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Trang Q To, Kerryn Procter, Blake A Simmons, Suresh Subashchandrabose, Rob Atkin
Biomass based biofuels are already an important energy source, and will increasingly be so in the future as the need for renewable energy rises. Due to their fast multiplication rates, algae can provide a sustainable supply of biomass, and are attractive because they do not compete with food crops for habitat. Here we show that biomass derived from Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis can be pretreated with low cost choline amino acid based ionic liquids to effectively yield lipids (30.6% and 51% total lipids) and sugars (71% and 26% total sugars)...
September 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Mahammed Ilyas Khazi, Zeliha Demirel, Meltem Conk Dalay
Response surface methodology (RSM) based on the 2(3) factorial central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate optimum culture conditions (temperature, light irradiance and agitation) to enhance biomass and phycocyanin content of Spirulina platensis. The predicted maximum biomass and phycocyanin content by RSM was 1.06 g L(-1) and 107 mg L(-1), respectively, whereas maximum biomass and phycocyanin content of 1.32 g L(-1) and 127 mg L(-1) was obtained in the validation experiments under optimized conditions after 10 days of cultivation...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Jody L Heerema, Caren C Helbing, Greg G Pyle
Olfaction is an important sense for aquatic organisms because it provides information about their surroundings, including nearby food, mates, and predators. Electro-olfactography (EOG) is an electrophysiological technique that measures the response of olfactory tissue to olfactory stimuli, and responses are indicative of olfactory acuity. Previous studies have used this technique on a variety of species including frogs, salamanders, daphniids and, most extensively, fish. In the present study, we introduce a novel modified EOG method for use on Lithobates (Rana) catesbeiana tadpoles...
September 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sara Mirzaie, Fahim Zirak-Khattab, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Hamid Donyaei-Darian
Objective: Spirulina has been recognized formerly as a filamentous spiral-shaped blue- green algae or more recently as a genus of photosynthetic bacteria (Arthrospira). This microorganism is considered as a rich source of essential nutrients for human and animals. The present study was conducted to determine potential application of Spirulina for heat- exposed broilers. Methods: Two hundred and fifty Cobb 500 chicks with male to female in equal ratio with average initial weight of 615...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Weizhi Zhou, Yating Li, Yizhan Gao, Haixia Zhao
As an important alternative to alleviate the pressure of fresh water shortage, seawater application is facing a great challenge on the wastewater treatment due to the salinity brought from seawater. Spirulina platensis originated from salty lake was used to treat mixed synthetic toilet flushing wastewater of seawater with washing wastewater of freshwater. It was showed that 79.96% of TN (to 15.69mg/L), 93.35% of TP (to 1.03mg/L) and 90.02% of CODCr (to 90.24mg/L) were removed with 0.76g/L of biomass production in the optimal ratio 7:3 of the above mixed synthetic wastewater...
August 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Simeon Minic, Dragana Stanic-Vucinic, Mirjana Radomirovic, Milica Radibratovic, Milos Milcic, Milan Nikolic, Tanja Cirkovic Velickovic
Phycocyanobilin (PCB) is a blue tetrapyrrole chromophore of C-phycocyanin, the main protein of the microalga Spirulina, with numerous proven health-related benefits. We examined binding of PCB to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and how it affects protein and ligand stability. Protein fluorescence quenching and microscale thermophoresis demonstrated high-affinity binding (Ka=2×10(6)M(-1)). Spectroscopic titration with molecular docking analysis revealed two binding sites on BSA, at the inter-domain cleft and at subdomain IB, while CD spectroscopy indicated stereo-selective binding of the P conformer of the pigment to the protein...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Małgorzata Tańska, Iwona Konopka, Millena Ruszkowska
This study compares the quality of extrudates made from corn grits with the addition of up to 8% of spirulina powder. The sensory properties (shape, color, aroma, taste and crispness), chemicals (content of water, protein, fat, ash, fiber, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll and phycocyanin) and physical properties (color, water absorption index, expansion indices, texture and water sorption properties) were determined. It has been found that spirulina-enriched extrudates had slightly lower sensory scores, but the addition of spirulina improved their nutritional value...
September 2, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Anne Luize Lupatini, Larissa de Oliveira Bispo, Luciane Maria Colla, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa, Cristiane Canan, Eliane Colla
Spirulina platensis is considered an alternative and excellent source of protein [46-63% dry basis (DB)], having protein levels comparable to meat and soybeans. Thus, it can be considered an adequate ingredient to supply the necessity of this compound in the food industry. Its carbohydrates (8-14% DB) may also be a useful food ingredient or a potential source of bioenergy. Thus, extracting these compounds from the microalgae biomass will maximize its exploitation. Sonication can completely or partially degrade the microalgal cell wall, providing a useful technique to extract the protein and carbohydrate...
September 2017: Food Research International
Francisco Arnaldo Viana Lima, Ivan Pinheiro Joventino, Francisca Pinheiro Joventino, Aline Cordeiro de Almeida, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Marta Regina do Carmo, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal, Geanne Matos de Andrade, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
Spirulina platensis (SPI) is a cyanobacterium, presenting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. Considering the importance of inflammation and oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease (PD), SPI neuroprotective effects were evaluated in a model of PD. Male Wistar rats were divided into: sham-operated (SO), untreated 6-OHDA and 6-OHDA treated with SPI (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.). The 6-OHDA was injected into the right striata and SPI treatments started 24 h later for 2 weeks. The SO and untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned groups were administered with distilled water, for the same period...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Allison H Squires, W E Moerner
Phycobilisomes are highly organized pigment-protein antenna complexes found in the photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria and rhodophyta that harvest solar energy and transport it to the reaction center. A detailed bottom-up model of pigment organization and energy transfer in phycobilisomes is essential to understanding photosynthesis in these organisms and informing rational design of artificial light-harvesting systems. In particular, heterogeneous photophysical behaviors of these proteins, which cannot be predicted de novo, may play an essential role in rapid light adaptation and photoprotection...
