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Francine Marques, Nina Eikelis, Richard Bayles, Nora Straznicky, Dagmara Hering, Murray Esler, Geoffrey Head, Markus Schlaich, Gavin Lambert
OBJECTIVE: Noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves is removed from the neuroeffector junction via the action of the noradrenaline transporter (NET). NET impairment is evident in several clinically important conditions including essential hypertension, major depressive disorder, panic disorder and the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Only in rare instances, however, do coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) seem to account for a defect in NET. The aim of this study was to determine whether rs7194256 (C/T), a SNP in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the NET gene, is associated with diseases associated with NET dysfunction, and to elucidate the mechanism involved...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chao Liu, Shrinivas G Dumbre, Christophe Pannecouque, Chunsheng Huang, Roger G Ptak, Michael G Murray, Steven De Jonghe, Piet Herdewijn
The synthesis of four l-2'-deoxy-threose nucleoside phosphonates with the natural nucleobases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanosine has been performed. Especially the adenine containing analogue (PMDTA) was endowed with potent antiviral activity displaying an EC50 of 4.69 μM against HIV-1 and an EC50 value of 0.5 μM against HBV, whereas completely lacking cytotoxicity. The synthesis of a number of phosphonomonoamidate and phosphonobisamidate prodrugs of PMDTA led to a boost in antiviral potency. The most potent congeners were a l-aspartic acid diisoamyl ester phenoxy prodrug and a l-phenylalanine propyl ester phosphonobisamidate prodrug that both display anti-HIV and anti-HBV activities in the low nanomolar range and selectivity indexes of more than 300...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Héctor Gómez-Dantés, Nancy Fullman, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado, Blair Darney, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Juan A Rivera, Simon Barquera, Eduardo González-Pier, Tania Aburto-Soto, Elga Filipa Amorin de Castro, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Ana C Basto-Abreu, Carolina Batis, Guilherme Borges, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Julio C Campuzano-Rincón, Alejandra de Jesús Cantoral-Preciado, Alejandra G Contreras-Manzano, Lucia Cuevas-Nasu, Vanessa V de la Cruz-Gongora, Jose L Diaz-Ortega, María de Lourdes García-García, Armando Garcia-Guerra, Teresita González de Cossío, Luz D González-Castell, Ileana Heredia-Pi, Marta C Hijar-Medina, Alejandra Jauregui, Aida Jimenez-Corona, Nancy Lopez-Olmedo, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Catalina Medina-Garcia, Maria E Medina-Mora, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Julio C Montañez, Pablo Montero, Alejandra Montoya, Grea L Moreno-Banda, Andrea Pedroza-Tobías, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Amado D Quezada, Vesta L Richardson-López-Collada, Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Maria J Ríos Blancas, Christian Razo-Garcia, Martha P Romero Mendoza, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Luz M Sánchez-Romero, Astrid Schilmann, Edson Servan-Mori, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, José L Texcalac-Sangrador, Haidong Wang, Theo Vos, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Mohsen Naghavi, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Rafael Lozano
BACKGROUND: Child and maternal health outcomes have notably improved in Mexico since 1990, whereas rising adult mortality rates defy traditional epidemiological transition models in which decreased death rates occur across all ages. These trends suggest Mexico is experiencing a more complex, dissonant health transition than historically observed. Enduring inequalities between states further emphasise the need for more detailed health assessments over time. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2013 (GBD 2013) provides the comprehensive, comparable framework through which such national and subnational analyses can occur...
October 5, 2016: Lancet
Mark I Boulos, Sara Elias, Anthony Wan, James Im, Fadi Frankul, Mina Atalla, Sandra E Black, Vincenzo S Basile, Arun Sundaram, Julia J Hopyan, Karl Boyle, David J Gladstone, Richard H Swartz, Brian J Murray
BACKGROUND: Home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) is an alternative to polysomnography for the detection of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We assessed the feasibility of HSAT as an unattended screening tool for patients with a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). AIMS: The primary outcome was the feasibility of unattended HSAT, as defined by analyzability of the data. Secondary outcomes included determining (1) predictors of obtaining nonanalyzable sleep data and (2) time to OSA detection and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) initiation...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Ari Polachek, Dafna D Gladman, Jiandong Su, Murray B Urowitz
OBJECTIVES: To define and identify a group of SLE patients with low disease activity (LDA) and to examine whether it is similar to patients in remission and different from a high disease activity group (HDA) in short term outcomes. METHODS: LDA group was defined as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI-2K) <3 including only 1 clinical manifestation of: rash, alopecia, mucosal ulcers, pleurisy, pericarditis, fever, thrombocytopenia or leukopenia...
