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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299588/chemical-cues-which-include-amino-acids-mediate-species-specific-feeding-behavior-in-invasive-filter-feeding-bigheaded-carps
#1
Aaron W Claus, Peter W Sorensen
This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288400/c-phycocyanin-suppresses-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-epithelial-cells
#2
Dhamotharan Pattarayan, Dheeran Rajarajan, Sivanantham Ayyanar, Rajaguru Palanichamy, Rajasekaran Subbiah
BACKGROUND: Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process through which epithelial cells undergo multiple biochemical changes, causing them to differentiate into a mesenchymal-cell phenotype. This process has been shown to contribute to the development of fibrotic diseases. C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a phycobiliprotein extracted from Spirulina platensis. This study was done to investigate the effect of C-PC on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT and an EMT associated proliferation in human epithelial cell lines...
January 5, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283330/microwave-enhanced-pyrolysis-of-macroalgae-and-microalgae-for-syngas-production
#3
Yu Hong, Wanru Chen, Xiang Luo, Chengheng Pang, Edward Lester, Tao Wu
In this study, three different marine biomasses, i.e., microalgae-spirulina, chlorella and macroalgae-porphyra, were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale multimode-microwave cavity at 400, 550 and 700°C. Ovalbumin and cellulose were also chosen as model compounds to simulate algae. The influence of heating rate on pyrolysis and the βi curves of different samples under different temperatures were studied in detail. The porphyra was found to be the most reactive and produced the largest gaseous fraction (87.1wt%) amongst the three algae, which comprised of 73...
February 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274159/effect-of-spirulina-platensis-ingestion-on-the-abnormal-biochemical-and-oxidative-stress-parameters-in-the-pancreas-and-liver-of-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#4
Ourida Aissaoui, Malek Amiali, Nora Bouzid, Khaled Belkacemi, Arezki Bitam
CONTEXT: Previous studies have shown that Spirulina platensis Gomont (Phormidiaceae) (SP) extract has beneficial effects on many disease conditions. The putative protective effects of SP were investigated in diabetic rats. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates the antioxidant effects of SP in diabetic Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administrated to induce diabetes...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272349/the-influence-of-spirulina-platensis-filtrates-on-caco-2-proliferative-activity-and-expression-of-apoptosis-related-micrornas-and-mrna
#5
Agnieszka Śmieszek, Ewa Giezek, Martyna Chrapiec, Martyna Murat, Aleksandra Mucha, Izabela Michalak, Krzysztof Marycz
Spirulina platensis (SP) is a blue-green microalga that has recently raised attention not only as a nutritional component, but also as a source of bioactivities that have therapeutic effects and may find application in medicine, including cancer treatment. In the present study we determined the cytotoxic effect of S. platensis filtrates (SPF) on human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Three concentrations of SPF were tested-1.25%, 2.5%, and 5% (v/v). We have found that the highest concentration of SPF exerts the strongest anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect on Caco-2 cultures...
March 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245621/detection-of-cyanotoxins-in-algae-dietary-supplements
#6
Audrey Roy-Lachapelle, Morgan Solliec, Maryse F Bouchard, Sébastien Sauvé
Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae...
February 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244267/simultaneous-determination-of-13-carbohydrates-using-high-performance-anion-exchange-chromatography-coupled-with-pulsed-amperometric-detection-and-mass-spectrometry
#7
Dan Zhao, Feng Feng, Fei Yuan, Jin Su, Yan Cheng, Hanqiu Wu, Kun Song, Bo Nie, Lian Yu, Feng Zhang
A simple, accurate, and highly sensitive method was developed for the determination of 13 carbohydrates in polysaccharide of spirulina platensis based on high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted with deionized water using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were optimized by Box-Behnken design. Then the extracted polysaccharide was hydrolyzed by adding 1 mol/L trifluoroacetic acid before determination by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection and confirmed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231149/microalgae-nutraceuticals
#8
REVIEW
Marcello Nicoletti
Among the new entries in the food supplements sector, an important place must be assigned to nutraceuticals containing microalgae, nowadays accounting for a large and rapidly expanding market. The marketed products are mainly based on three production strains, i.e., Spirulina and Chlorella, followed at a distance by Klamath. It is a composite situation, since two of them are cyanobacteria and the second one is eukaryotic. The reality is that each presents similarities in shape and appearance concerning the marketed form and several utilizations, and peculiarities that need special attention and adequate studies...