August 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Eun-Jeong Koh, Young-Jin Seo, Jia Choi, Hyeon Yong Lee, Do-Hyung Kang, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nikte Y Martínez-Palma, Gloria Dávila-Ortiz, Cristian Jiménez-Martínez, Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar, Isela Álvarez-González
BACKGROUND: Spirulina maxima (Sm) is known to have nutritive value as well as a number of potentially useful biomedical properties. OBJECTIVES: The initial purpose of this report was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the alga (without its polyphenol content), on the induction of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon aberrant crypts (AC) in mouse. Besides, we hydrolyzed the protein content of such mixture. Our second aim was to determine the inhibitory potential of this last plant mixture on the AOM-induced colon AC in mouse...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Daria Nawrocka, Katarzyna Kornicka, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Krzysztof Marycz
Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is a steadily growing life-threatening endocrine disorder linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. Inflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue constitutes the direct tissue milieu for various cell populations, including adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs), widely considered as a potential therapeutic cell source in the course of the treatment of metabolic disorders. Moreover, elevated oxidative stress induces inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)-the first-line cells exposed to dietary compounds...
August 3, 2017: Marine Drugs
Diah Anggraini Wulandari, Elizabeth Sidhartha, Iriani Setyaningsih, Jonathan Marshall Marbun, Din Syafruddin, Puji Budi Setia Asih
The rapid emergence of antimalarial drug resistance necessitates a continual effort on novel drug discovery. A cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis, is a potential antimalarial agent that has been widely consumed as food supplement in the form of crude extract. It is known to possess antiviral, antibacterial and antifungi activities. This study examined the antimalarial activities of several Spirulina formulas against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, in vitro. The tested Spirulina formulas included commercially available capsule, crude extract and alkaloid fraction...
August 2, 2017: Natural Product Research
Hee Jung Park, Hyun Sook Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Spirulina is a known a functional food related to lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity. Circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) level is associated with inflammation markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the MCP-1 promoter region -2518 have been identified and shown to affect gene transcription. Gene variation may also impact functional food supplementary effects. The current study investigated the interaction of MCP-1 -2518 polymorphism with spirulina supplements on anti-inflammatory capacity in Korean elderly...
August 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
Michael Camilleri, Richard W McCallum, Jan Tack, Sharon C Spence, Keith Gottesdiener, Fred T Fiedorek
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroparesis is a complication of diabetes with few treatment options. Relamorelin (also called RM-131) is a selective, prokinetic agonist of ghrelin. We aimed to evaluate efficacy of relamorelin on symptoms and gastric emptying (GE) in a 12-week, phase 2B study of diabetic patients with moderate to severe gastroparesis symptoms (DG). METHODS: We performed a study of 393 patients with DG (37.7% male; 9.9% with type 1 diabetes; median age, 58...
July 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
Xiangmei Li, Yuxi Chen, Jun Ye, Fengfu Fu, Ganga Raj Pokhrel, Huang Zhang, Yongguan Zhu, Guidi Yang
A "two-step" pressurized microwave-assisted extraction method coupled with ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of different arsenic species in spirulina samples was developed. The extraction method used H2 O2 /H2 O (1:5, v/v) as solvent to extract all arsenic species except arsenite, which was extracted by using water as solvent. The extraction method had a satisfactory recovery (>96%) and took a short time (20.0 min). With our method, all arsenic species in spirulina samples were completely separated and determined with recoveries of 84-105% and relative standard deviations of 2-4%...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Rajendran Mala, Antony Annie Aglin, Arul Selvaraj Ruby Celsia, Sivalingam Geerthika, Narbahvi Kiruthika, Chinnathambi VazagaPriya, Kumarapillai Srinivasa Kumar
Foley catheters are inevitable in health care unit. Pathogens colonise and form biofilm on catheter causing catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Therefore, the authors aimed to functionalise catheter to resist biofilm formation. The authors impregnated urinary catheters with a synergistic combination of antibiotics and silver nanoparticles (SNPs) to evaluate antibiofilm efficacy in vitro and in vivo. SNPs were synthesised using Spirulina platensis. Synergy between the SNPs and antibiotics was determined by the checker-board method...
August 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
Xueyan Wu, Ruichang Li, Yongjie Zhao, Yang Liu
Three separation methods for water-soluble polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis (PSP) were compared, including sevage deproteinization and column chromatography, ethanol-ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) and column chromatography, and one-step high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with ethanol-ammonium sulfate ATPS. ATPS was confirmed as an efficient alternative method of protein removal for PSP purification. For the HSCCC with ethanol-ammonium sulfate ATPS, the stationary retention reached to 50...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Govarthanan Muthusamy, Selvankumar Thangasamy, Mythili Raja, Sudhakar Chinnappan, Selvam Kandasamy
The present work focuses on a low-cost, simple, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by mixing AgNO3 solution with the extract of Spirulina platensis (SP) without any chemical reducing and/or capping agents. The green synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by the color change from colorless to yellowish brown. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biological transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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