October 1, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Katerina Placek, Lauren Massimo, Christopher Olm, Kylie Ternes, Kim Firn, Vivianna Van Deerlin, Edward B Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, David Irwin, Murray Grossman, Corey T McMillan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if cognitive reserve (CR) contributes to interindividual differences in frontal gray matter density (GMD) and executive impairment that underlie heterogeneity in the disease course of confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) pathology. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with autopsy confirmation or a pathogenic mutation consistent with underlying tau (FTLD-tau) or TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP) pathology and 90 demographically comparable healthy controls were assessed with T1 MRI and neuropsychological measures (Mini-Mental State Examination, letter fluency, forward digit span, Rey complex figure, and Boston Naming Test)...
September 28, 2016: Neurology
Dara M Shearer, W Murray Thomson, Jonathan M Broadbent, Rachael McLean, Richie Poulton, Jim Mann
OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural history of glycemia (as measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)) over 12 years using group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM), and to examine baseline predictors of trajectory. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: HbA1c data collected at ages 26, 32 and 38 in the long-running, prospective Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study were used to assign study members (n=893) to trajectories applying GBTM. A generalization of the model allowed the statistical linking of baseline demographic, smoking and anthropometric characteristics to group membership probability...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Francine Marques, Nina Eikelis, Richard Bayles, Nora Straznicky, Dagmara Hering, Murray Esler, Geoffrey Head, Markus Schlaich, Gavin Lambert
OBJECTIVE: Noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves is removed from the neuroeffector junction via the action of the noradrenaline transporter (NET). NET impairment is evident in several clinically important conditions including essential hypertension, major depressive disorder, panic disorder and the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Only in rare instances, however, do coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) seem to account for a defect in NET. The aim of this study was to determine whether rs7194256 (C/T), a SNP in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the NET gene, is associated with diseases associated with NET dysfunction, and to elucidate the mechanism involved...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Duncan McKechnie, Julie Pryor, Murray J Fisher
PURPOSE: To examine patient characteristics that contribute to falls in the inpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation setting. METHOD: A three-round modified Delphi technique that engaged a multidisciplinary panel of 11 health experts was used. Group median score and disagreement index were used to measure agreement between participants about patient characteristics that contribute to falls. RESULTS: All panel members participated in each questionnaire round...
September 14, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Stephen A Metcalf, Peter B Jones, Tanja Nordstrom, Markku Timonen, Pirjo Mäki, Jouko Miettunen, Erika Jääskeläinen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Jan Stochl, Graham K Murray, Juha Veijola, Golam M Khandaker
OBJECTIVE: Meta-analyses of cross-sectional studies confirm an increase in circulating inflammatory markers during acute psychosis. Longitudinal studies are scarce but are needed to understand whether elevated inflammatory markers are a cause or consequence of illness. We report a longitudinal study of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescence and subsequent risk of schizophrenia and related psychoses in adulthood in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. METHOD: Serum high-sensitivity CRP was measured at age 15/16 years in 6362 participants...
September 10, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Gabriele Valentini, Michele Iudici, Ulrich A Walker, Veronika K Jaeger, Murray Baron, Patricia Carreira, László Czirják, Christopher P Denton, Oliver Distler, Eric Hachulla, Ariane L Herrick, Otylia Kowal-Bielecka, Janet Pope, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Gabriela Riemekasten, Jerome Avouac, Marc Frerix, Suzana Jordan, Tünde Minier, Elise Siegert, Voon H Ong, Serena Vettori, Yannick Allanore
BACKGROUND: Validity of European Scleroderma Study Group (EScSG) activity indexes currently used to assess disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc) has been criticised. METHODS: Three investigators assigned an activity score on a 0-10 scale for 97 clinical charts. The median score served as gold standard. Two other investigators labelled the disease as inactive/moderately active or active/very active. Univariate-multivariate linear regression analyses were used to define variables predicting the 'gold standard', their weight and derive an activity index...
September 12, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Osvaldo P Almeida, Kylie Marsh, Karen Murray, Martha Hickey, Moira Sim, Andrew Ford, Leon Flicker
OBJECTIVE: To determine if health coaching (HC) decreases the incidence of depression, reduces the severity of symptoms, and increases quality of life during the menopausal transition (MT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Parallel, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 6 sessions of phone-delivered HC compared with usual care. Participants were 351 community-dwelling women free of major depression going through the MT, of whom 180 were assigned the intervention and 171 usual care...