August 22, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182098/antioxidant-immunomodulating-and-microbial-modulating-activities-of-the-sustainable-and-ecofriendly-spirulina
#9
REVIEW
Alberto Finamore, Maura Palmery, Sarra Bensehaila, Ilaria Peluso
The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166438/supplementation-of-spirulina-arthrospira-platensis-improves-lifespan-and-locomotor-activity-in-paraquat-sensitive-dj-1%C3%AE-%C3%AE-93-flies-a-parkinson-s-disease-model-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Ajay Kumar, Pearl K Christian, Komal Panchal, B R Guruprasad, Anand K Tiwari
Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) consumed by humans and other animals because of its nutritional values and pharmacological properties. Apart from high protein contents, it also contains high levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, such as carotenoids, β-carotene, phycocyanin, and phycocyanobilin, indicating its possible pharmaco-therapeutic utility. In the present study using DJ-1β(Δ93) flies, a Parkinson's disease model in Drosophila, we have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of spirulina and its active component C-phycocyanin (C-PC) in the improvement of lifespan and locomotor behavior...
September 3, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128718/prehispanic-functional-foods-and-nutraceuticals-in-the-treatment-of-dyslipidemia-associated-to-cardiovascular-disease-a-mini-review
#11
Alejandro Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandra Romo-Araiza, Marcos Meneses-Mayo, Gabriela Guttiérrez-Salmeán
Dyslipidemia is an important modifi able risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which are responsible for a large number of mortality and disability cases around the globe. Different strategies have been used within the treatment of dyslipidemia, including lifestyle modifi cations, pharmacologic therapy, as well as functional foods and nutraceuticals. Functional foods have been used worldwide since ancient times, particularly, the prehispanic civilizations utilized several as medicinal foods...
January 27, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121488/the-potential-role-of-an-endotoxin-tolerance-like-mechanism-for-the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-spirulina-platensis-organic-extract-in-macrophages
#12
Tho X Pham, Young-Ki Park, Minkyung Bae, Ji-Young Lee
Endotoxin tolerance is a phenomenon where exposure of innate immune cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a refractory state to subsequent endotoxin exposures. The goal of this study was to investigate if Spirulina platensis organic extract (SPE) induces an endotoxin tolerance-like state. We used splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) control or a HF/HS diet containing 0.25% (w/w) SPE for 16 weeks for ex vivo LPS stimulation and endotoxin-tolerant (ET) macrophages to evaluate the effects of SPE on endotoxin tolerance...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092840/suppressive-effect-of-spirulina-fusiformis-on-diclofenac-induced-hepato-renal-injury-and-gastrointestinal-ulcer-in-wistar-albino-rats-a-biochemical-and-histological-approach
#13
Jerine Peter S, Kadar Basha S, R Giridharan, Udhaya Lavinya B, Evan Prince Sabina
CONTEXT: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac causes hepato-renal toxicity and gastric ulcer. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Spirulina fusiformis on Diclofenac-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. METHODS: Rats were treated as follows: normal control (group I); diclofenac (50mg/kgb.w., i.p.) treated rats (group II); diclofenac-induced (50mg/kgb.w., i.p.) rats treated with Spirulina fusiformis (400mg/kgb...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075473/spirulina-lipopolysaccharides-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-a-toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-manner-by-altering-the-cytokine-milieu-from-interleukin-17-interleukin-23-to-interferon-%C3%AE
#14
Hiromi Okuyama, Akira Tominaga, Satoshi Fukuoka, Takahiro Taguchi, Yutaka Kusumoto, Shiro Ono
Th17 cells and the cytokine they produce, interleukin (IL)-17, play an important role in tumor progression in humans and in mice. IL-6 and IL-23 are critical cytokines for the differentiation and propagation of Th17 cells, respectively. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to stimulate immune cells to produce such inflammatory cytokines. Contrary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS, LPS from Spirulina has low toxicity and barely induces in vivo production of IL-6 and IL-23 in mice. We examined the antitumor effects of Spirulina LPS compared to E...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053581/optimization-of-formulation-and-processing-of-moringa-oleifera-and-spirulina-complex-tablets
#15
Yi Zheng, Fan Zhu, Dan Lin, Jun Wu, Yichao Zhou, Bohn Mark
