification. We assessed the performance of several machine learning (ML) classifiers to discern five behaviours performed by accelerometer-equipped juvenile lemon sharks ( Negaprion brevirostris ) at Bimini, Bahamas (25°44'N, 79°16'W)...
2018: Marine Biology
Raúl Cruz-Barbosa, Erik-German Ramos-Pérez, Jesús Giraldo
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral cell membrane proteins of relevance for pharmacology. The complete tertiary structure including both extracellular and transmembrane domains has not been determined for any member of class C GPCRs. An alternative way to work on GPCR structural models is the investigation of their functionality through the analysis of their primary structure. For this, sequence representation is a key factor for the GPCRs' classification context, where usually, feature engineering is carried out...
March 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fabrizia Caiazzo, Alessandra Caggiano
Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio...
March 19, 2018: Materials
Gustavo Furquim, Geraldo P R Filho, Roozbeh Jalali, Gustavo Pessin, Richard W Pazzi, Jó Ueyama
The rise in the number and intensity of natural disasters is a serious problem that affects the whole world. The consequences of these disasters are significantly worse when they occur in urban districts because of the casualties and extent of the damage to goods and property that is caused. Until now feasible methods of dealing with this have included the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for data collection and machine-learning (ML) techniques for forecasting natural disasters. However, there have recently been some promising new innovations in technology which have supplemented the task of monitoring the environment and carrying out the forecasting...
March 19, 2018: Sensors
Frédéric Kosmowski, Tigist Worku
Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Alan Taitz, M Florencia Assaneo, Natalia Elisei, Mónica Trípodi, Laurent Cohen, Jacobo D Sitt, Marcos A Trevisan
Sound-symbolic word classes are found in different cultures and languages worldwide. These words are continuously produced to code complex information about events. Here we explore the capacity of creative language to transport complex multisensory information in a controlled experiment, where our participants improvised onomatopoeias from noisy moving objects in audio, visual and audiovisual formats. We found that consonants communicate movement types (slide, hit or ring) mainly through the manner of articulation in the vocal tract...
2018: PloS One
ByungWan Jo, Rana Muhammad Asad Khan
The implementation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for monitoring the complex, dynamic, and harsh environment of underground coal mines (UCMs) is sought around the world to enhance safety. However, previously developed smart systems are limited to monitoring or, in a few cases, can report events. Therefore, this study introduces a reliable, efficient, and cost-effective internet of things (IoT) system for air quality monitoring with newly added features of assessment and pollutant prediction. This system is comprised of sensor modules, communication protocols, and a base station, running Azure Machine Learning (AML) Studio over it...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Ye Zhang, Xin Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Bioanalysis
Minji Jeon, Sunkyu Kim, Sungjoon Park, Heewon Lee, Jaewoo Kang
BACKGROUND: Drug combination therapy, which is considered as an alternative to single drug therapy, can potentially reduce resistance and toxicity, and have synergistic efficacy. As drug combination therapies are widely used in the clinic for hypertension, asthma, and AIDS, they have also been proposed for the treatment of cancer. However, it is difficult to select and experimentally evaluate effective combinations because not only is the number of cancer drug combinations extremely large but also the effectiveness of drug combinations varies depending on the genetic variation of cancer patients...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
J Luis Espinoza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Merylin Monaro, Luciano Gamberini, Francesca Zecchinato, Giuseppe Sartori
The use of faked identities is a current issue for both physical and online security. In this paper, we test the differences between subjects who report their true identity and the ones who give fake identity responding to control, simple, and complex questions. Asking complex questions is a new procedure for increasing liars' cognitive load, which is presented in this paper for the first time. The experiment consisted in an identity verification task, during which response time and errors were collected. Twenty participants were instructed to lie about their identity, whereas the other 20 were asked to respond truthfully...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Shaheen A Abdulkareem, Ellen-Wien Augustijn, Yaseen T Mustafa, Tatiana Filatova
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Ilaria Mileti, Marco Germanotta, Enrica Di Sipio, Isabella Imbimbo, Alessandra Pacilli, Carmen Erra, Martina Petracca, Stefano Rossi, Zaccaria Del Prete, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Luca Padua, Eduardo Palermo
Monitoring gait quality in daily activities through wearable sensors has the potential to improve medical assessment in Parkinson's Disease (PD). In this study, four gait partitioning methods, two based on thresholds and two based on a machine learning approach, considering the four-phase model, were compared. The methods were tested on 26 PD patients, both in OFF and ON levodopa conditions, and 11 healthy subjects, during walking tasks. All subjects were equipped with inertial sensors placed on feet. Force resistive sensors were used to assess reference time sequence of gait phases...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Jan C Peeken, Tatyana Goldberg, Christoph Knie, Basil Komboz, Michael Bernhofer, Francesco Pasa, Kerstin A Kessel, Pouya D Tafti, Burkhard Rost, Fridtjof Nüsslin, Andreas E Braun, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current prognostic models for soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients are solely based on staging information. Treatment-related data have not been included to date. Including such information, however, could help to improve these models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort of 136 STS patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) was analyzed for patients' characteristics, staging information, and treatment-related data. Therapeutic imaging studies and pathology reports of neoadjuvantly treated patients were analyzed for signs of response...
March 20, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Soojin Park, Murad Megjhani, Hans-Peter Frey, Edouard Grave, Chris Wiggins, Kalijah L Terilli, David J Roh, Angela Velazquez, Sachin Agarwal, E Sander Connolly, J Michael Schmidt, Jan Claassen, Noemie Elhadad
To develop and validate a prediction model for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using a temporal unsupervised feature engineering approach, demonstrating improved precision over standard features. 488 consecutive SAH admissions from 2006 to 2014 to a tertiary care hospital were included. Models were trained on 80%, while 20% were set aside for validation testing. Baseline information and standard grading scales were evaluated: age, sex, Hunt Hess grade, modified Fisher Scale (mFS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
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