October 2016: Maturitas
Nigel P Murray, Sócrates Aedo, Eduardo Reyes, Cynthia Fuentealba, Omar Jacob
INTRODUCTION: Around 90% of prostate cancers detected using the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a screening test are considered to be localised. However, 20-30% of men treated by radical prostatectomy experience biochemical failure within two years of treatment. The presence of primary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in the blood of these men implies a dissemination of the tumour and could indicate a greater risk of treatment failure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of the number of primary CPCs detected before surgery in the prediction of biochemical failure at ten years...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
Mitchell S Sommers, Nancy Tye-Murray, Joe Barcroft, Brent P Spehar
There has been considerable interest in measuring the perceptual effort required to understand speech, as well as to identify factors that might reduce such effort. In the current study, we investigated whether, in addition to improving speech intelligibility, auditory training also could reduce perceptual or listening effort. Perceptual effort was assessed using a modified version of the n-back memory task in which participants heard lists of words presented without background noise and were asked to continually update their memory of the three most recently presented words...
November 2015: Seminars in Hearing
Daniel S Evans, Christy L Avery, Mike A Nalls, Guo Li, John Barnard, Erin N Smith, Toshiko Tanaka, Anne M Butler, Sarah G Buxbaum, Alvaro Alonso, Dan E Arking, Gerald S Berenson, Joshua C Bis, Steven Buyske, Cara L Carty, Wei Chen, Mina K Chung, Steven R Cummings, Rajat Deo, Charles B Eaton, Ervin R Fox, Susan R Heckbert, Gerardo Heiss, Lucia A Hindorff, Wen-Chi Hsueh, Aaron Isaacs, Yalda Jamshidi, Kathleen F Kerr, Felix Liu, Yongmei Liu, Kurt K Lohman, Jared W Magnani, Joseph F Maher, Reena Mehra, Yan A Meng, Solomon K Musani, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Kari E North, Bruce M Psaty, Susan Redline, Jerome I Rotter, Renate B Schnabel, Nicholas J Schork, Ralph V Shohet, Andrew B Singleton, Jonathan D Smith, Elsayed Z Soliman, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Herman A Taylor, David R Van Wagoner, James G Wilson, Taylor Young, Zhu-Ming Zhang, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans, Luigi Ferrucci, Sarah S Murray, Gregory J Tranah, Eric A Whitsel, Alex P Reiner, Nona Sotoodehnia
The electrocardiographic QRS duration, a measure of ventricular depolarization and conduction, is associated with cardiovascular mortality. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with QRS duration at 22 loci among those of European descent, the genetic architecture of QRS duration in non-European populations is largely unknown. We therefore performed a GWAS meta-analysis of QRS duration in 13,031 African Americans from ten cohorts and a transethnic GWAS meta-analysis with additional results from populations of European descent...
August 29, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Ali H Mokdad, Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar, Farah Daoud, Charbel El Bcheraoui, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Ibrahim Khalil, Ashkan Afshin, Marwa Tuffaha, Raghid Charara, Ryan M Barber, Joseph Wagner, Kelly Cercy, Hannah Kravitz, Matthew M Coates, Margaret Robinson, Kara Estep, Caitlyn Steiner, Sara Jaber, Ali A Mokdad, Kevin F O'Rourke, Adrienne Chew, Pauline Kim, Mohamed Magdy Abd El Razek, Safa Abdalla, Foad Abd-Allah, Jerry P Abraham, Laith J Abu-Raddad, Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh, Abdulwahab A Al-Nehmi, Ali S Akanda, Hanan Al Ahmadi, Mazin J Al Khabouri, Faris H Al Lami, Zulfa A Al Rayess, Deena Alasfoor, Fadia S AlBuhairan, Saleh F Aldhahri, Suliman Alghnam, Samia Alhabib, Nawal Al-Hamad, Raghib Ali, Syed Danish Ali, Mohammad Alkhateeb, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Mahmoud A Alomari, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Ubai Alsharif, Nihaya Al-Sheyab, Shirina Alsowaidi, Mohamed Al-Thani, Khalid A Altirkawi, Azmeraw T Amare, Heresh Amini, Walid Ammar, Palwasha Anwari, Hamid Asayesh, Rana Asghar, Ali M Assabri, Reza Assadi, Umar Bacha, Alaa Badawi, Talal Bakfalouni, Mohammed O Basulaiman, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Neeraj Bedi, Amit R Bhakta, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Aref A Bin Abdulhak, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert R A Bourne, Hadi Danawi, Jai Das, Amare Deribew, Eric L Ding, Adnan M Durrani, Yousef Elshrek, Mohamed E Ibrahim, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Imad A D Faghmous, Farshad Farzadfar, Andrea B Feigl, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, Fortuné G Gankpé, Ibrahim Ginawi, Melkamu Dedefo Gishu, Rahul Gupta, Rami M Habash, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Randah R Hamadeh, Hayet Hamdouni, Samer Hamidi, Hilda L Harb, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Mohammad T Hedayati, Pouria Heydarpour, Mohamed Hsairi, Abdullatif