Objective: To prepare a more comprehensive nutrition, more balanced proportion of natural nutritional supplement tablets with Moringa oleifera leaves and spirulina the two nutrients which have complementary natural food ingredients. Method: On the basis of research M. oleifera leaves with spirulina nutrient composition was determined on M. oleifera leaves and spirulina ratio of raw materials, and the choice of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium salt of caboxy methyl cellulose(CMC),magnesium stearate excipient, through single factor and orthogonal experiment, selecting the best formula tablets prepared by powder direct compression technology, for preparation of M...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044454/effects-of-fasting-and-refeeding-on-the-digestive-tract-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-fed-with-spirulina-arthrospira-platensis-a-high-protein-feed-source
#16
Patrizia Lo Cascio, Concetta Calabrò, Clara Bertuccio, Irene Paterniti, Deborah Palombieri, Margherita Calò, Ambrogina Albergamo, Andrea Salvo, Maria Gabriella Denaro
In the present work, morphological and molecular effects of short-term feed deprivation and refeeding with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on zebrafish digestive tract were determined. Once elucidated the proximate composition of Spirulina feed, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of peptide transporter (PepT1) and cholecystokinin (CCK8) were carried out in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish, previously morphologically investigated. Two and five fasting days caused not only morphostructural alterations, but also the downregulation of PepT1 and CCK8 proteins...
January 3, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025700/use-of-the-effluent-from-biogas-production-for-cultivation-of-spirulina
#17
Malin Hultberg, Olle Lind, Göran Birgersson, Håkan Asp
The effluent from the biogas process was tested as a nutrient source during cultivation of the protein-rich and edible microalgae Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and compared with conventional Spirulina medium. Equal biomass production was observed until late exponential phase and no significant differences could be observed between the treatments in protein amount, amino acid composition, and total lipid concentration. The concentration of the pigment phycocyanin differed significantly between Spirulina medium and the effluent-based medium (63...
April 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007171/arsenic-methylation-by-an-arsenite-s-adenosylmethionine-methyltransferase-from-spirulina-platensis
#18
Yuqing Guo, Ximei Xue, Yu Yan, Yongguan Zhu, Guidi Yang, Jun Ye
Arsenic-contaminated water is a serious hazard for human health. Plankton plays a critical role in the fate and toxicity of arsenic in water by accumulation and biotransformation. Spirulina platensis (S. platensis), a typical plankton, is often used as a supplement or feed for pharmacy and aquiculture, and may introduce arsenic into the food chain, resulting in a risk to human health. However, there are few studies about how S. platensis biotransforms arsenic. In this study, we investigated arsenic biotransformation by S...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005320/remarkable-conductive-anisotropy-of-metallic-microcoil-pdms-composites-made-by-electric-field-induced-alignment
#19
Xinghao Li, Jun Cai, Yingying Shi, Yue Yue, Deyuan Zhang
We successfully fabricated a highly anisotropic electrical conductive microcoil/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite based on helical Spirulina-templated metallic particles using an electric field-induced alignment method. The optimized AC electric field (2 kV/cm, 1 kHz) could efficiently assemble the lightweight conductive microcoils into continuous long chains and form unique end-to-end physical contacts between adjacent particles in the alignment direction, leading to highly conductive channels. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity in the alignment direction reached up to ∼10 S/m for 1 wt % loading and exhibited almost 7-8 orders of magnitude higher than that in perpendicular directions, which is by far the most remarkable conductive anisotropy for anisotropic conductive composites (ACCs)...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959940/stabilization-of-human-serum-albumin-by-the-binding-of-phycocyanobilin-a-bioactive-chromophore-of-blue-green-alga-spirulina-molecular-dynamics-and-experimental-study
#20
Milica Radibratovic, Simeon Minic, Dragana Stanic-Vucinic, Milan Nikolic, Milos Milcic, Tanja Cirkovic Velickovic
Phycocyanobilin (PCB) binds with high affinity (2.2 x 106 M-1 at 25°C) to human serum albumin (HSA) at sites located in IB and IIA subdomains. The aim of this study was to examine effects of PCB binding on protein conformation and stability. Using 300 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, CD, FT-IR, spectrofluorimetry, thermal denaturation and susceptibility to trypsin digestion, we studied the effects of PCB binding on the stability and rigidity of HSA, as well as the conformational changes in PCB itself upon binding to the protein...
2016: PloS One
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