Husseini, Nader Jahanmehr, Vivekanand Jha, Jost B Jonas, Nadim E Karam, Amir Kasaeian, Nega Assefa Kassa, Anil Kaul, Yousef Khader, Shams Eldin A Khalifa, Ejaz A Khan, Gulfaraz Khan, Tawfik Khoja, Ardeshir Khosravi, Yohannes Kinfu, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Arjun Lakshmana Balaji, Raimundas Lunevicius, Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer, Reza Malekzadeh, Morteza Mansourian, Wagner Marcenes, Habibolah Masoudi Farid, Alem Mehari, Abla Mehio-Sibai, Ziad A Memish, George A Mensah, Karzan A Mohammad, Ziad Nahas, Jamal T Nasher, Haseeb Nawaz, Chakib Nejjari, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Saad B Omer, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Emmanuel K Peprah, Aslam Pervaiz, Farshad Pourmalek, Dima M Qato, Mostafa Qorbani, Amir Radfar, Anwar Rafay, Kazem Rahimi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Rajesh K Rai, Saleem M Rana, Sowmya R Rao, Amany H Refaat, Serge Resnikoff, Gholamreza Roshandel, Georges Saade, Mohammad Y Saeedi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Shadi Saleh, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Maheswar Satpathy, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Tesfaye Setegn, Amira Shaheen, Saeid Shahraz, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Kawkab Shishani, Karen Sliwa, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Abdullah S Terkawi, Olalekan A Uthman, Ronny Westerman, Mustafa Z Younis, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Faiez Zannad, Gregory A Roth, Haidong Wang, Mohsen Naghavi, Theo Vos, Abdullah A Al Rabeeah, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: The eastern Mediterranean region is comprised of 22 countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Since our Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), the region has faced unrest as a result of revolutions, wars, and the so-called Arab uprisings. The objective of this study was to present the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in the eastern Mediterranean region as of 2013...
October 2016: Lancet Global Health
Tabea Schoeler, Natalia Petros, Marta Di Forti, Ewa Klamerus, Enrico Foglia, Olesya Ajnakina, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Marco Colizzi, Diego Quattrone, Irena Behlke, Sachin Shetty, Philip McGuire, Anthony S David, Robin Murray, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Although cannabis use after a first episode of psychosis has been associated with relapse, little is known about the determinants of this most preventable risk factor for relapse of psychosis. Here we aimed to study whether the effects on outcome vary depending on the type of cannabis consumed and usage pattern. METHODS: In this observational study, we prospectively recruited and followed up patients aged 18-65 years who presented with their first episode of psychosis to psychiatric services in south London, London, UK...
October 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Paula Frid, Ellen Nordal, Francesca Bovis, Gabriella Giancane, Tore A Larheim, Marite Rygg, Denise Pires Marafon, Donato De Angelis, Elena Palmisani, Kevin J Murray, Sheila Oliveira, Gabriele Simonini, Fabrizia Corona, Joyce Davidson, Helen Foster, Michel H Steenks, Berit Flato, Francesco Zulian, Eileen Baildam, Rotraud K Saurenmann, Pekka Lahdenne, Angelo Ravelli, Alberto Martini, Angela Pistorio, Nicolino Ruperto
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the demographic, disease activity, disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differences between children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and their healthy peers, and between children with JIA with and without clinical temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement and its determinants. METHODS: This study is based on a cross-sectional cohort of 3343 children with JIA and 3409 healthy peers, enrolled in the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) study or in the methotrexate trial...
August 26, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Colin P Hawkes, Babette S Zemel, Mairead Kiely, Alan D Irvine, Louise C Kenny, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Deirdre M Murray
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although early infant growth has implications for future health, body composition reference data in infancy are limited. The aim of this study was to describe reference data for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) corrected for length (L) within the first 3 months and to evaluate if these measures predict the body mass index (BMI) at 2 years. METHODS: Term infants had air displacement plethysmography performed at birth (n = 1,063) and approximately 2 months later (n = 922, between 49 and 86 days)...
August 25, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Nabilla Al-Sadat, Hazreen Abdul Majid, Pei Ying Sim, Tin Tin Su, Maznah Dahlui, Mohd Fadzrel Abu Bakar, Najat Dzaki, Saidatul Norbaya, Liam Murray, Marie M Cantwell, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D...
2016: BMJ Open
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